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From tylerho...@apache.org
Subject svn commit: r1685873 - /cassandra/site/publish/doc/cql3/CQL-2.1.html
Date Tue, 16 Jun 2015 17:25:32 GMT
Author: tylerhobbs
Date: Tue Jun 16 17:25:32 2015
New Revision: 1685873

URL: http://svn.apache.org/r1685873
Log:
Update 2.1 CQL docs to the latest

Modified:
    cassandra/site/publish/doc/cql3/CQL-2.1.html

Modified: cassandra/site/publish/doc/cql3/CQL-2.1.html
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/cassandra/site/publish/doc/cql3/CQL-2.1.html?rev=1685873&r1=1685872&r2=1685873&view=diff
==============================================================================
--- cassandra/site/publish/doc/cql3/CQL-2.1.html (original)
+++ cassandra/site/publish/doc/cql3/CQL-2.1.html Tue Jun 16 17:25:32 2015
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-<?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8' ?><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML
1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"><html
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"><head><meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html;
charset=utf-8"/><title>CQL</title></head><body><p><link
rel="StyleSheet" href="CQL.css" type="text/css" media="screen"></p><h1 id="CassandraQueryLanguageCQLv3.2.0">Cassandra
Query Language (CQL) v3.2.0</h1><span id="tableOfContents"><ol style="list-style:
none;"><li><a href="CQL.html#CassandraQueryLanguageCQLv3.2.0">Cassandra Query
Language (CQL) v3.2.0</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL.html#CQLSyntax">CQL
Syntax</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL.html#Preamble">Preamble</a></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#Conventions">Conventions</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#identifiers">Identifiers
and keywords</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#constants">Constants</a></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#Comments">Comments</a></l
 i><li><a href="CQL.html#statements">Statements</a></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#preparedStatement">Prepared Statement</a></li></ol></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#dataDefinition">Data Definition</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a
href="CQL.html#createKeyspaceStmt">CREATE KEYSPACE</a></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#useStmt">USE</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#alterKeyspaceStmt">ALTER
KEYSPACE</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#dropKeyspaceStmt">DROP KEYSPACE</a></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#createTableStmt">CREATE TABLE</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#alterTableStmt">ALTER
TABLE</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#dropTableStmt">DROP TABLE</a></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#truncateStmt">TRUNCATE</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#createIndexStmt">CREATE
INDEX</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#dropIndexStmt">DROP INDEX</a></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#createTypeStmt">CREATE TYPE</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#alterTypeStmt">ALTER
TYPE</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#dropTypeStmt">DROP TYPE</a></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#createTri
 ggerStmt">CREATE TRIGGER</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#dropTriggerStmt">DROP
TRIGGER</a></li></ol></li><li><a href="CQL.html#dataManipulation">Data
Manipulation</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL.html#insertStmt">INSERT</a></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#updateStmt">UPDATE</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#deleteStmt">DELETE</a></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#batchStmt">BATCH</a></li></ol></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#queries">Queries</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a
href="CQL.html#selectStmt">SELECT</a></li></ol></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#types">Data Types</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a
href="CQL.html#usingdates">Working with dates</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#counters">Counters</a></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#collections">Working with collections</a></li></ol></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#functions">Functions</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a
href="CQL.html#tokenFun">Token</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#uuidFun">Uuid</a></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#timeuuidFun">Timeuu
 id functions</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#blobFun">Blob conversion
functions</a></li></ol></li><li><a href="CQL.html#appendixA">Appendix
A: CQL Keywords</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#appendixB">Appendix
B: CQL Reserved Types</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#changes">Changes</a><ol
style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL.html#a3.2.0">3.2.0</a></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#a3.1.7">3.1.7</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#a3.1.6">3.1.6</a></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#a3.1.5">3.1.5</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#a3.1.4">3.1.4</a></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#a3.1.3">3.1.3</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#a3.1.2">3.1.2</a></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#a3.1.1">3.1.1</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#a3.1.0">3.1.0</a></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#a3.0.5">3.0.5</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#a3.0.4">3.0.4</a></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#a3.0.3">3.0.3</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#a3.0.2">3.0.2</a></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#a3.0.1">3.0.1</a></li></ol></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#Versioning">Versioning</a></li></ol></li></
 ol></span><h2 id="CQLSyntax">CQL Syntax</h2><h3 id="Preamble">Preamble</h3><p>This
document describes the Cassandra Query Language (CQL) version 3. CQL v3 is not backward compatible
with CQL v2 and differs from it in numerous ways. Note that this document describes the last
version of the languages. However, the <a href="#changes">changes</a> section
provides the diff between the different versions of CQL v3.</p><p>CQL v3 offers
a model very close to SQL in the sense that data is put in <em>tables</em> containing
<em>rows</em> of <em>columns</em>. For that reason, when used in this
document, these terms (tables, rows and columns) have the same definition than they have in
SQL. But please note that as such, they do <strong>not</strong> refer to the concept
of rows and columns found in the internal implementation of Cassandra and in the thrift and
CQL v2 API.</p><h3 id="Conventions">Conventions</h3><p>To aid in specifying
the CQL syntax, we will use the following conventions in this d
 ocument:</p><ul><li>Language rules will be given in a <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Backus%E2%80%93Naur_Form">BNF</a>
-like notation:</li></ul><pre class="syntax"><pre>&lt;start>
::= TERMINAL &lt;non-terminal1> &lt;non-terminal1>
+<?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8' ?><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML
1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"><html
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"><head><meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html;
charset=utf-8"/><title>CQL</title></head><body><p><link
rel="StyleSheet" href="CQL.css" type="text/css" media="screen"></p><h1 id="CassandraQueryLanguageCQLv3.2.0">Cassandra
Query Language (CQL) v3.2.0</h1><span id="tableOfContents"><ol style="list-style:
none;"><li><a href="CQL.html#CassandraQueryLanguageCQLv3.2.0">Cassandra Query
Language (CQL) v3.2.0</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL.html#CQLSyntax">CQL
Syntax</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL.html#Preamble">Preamble</a></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#Conventions">Conventions</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#identifiers">Identifiers
and keywords</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#constants">Constants</a></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#Comments">Comments</a></l
 i><li><a href="CQL.html#statements">Statements</a></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#preparedStatement">Prepared Statement</a></li></ol></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#dataDefinition">Data Definition</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a
href="CQL.html#createKeyspaceStmt">CREATE KEYSPACE</a></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#useStmt">USE</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#alterKeyspaceStmt">ALTER
KEYSPACE</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#dropKeyspaceStmt">DROP KEYSPACE</a></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#createTableStmt">CREATE TABLE</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#alterTableStmt">ALTER
TABLE</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#dropTableStmt">DROP TABLE</a></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#truncateStmt">TRUNCATE</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#createIndexStmt">CREATE
INDEX</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#dropIndexStmt">DROP INDEX</a></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#createTypeStmt">CREATE TYPE</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#alterTypeStmt">ALTER
TYPE</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#dropTypeStmt">DROP TYPE</a></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#createTri
 ggerStmt">CREATE TRIGGER</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#dropTriggerStmt">DROP
TRIGGER</a></li></ol></li><li><a href="CQL.html#dataManipulation">Data
Manipulation</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL.html#insertStmt">INSERT</a></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#updateStmt">UPDATE</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#deleteStmt">DELETE</a></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#batchStmt">BATCH</a></li></ol></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#queries">Queries</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a
href="CQL.html#selectStmt">SELECT</a></li></ol></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#databaseUsers">Database Users</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a
href="CQL.html#createUserStmt">CREATE USER </a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#alterUserStmt">ALTER
USER </a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#dropUserStmt">DROP USER </a></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#listUsersStmt">LIST USERS</a></li></ol></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#dataControl">Data Control</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a
href="CQL.html#permissions">Permissions </a></li><li><a hr
 ef="CQL.html#grantPermissionsStmt">GRANT PERMISSION</a></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#revokePermissionsStmt">REVOKE PERMISSION</a></li></ol></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#types">Data Types</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a
href="CQL.html#usingdates">Working with dates</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#counters">Counters</a></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#collections">Working with collections</a></li></ol></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#functions">Functions</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a
href="CQL.html#tokenFun">Token</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#uuidFun">Uuid</a></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#timeuuidFun">Timeuuid functions</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#blobFun">Blob
conversion functions</a></li></ol></li><li><a href="CQL.html#appendixA">Appendix
A: CQL Keywords</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#appendixB">Appendix
B: CQL Reserved Types</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#changes">Changes</a><ol
style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL.html#a3.2.0">3.2.0</a></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#a3.1.7">3.1.7</a
 ></li><li><a href="CQL.html#a3.1.6">3.1.6</a></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#a3.1.5">3.1.5</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#a3.1.4">3.1.4</a></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#a3.1.3">3.1.3</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#a3.1.2">3.1.2</a></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#a3.1.1">3.1.1</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#a3.1.0">3.1.0</a></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#a3.0.5">3.0.5</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#a3.0.4">3.0.4</a></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#a3.0.3">3.0.3</a></li><li><a href="CQL.html#a3.0.2">3.0.2</a></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#a3.0.1">3.0.1</a></li></ol></li><li><a
href="CQL.html#Versioning">Versioning</a></li></ol></li></ol></span><h2
id="CQLSyntax">CQL Syntax</h2><h3 id="Preamble">Preamble</h3><p>This
document describes the Cassandra Query Language (CQL) version 3. CQL v3 is not backward compatible
with CQL v2 and differs from it in numerous ways. Note that this document describes the last
version of the languages. However, the <a href="#changes">changes</a> section
provides the diff between the diffe
 rent versions of CQL v3.</p><p>CQL v3 offers a model very close to SQL in the
sense that data is put in <em>tables</em> containing <em>rows</em>
of <em>columns</em>. For that reason, when used in this document, these terms
(tables, rows and columns) have the same definition than they have in SQL. But please note
that as such, they do <strong>not</strong> refer to the concept of rows and columns
found in the internal implementation of Cassandra and in the thrift and CQL v2 API.</p><h3
id="Conventions">Conventions</h3><p>To aid in specifying the CQL syntax, we
will use the following conventions in this document:</p><ul><li>Language
rules will be given in a <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Backus%E2%80%93Naur_Form">BNF</a>
-like notation:</li></ul><pre class="syntax"><pre>&lt;start>
::= TERMINAL &lt;non-terminal1> &lt;non-terminal1>
 </pre></pre><ul><li>Nonterminal symbols will have <code>&lt;angle
brackets></code>.</li><li>As additional shortcut notations to BNF, we&#8217;ll
use traditional regular expression&#8217;s symbols (<code>?</code>, <code>+</code>
and <code>*</code>) to signify that a given symbol is optional and/or can be repeated.
We&#8217;ll also allow parentheses to group symbols and the <code>[&lt;characters>]</code>
notation to represent any one of <code>&lt;characters></code>.</li><li>The
grammar is provided for documentation purposes and leave some minor details out. For instance,
the last column definition in a <code>CREATE TABLE</code> statement is optional
but supported if present even though the provided grammar in this document suggest it is not
supported. </li><li>Sample code will be provided in a code block:</li></ul><pre
class="sample"><pre>SELECT sample_usage FROM cql;
 </pre></pre><ul><li>References to keywords or pieces of CQL code
in running text will be shown in a <code>fixed-width font</code>.</li></ul><h3
id="identifiers">Identifiers and keywords</h3><p>The CQL language uses <em>identifiers</em>
(or <em>names</em>) to identify tables, columns and other objects. An identifier
is a token matching the regular expression <code lang="a-zA-Z">[a-zA-Z0-9_]</code><code>*</code>.</p><p>A
number of such identifiers, like <code>SELECT</code> or <code>WITH</code>,
are <em>keywords</em>. They have a fixed meaning for the language and most are
reserved. The list of those keywords can be found in <a href="#appendixA">Appendix A</a>.</p><p>Identifiers
and (unquoted) keywords are case insensitive. Thus <code>SELECT</code> is the
same than <code>select</code> or <code>sElEcT</code>, and <code>myId</code>
is the same than <code>myid</code> or <code>MYID</code> for instance.
A convention often used (in particular by the samples of this documentation) is to use u
 pper case for keywords and lower case for other identifiers.</p><p>There is a
second kind of identifiers called <em>quoted identifiers</em> defined by enclosing
an arbitrary sequence of characters in double-quotes(<code>"</code>). Quoted identifiers
are never keywords. Thus <code>"select"</code> is not a reserved keyword and can
be used to refer to a column, while <code>select</code> would raise a parse error.
Also, contrarily to unquoted identifiers and keywords, quoted identifiers are case sensitive
(<code>"My Quoted Id"</code> is <em>different</em> from <code>"my
quoted id"</code>). A fully lowercase quoted identifier that matches <code lang="a-zA-Z">[a-zA-Z0-9_]</code><code>*</code>
is equivalent to the unquoted identifier obtained by removing the double-quote (so <code>"myid"</code>
is equivalent to <code>myid</code> and to <code>myId</code> but different
from <code>"myId"</code>). Inside a quoted identifier, the double-quote character
can be repeated to escape it, so <code>"fo
 o "" bar"</code> is a valid identifier.</p><h3 id="constants">Constants</h3><p>CQL
defines the following kind of <em>constants</em>: strings, integers, floats, booleans,
uuids and blobs:</p><ul><li>A string constant is an arbitrary sequence of
characters characters enclosed by single-quote(<code>'</code>). One can include
a single-quote in a string by repeating it, e.g. <code>'It''s raining today'</code>.
Those are not to be confused with quoted identifiers that use double-quotes.</li><li>An
integer constant is defined by <code>'-'?[0-9]+</code>.</li><li>A
float constant is defined by <code>'-'?[0-9]+('.'[0-9]*)?([eE][+-]?[0-9+])?</code>.
On top of that, <code>NaN</code> and <code>Infinity</code> are also
float constants.</li><li>A boolean constant is either <code>true</code>
or <code>false</code> up to case-insensitivity (i.e. <code>True</code>
is a valid boolean constant).</li><li>A <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universally_unique_identifier">UUID</a>
constant is defined b
 y <code>hex{8}-hex{4}-hex{4}-hex{4}-hex{12}</code> where <code>hex</code>
is an hexadecimal character, e.g. <code>[0-9a-fA-F]</code> and <code>{4}</code>
is the number of such characters.</li><li>A blob constant is an hexadecimal number
defined by <code>0[xX](hex)+</code> where <code>hex</code> is an hexadecimal
character, e.g. <code>[0-9a-fA-F]</code>.</li></ul><p>For how
these constants are typed, see the <a href="#types">data types section</a>.</p><h3
id="Comments">Comments</h3><p>A comment in CQL is a line beginning by either
double dashes (<code>--</code>) or double slash (<code>//</code>).</p><p>Multi-line
comments are also supported through enclosure within <code>/*</code> and <code>*/</code>
(but nesting is not supported).</p><pre class="sample"><pre>-- This is a
comment
 // This is a comment too
@@ -51,7 +51,7 @@ CREATE KEYSPACE Excalibur
 </pre></pre><p><br/><i>Sample:</i></p><pre class="sample"><pre>ALTER
KEYSPACE Excelsior
           WITH replication = {'class': 'SimpleStrategy', 'replication_factor' : 4};
 
-</pre></pre><p><br/>The <code>ALTER KEYSPACE</code> statement
alter the properties of an existing keyspace. The supported <code>&lt;properties></code>
are the same that for the <a href="#createKeyspaceStmt"><code>CREATE TABLE</code></a>
statement.</p><h3 id="dropKeyspaceStmt">DROP KEYSPACE</h3><p><i>Syntax:</i></p><pre
class="syntax"><pre>&lt;drop-keyspace-stmt> ::= DROP KEYSPACE ( IF EXISTS
)? &lt;identifier>
+</pre></pre><p><br/>The <code>ALTER KEYSPACE</code> statement
alters the properties of an existing keyspace. The supported <code>&lt;properties></code>
are the same as for the <a href="#createKeyspaceStmt"><code>CREATE KEYSPACE</code></a>
statement.</p><h3 id="dropKeyspaceStmt">DROP KEYSPACE</h3><p><i>Syntax:</i></p><pre
class="syntax"><pre>&lt;drop-keyspace-stmt> ::= DROP KEYSPACE ( IF EXISTS
)? &lt;identifier>
 </pre></pre><p><i>Sample:</i></p><pre class="sample"><pre>DROP
KEYSPACE myApp;
 </pre></pre><p>A <code>DROP KEYSPACE</code> statement results
in the immediate, irreversible removal of an existing keyspace, including all column families
in it, and all data contained in those column families.</p><p>If the keyspace
does not exists, the statement will return an error, unless <code>IF EXISTS</code>
is used in which case the operation is a no-op.</p><h3 id="createTableStmt">CREATE
TABLE</h3><p><i>Syntax:</i></p><pre class="syntax"><pre>&lt;create-table-stmt>
::= CREATE ( TABLE | COLUMNFAMILY ) ( IF NOT EXISTS )? &lt;tablename>
                           '(' &lt;column-definition> ( ',' &lt;column-definition>
)* ')'
@@ -325,7 +325,56 @@ CREATE INDEX ON users(birth_year);
 SELECT firstname, lastname FROM users WHERE birth_year = 1981;
 </pre></pre><p>because in both case, Cassandra guarantees that these queries
performance will be proportional to the amount of data returned. In particular, if no users
are born in 1981, then the second query performance will not depend of the number of user
profile stored in the database (not directly at least: due to secondary index implementation
consideration, this query may still depend on the number of node in the cluster, which indirectly
depends on the amount of data stored.  Nevertheless, the number of nodes will always be multiple
number of magnitude lower than the number of user profile stored). Of course, both query may
return very large result set in practice, but the amount of data returned can always be controlled
by adding a <code>LIMIT</code>.</p><p>However, the following query
will be rejected:</p><pre class="sample"><pre>SELECT firstname, lastname
FROM users WHERE birth_year = 1981 AND country = 'FR';
 </pre></pre><p>because Cassandra cannot guarantee that it won&#8217;t
have to scan large amount of data even if the result to those query is small. Typically, it
will scan all the index entries for users born in 1981 even if only a handful are actually
from France. However, if you &#8220;know what you are doing&#8221;, you can force
the execution of this query by using <code>ALLOW FILTERING</code> and so the following
query is valid:</p><pre class="sample"><pre>SELECT firstname, lastname FROM
users WHERE birth_year = 1981 AND country = 'FR' ALLOW FILTERING;
-</pre></pre><h2 id="types">Data Types</h2><p>CQL supports a
rich set of data types for columns defined in a table, including collection types. On top
of those native and collection types, users can also provide custom types (through a JAVA
class extending <code>AbstractType</code> loadable by Cassandra). The syntax of
types is thus:</p><pre class="syntax"><pre>&lt;type> ::= &lt;native-type>
+</pre></pre><h2 id="databaseUsers">Database Users</h2><h3 id="createUserStmt">CREATE
USER </h3><p><i>Syntax:</i> </p><pre class="syntax"><pre>&lt;create-user-statement>
::= CREATE USER ( IF NOT EXISTS )? &lt;identifier> ( WITH PASSWORD &lt;string>
)? (&lt;option>)?
+
+&lt;option> ::= SUPERUSER
+           | NOSUPERUSER
+</pre></pre><p></p><p><i>Sample:</i> </p><pre
class="sample"><pre>CREATE USER alice WITH PASSWORD 'password_a' SUPERUSER;
+CREATE USER bob WITH PASSWORD 'password_b' NOSUPERUSER;
+</pre></pre><p>By default users do not possess <code>SUPERUSER</code>
status.</p><p><a href="#permissions">Permissions</a> on database resources
(keyspaces and tables) are granted to users.<br/>USer names should be quoted if they
contain non-alphanumeric characters. </p><h4 id="createUserPwd">Setting credentials
for internal authentication</h4><p>Use the <code>WITH PASSWORD</code>
clause to set a password for internal authentication, enclosing the password in single quotation
marks.<br/>If internal authentication has not been set up the <code>WITH PASSWORD</code>
clause is not necessary.</p><h4 id="createUserConditional">Creating a user conditionally</h4><p>Attempting
to create an existing user results in an invalid query condition unless the <code>IF
NOT EXISTS</code> option is used. If the option is used and the user exists, the statement
is a no-op.</p><pre class="sample"><pre>CREATE USER carlos;
+CREATE USER IF NOT EXISTS carlos;
+</pre></pre><h3 id="alterUserStmt">ALTER USER </h3><p><i>Syntax:</i>
</p><pre class="syntax"><pre>&lt;alter-user-statement> ::= ALTER
USER &lt;identifier> ( WITH PASSWORD &lt;string> )? ( &lt;option> )?
+
+&lt;option> ::= SUPERUSER
+           | NOSUPERUSER
+</pre></pre><p></p><pre class="sample"><pre>ALTER USER
alice WITH PASSWORD 'PASSWORD_A';
+ALTER USER bob SUPERUSER;
+</pre></pre><p><code>ALTER USER</code> requires <code>SUPERUSER</code>
status, with two caveats:</p><ul><li>A user cannot alter its own <code>SUPERUSER</code>
status</li><li>A user without <code>SUPERUSER</code> status is permitted
to modify a subset of it&#8217;s own properties (e.g. its <code>PASSWORD</code>)</li></ul><h3
id="dropUserStmt">DROP USER </h3><p><i>Syntax:</i> </p><pre
class="syntax"><pre>&lt;drop-user-stmt> ::= DROP USER ( IF EXISTS )? &lt;identifier>
+</pre></pre><p></p><p><i>Sample:</i> </p><pre
class="sample"><pre>DROP USER alice;
+DROP USER IF EXISTS bob;
+</pre></pre><p><code>DROP USER</code> requires <code>SUPERUSER</code>
status, and users are not permitted to <code>DROP</code> themselves.<br/>Attempting
to drop a user which does not exist results in an invalid query condition unless the <code>IF
EXISTS</code> option is used. If the option is used and the user does not exist the
statement is a no-op. </p><h3 id="listUsersStmt">LIST USERS</h3><p><i>Syntax:</i></p><pre
class="syntax"><pre>&lt;list-users-stmt> ::= LIST USERS;
+</pre></pre><p><i>Sample:</i></p><pre class="sample"><pre>LIST
USERS;
+</pre></pre><p>Return all known users in the system.</p><h2 id="dataControl">Data
Control</h2><h3 id="permissions">Permissions </h3><p>Permissions on
resources are granted to users and data resources in Cassandra are organized hierarchically,
like so: <code>ALL KEYSPACES</code> -> <code>KEYSPACE</code> ->
<code>TABLE</code></p><p>Permissions can be granted at any level of
the hierarchy and they flow downwards. So granting a permission on a resource higher up the
chain automatically grants that same permission on all resources lower down. For example,
granting <code>SELECT</code> on a <code>KEYSPACE</code> automatically
grants it on all <code>TABLES</code> in that <code>KEYSPACE</code>.
</p><p>Modifications to permissions are visible to existing client sessions; that
is, connections need not be re-established following permissions changes.</p><p>The
full set of available permissions is:</p><ul><li><code>CREATE</code></li><li><code>ALTER</code></li><li><code>DROP</code></li><li><code>
 SELECT</code></li><li><code>MODIFY</code></li><li><code>AUTHORIZE</code></li></ul><table><tr><th>permission
</th><th>resource                   </th><th>operations        </th></tr><tr><td><code>CREATE</code>
    </td><td><code>ALL KEYSPACES</code>              </td><td><code>CREATE
KEYSPACE</code> <br> <code>CREATE TABLE</code> in any keyspace</td></tr><tr><td><code>CREATE</code>
    </td><td><code>KEYSPACE</code>                   </td><td><code>CREATE
TABLE</code> in specified keyspace</td></tr><tr><td><code>ALTER</code>
     </td><td><code>ALL KEYSPACES</code>              </td><td><code>ALTER
KEYSPACE</code> <br> <code>ALTER TABLE</code> in any keyspace</td></tr><tr><td><code>ALTER</code>
     </td><td><code>KEYSPACE</code>                   </td><td><code>ALTER
KEYSPACE</code> <br> <code>ALTER TABLE</code> in keyspace</td></tr><tr><td><code>ALTER</code>
     </td><td><code>TABLE</code>                      </td><td><code>ALTER
TABLE</code></td></tr><tr><td><code>DROP</code>
  
     </td><td><code>ALL KEYSPACES</code>              </td><td><code>DROP
KEYSPACE</code> <br> <code>DROP TABLE</code> in any keyspace</td></tr><tr><td><code>DROP</code>
      </td><td><code>KEYSPACE</code>                   </td><td><code>DROP
TABLE</code> in specified keyspace</td></tr><tr><td><code>DROP</code>
      </td><td><code>TABLE</code>                      </td><td><code>DROP
TABLE</code></td></tr><tr><td><code>SELECT</code>
    </td><td><code>ALL KEYSPACES</code>              </td><td><code>SELECT</code>
on any table</td></tr><tr><td><code>SELECT</code>    
</td><td><code>KEYSPACE</code>                   </td><td><code>SELECT</code>
on any table in keyspace</td></tr><tr><td><code>SELECT</code>
    </td><td><code>TABLE</code>                      </td><td><code>SELECT</code>
on specified table</td></tr><tr><td><code>MODIFY</code>
    </td><td><code>ALL KEYSPACES</code>              </td><td><code>INSERT</code>
on any table <br> <code>UPDATE</code> on any table <br> <code>
 DELETE</code> on any table <br> <code>TRUNCATE</code> on any table</td></tr><tr><td><code>MODIFY</code>
    </td><td><code>KEYSPACE</code>                   </td><td><code>INSERT</code>
on any table in keyspace <br> <code>UPDATE</code> on any table in keyspace
<br> <code>DELETE</code> on any table in keyspace <br> <code>TRUNCATE</code>
on any table in keyspace</td></tr><tr><td><code>MODIFY</code>
    </td><td><code>TABLE</code>                      </td><td><code>INSERT</code>
<br> <code>UPDATE</code> <br> <code>DELETE</code> <br>
<code>TRUNCATE</code></td></tr><tr><td><code>AUTHORIZE</code>
 </td><td><code>ALL KEYSPACES</code>              </td><td><code>GRANT
PERMISSION</code> on any table <br> <code>REVOKE PERMISSION</code>
on any table</td></tr><tr><td><code>AUTHORIZE</code> 
</td><td><code>KEYSPACE</code>                   </td><td><code>GRANT
PERMISSION</code> on table in keyspace <br> <code>REVOKE PERMISSION</code>
on table in keyspace</td></tr><tr><td><code>AUTHORIZE</code>

  </td><td><code>TABLE</code>                      </td><td><code>GRANT
PERMISSION</code> <br> <code>REVOKE PERMISSION</code> </td></tr></table><h3
id="grantPermissionsStmt">GRANT PERMISSION</h3><p><i>Syntax:</i>
</p><pre class="syntax"><pre>&lt;grant-permission-stmt> ::= GRANT
( ALL ( PERMISSIONS )? | &lt;permission> ( PERMISSION )? ) ON &lt;resource>
TO &lt;identifier>
+
+&lt;permission> ::= CREATE | ALTER | DROP | SELECT | MODIFY | AUTHORIZE 
+
+&lt;resource> ::= ALL KEYSPACES
+             | KEYSPACE &lt;identifier>
+             | ( TABLE )? &lt;tablename>
+</pre></pre><p></p><p><i>Sample:</i> </p><pre
class="sample"><pre>GRANT SELECT ON ALL KEYSPACES TO alice;
+</pre></pre><p>This gives <code>alice</code> permissions to
execute <code>SELECT</code> statements on any table across all keyspaces</p><pre
class="sample"><pre>GRANT MODIFY ON KEYSPACE keyspace1 TO bob;
+</pre></pre><p>This gives <code>bob</code> permissions to perform
<code>UPDATE</code>, <code>INSERT</code>, <code>UPDATE</code>,
<code>DELETE</code> and <code>TRUNCATE</code> queries on all tables
in the <code>keyspace1</code> keyspace</p><pre class="sample"><pre>GRANT
DROP ON keyspace1.table1 TO carlos;
+</pre></pre><p>This gives <code>carlos</code> permissions to
<code>DROP</code> <code>keyspace1.table1</code>.</p><h3 id="revokePermissionsStmt">REVOKE
PERMISSION</h3><p><i>Syntax:</i> </p><pre class="syntax"><pre>&lt;revoke-permission-stmt>
::= REVOKE ( ALL ( PERMISSIONS )? | &lt;permission> ( PERMISSION )? ) ON &lt;resource>
FROM &lt;identifier>
+
+&lt;permission> ::= CREATE | ALTER | DROP | SELECT | MODIFY | AUTHORIZE 
+
+&lt;resource> ::= ALL KEYSPACES
+             | KEYSPACE &lt;identifier>
+             | ( TABLE )? &lt;tablename>
+</pre></pre><p></p><p><i>Sample:</i> </p><pre
class="sample"><pre>REVOKE SELECT ON ALL KEYSPACES FROM alice;
+REVOKE MODIFY ON KEYSPACE keyspace1 FROM bob;
+REVOKE DROP ON keyspace1.table1 FROM carlos;
+</pre></pre><p></p><h4 id="listPermissionsStmt">LIST PERMISSIONS</h4><p><i>Syntax:</i></p><pre
class="syntax"><pre>&lt;list-permissions-stmt> ::= LIST ( ALL ( PERMISSIONS
)? | &lt;permission> ) 
+                                 ( ON &lt;resource> )? 
+                                 ( OF &lt;identifier> ( NORECURSIVE )? )?
+
+&lt;resource> ::= ALL KEYSPACES
+             | KEYSPACE &lt;identifier>
+             | ( TABLE )? &lt;tablename>
+</pre></pre><p></p><p><i>Sample:</i></p><pre
class="sample"><pre>LIST ALL PERMISSIONS OF alice;
+</pre></pre><p>Show all permissions granted to <code>alice</code>.
</p><pre class="sample"><pre>LIST ALL PERMISSIONS ON keyspace1.table1 OF
bob;
+</pre></pre><p>Show all permissions on <code>keyspace1.table1</code>
granted to <code>bob</code>. This also includes any permissions higher up the
resource hierarchy which can be applied to <code>keyspace1.table1</code>. For
example, should <code>bob</code> have <code>ALTER</code> permission
on <code>keyspace1</code>, that would be included in the results of this query.
Adding the <code>NORECURSIVE</code> switch restricts the results to only those
permissions which were directly granted to <code>bob</code>.</p><pre
class="sample"><pre>LIST SELECT PERMISSIONS OF carlos;
+</pre></pre><p>Show any permissions granted to <code>carlos</code>,
limited to <code>SELECT</code> permissions on any resource.</p><h2 id="types">Data
Types</h2><p>CQL supports a rich set of data types for columns defined in a table,
including collection types. On top of those native and collection types, users can also provide
custom types (through a JAVA class extending <code>AbstractType</code> loadable
by Cassandra). The syntax of types is thus:</p><pre class="syntax"><pre>&lt;type>
::= &lt;native-type>
          | &lt;collection-type>
          | &lt;tuple-type>
          | &lt;string>       // Used for custom types. The fully-qualified name of
a JAVA class



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