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From tylerho...@apache.org
Subject svn commit: r1685145 - /cassandra/site/publish/doc/cql3/CQL-2.2.html
Date Fri, 12 Jun 2015 18:42:50 GMT
Author: tylerhobbs
Date: Fri Jun 12 18:42:50 2015
New Revision: 1685145

URL: http://svn.apache.org/r1685145
Log:
Add collections, tuple, & UDT to JSON types documentation

Modified:
    cassandra/site/publish/doc/cql3/CQL-2.2.html

Modified: cassandra/site/publish/doc/cql3/CQL-2.2.html
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/cassandra/site/publish/doc/cql3/CQL-2.2.html?rev=1685145&r1=1685144&r2=1685145&view=diff
==============================================================================
--- cassandra/site/publish/doc/cql3/CQL-2.2.html (original)
+++ cassandra/site/publish/doc/cql3/CQL-2.2.html Fri Jun 12 18:42:50 2015
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-<?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8' ?><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"><html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"><head><meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8"/><title>CQL-2.2</title></head><body><p><link rel="StyleSheet" href="CQL.css" type="text/css" media="screen"></p><h1 id="CassandraQueryLanguageCQLv3.3.0">Cassandra Query Language (CQL) v3.3.0</h1><span id="tableOfContents"><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#CassandraQueryLanguageCQLv3.3.0">Cassandra Query Language (CQL) v3.3.0</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#CQLSyntax">CQL Syntax</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#Preamble">Preamble</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#Conventions">Conventions</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#identifiers">Identifiers and keywords</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#constants">Constants</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.
 2.html#Comments">Comments</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#statements">Statements</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#preparedStatement">Prepared Statement</a></li></ol></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#dataDefinition">Data Definition</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#createKeyspaceStmt">CREATE KEYSPACE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#useStmt">USE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#alterKeyspaceStmt">ALTER KEYSPACE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#dropKeyspaceStmt">DROP KEYSPACE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#createTableStmt">CREATE TABLE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#alterTableStmt">ALTER TABLE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#dropTableStmt">DROP TABLE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#truncateStmt">TRUNCATE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#createIndexStmt">CREATE INDEX</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#dropIndexStmt">DROP INDEX</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#createTypeStmt">CREATE TYPE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#alterTypeStmt">ALTER TYPE</
 a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#dropTypeStmt">DROP TYPE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#createTriggerStmt">CREATE TRIGGER</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#dropTriggerStmt">DROP TRIGGER</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#createFunctionStmt">CREATE FUNCTION</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#dropFunctionStmt">DROP FUNCTION</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#createAggregateStmt">CREATE AGGREGATE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#dropAggregateStmt">DROP AGGREGATE</a></li></ol></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#dataManipulation">Data Manipulation</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#insertStmt">INSERT</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#updateStmt">UPDATE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#deleteStmt">DELETE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#batchStmt">BATCH</a></li></ol></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#queries">Queries</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#selectStmt">SELECT</a></li></ol></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#databaseRoles">Database Roles</a><
 ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#createRoleStmt">CREATE ROLE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#alterRoleStmt">ALTER ROLE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#dropRoleStmt">DROP ROLE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#grantRoleStmt">GRANT ROLE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#revokeRoleStmt">REVOKE ROLE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#createUserStmt">CREATE USER </a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#alterUserStmt">ALTER USER </a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#dropUserStmt">DROP USER </a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#listUsersStmt">LIST USERS</a></li></ol></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#dataControl">Data Control</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#permissions">Permissions </a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#grantPermissionsStmt">GRANT PERMISSION</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#revokePermissionsStmt">REVOKE PERMISSION</a></li></ol></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#types">Data Types</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#usingti
 mestamps">Working with timestamps</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#usingdates">Working with dates</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#usingtime">Working with time</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#counters">Counters</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#collections">Working with collections</a></li></ol></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#functions">Functions</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#tokenFun">Token</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#uuidFun">Uuid</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#timeuuidFun">Timeuuid functions</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#blobFun">Blob conversion functions</a></li></ol></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#udfs">User-Defined Functions</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#udas">User-Defined Aggregates</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#json">JSON Support</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#selectJson">SELECT JSON</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#insertJson">INSERT JSON</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#jsonEncoding">JSON Enc
 oding of Cassandra Data Types</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#fromJson">The fromJson() Function</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#toJson">The toJson() Function</a></li></ol></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#appendixA">Appendix A: CQL Keywords</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#appendixB">Appendix B: CQL Reserved Types</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#changes">Changes</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#a3.3.0">3.3.0</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#a3.2.0">3.2.0</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#a3.1.7">3.1.7</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#a3.1.6">3.1.6</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#a3.1.5">3.1.5</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#a3.1.4">3.1.4</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#a3.1.3">3.1.3</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#a3.1.2">3.1.2</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#a3.1.1">3.1.1</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#a3.1.0">3.1.0</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#a3.0.5">3.0.5</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#a3.0.4">3.0.4</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.
 2.html#a3.0.3">3.0.3</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#a3.0.2">3.0.2</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#a3.0.1">3.0.1</a></li></ol></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#Versioning">Versioning</a></li></ol></li></ol></span><h2 id="CQLSyntax">CQL Syntax</h2><h3 id="Preamble">Preamble</h3><p>This document describes the Cassandra Query Language (CQL) version 3. CQL v3 is not backward compatible with CQL v2 and differs from it in numerous ways. Note that this document describes the last version of the languages. However, the <a href="#changes">changes</a> section provides the diff between the different versions of CQL v3.</p><p>CQL v3 offers a model very close to SQL in the sense that data is put in <em>tables</em> containing <em>rows</em> of <em>columns</em>. For that reason, when used in this document, these terms (tables, rows and columns) have the same definition than they have in SQL. But please note that as such, they do <strong>not</strong> refer to the concept of rows and columns found i
 n the internal implementation of Cassandra and in the thrift and CQL v2 API.</p><h3 id="Conventions">Conventions</h3><p>To aid in specifying the CQL syntax, we will use the following conventions in this document:</p><ul><li>Language rules will be given in a <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Backus%E2%80%93Naur_Form">BNF</a> -like notation:</li></ul><pre class="syntax"><pre>&lt;start> ::= TERMINAL &lt;non-terminal1> &lt;non-terminal1>
+<?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8' ?><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"><html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"><head><meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8"/><title>CQL-2.2</title></head><body><p><link rel="StyleSheet" href="CQL.css" type="text/css" media="screen"></p><h1 id="CassandraQueryLanguageCQLv3.3.0">Cassandra Query Language (CQL) v3.3.0</h1><span id="tableOfContents"><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#CassandraQueryLanguageCQLv3.3.0">Cassandra Query Language (CQL) v3.3.0</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#CQLSyntax">CQL Syntax</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#Preamble">Preamble</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#Conventions">Conventions</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#identifiers">Identifiers and keywords</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#constants">Constants</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.
 2.html#Comments">Comments</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#statements">Statements</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#preparedStatement">Prepared Statement</a></li></ol></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#dataDefinition">Data Definition</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#createKeyspaceStmt">CREATE KEYSPACE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#useStmt">USE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#alterKeyspaceStmt">ALTER KEYSPACE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#dropKeyspaceStmt">DROP KEYSPACE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#createTableStmt">CREATE TABLE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#alterTableStmt">ALTER TABLE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#dropTableStmt">DROP TABLE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#truncateStmt">TRUNCATE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#createIndexStmt">CREATE INDEX</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#dropIndexStmt">DROP INDEX</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#createTypeStmt">CREATE TYPE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#alterTypeStmt">ALTER TYPE</
 a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#dropTypeStmt">DROP TYPE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#createTriggerStmt">CREATE TRIGGER</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#dropTriggerStmt">DROP TRIGGER</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#createFunctionStmt">CREATE FUNCTION</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#dropFunctionStmt">DROP FUNCTION</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#createAggregateStmt">CREATE AGGREGATE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#dropAggregateStmt">DROP AGGREGATE</a></li></ol></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#dataManipulation">Data Manipulation</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#insertStmt">INSERT</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#updateStmt">UPDATE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#deleteStmt">DELETE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#batchStmt">BATCH</a></li></ol></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#queries">Queries</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#selectStmt">SELECT</a></li></ol></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#databaseRoles">Database Roles</a><
 ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#createRoleStmt">CREATE ROLE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#alterRoleStmt">ALTER ROLE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#dropRoleStmt">DROP ROLE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#grantRoleStmt">GRANT ROLE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#revokeRoleStmt">REVOKE ROLE</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#createUserStmt">CREATE USER </a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#alterUserStmt">ALTER USER </a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#dropUserStmt">DROP USER </a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#listUsersStmt">LIST USERS</a></li></ol></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#dataControl">Data Control</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#permissions">Permissions </a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#grantPermissionsStmt">GRANT PERMISSION</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#revokePermissionsStmt">REVOKE PERMISSION</a></li></ol></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#types">Data Types</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#usingti
 mestamps">Working with timestamps</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#usingdates">Working with dates</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#usingtime">Working with time</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#counters">Counters</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#collections">Working with collections</a></li></ol></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#functions">Functions</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#tokenFun">Token</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#uuidFun">Uuid</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#timeuuidFun">Timeuuid functions</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#timeFun">Time conversion functions</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#blobFun">Blob conversion functions</a></li></ol></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#udfs">User-Defined Functions</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#udas">User-Defined Aggregates</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#json">JSON Support</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#selectJson">SELECT JSON</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#insertJson"
 >INSERT JSON</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#jsonEncoding">JSON Encoding of Cassandra Data Types</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#fromJson">The fromJson() Function</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#toJson">The toJson() Function</a></li></ol></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#appendixA">Appendix A: CQL Keywords</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#appendixB">Appendix B: CQL Reserved Types</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#changes">Changes</a><ol style="list-style: none;"><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#a3.3.0">3.3.0</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#a3.2.0">3.2.0</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#a3.1.7">3.1.7</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#a3.1.6">3.1.6</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#a3.1.5">3.1.5</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#a3.1.4">3.1.4</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#a3.1.3">3.1.3</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#a3.1.2">3.1.2</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#a3.1.1">3.1.1</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#a3.1.0">3.1.0</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#a3.0.5">3.0.5</a></l
 i><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#a3.0.4">3.0.4</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#a3.0.3">3.0.3</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#a3.0.2">3.0.2</a></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#a3.0.1">3.0.1</a></li></ol></li><li><a href="CQL-2.2.html#Versioning">Versioning</a></li></ol></li></ol></span><h2 id="CQLSyntax">CQL Syntax</h2><h3 id="Preamble">Preamble</h3><p>This document describes the Cassandra Query Language (CQL) version 3. CQL v3 is not backward compatible with CQL v2 and differs from it in numerous ways. Note that this document describes the last version of the languages. However, the <a href="#changes">changes</a> section provides the diff between the different versions of CQL v3.</p><p>CQL v3 offers a model very close to SQL in the sense that data is put in <em>tables</em> containing <em>rows</em> of <em>columns</em>. For that reason, when used in this document, these terms (tables, rows and columns) have the same definition than they have in SQL. But please note that as such, they do 
 <strong>not</strong> refer to the concept of rows and columns found in the internal implementation of Cassandra and in the thrift and CQL v2 API.</p><h3 id="Conventions">Conventions</h3><p>To aid in specifying the CQL syntax, we will use the following conventions in this document:</p><ul><li>Language rules will be given in a <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Backus%E2%80%93Naur_Form">BNF</a> -like notation:</li></ul><pre class="syntax"><pre>&lt;start> ::= TERMINAL &lt;non-terminal1> &lt;non-terminal1>
 </pre></pre><ul><li>Nonterminal symbols will have <code>&lt;angle brackets></code>.</li><li>As additional shortcut notations to BNF, we&#8217;ll use traditional regular expression&#8217;s symbols (<code>?</code>, <code>+</code> and <code>*</code>) to signify that a given symbol is optional and/or can be repeated. We&#8217;ll also allow parentheses to group symbols and the <code>[&lt;characters>]</code> notation to represent any one of <code>&lt;characters></code>.</li><li>The grammar is provided for documentation purposes and leave some minor details out. For instance, the last column definition in a <code>CREATE TABLE</code> statement is optional but supported if present even though the provided grammar in this document suggest it is not supported. </li><li>Sample code will be provided in a code block:</li></ul><pre class="sample"><pre>SELECT sample_usage FROM cql;
 </pre></pre><ul><li>References to keywords or pieces of CQL code in running text will be shown in a <code>fixed-width font</code>.</li></ul><h3 id="identifiers">Identifiers and keywords</h3><p>The CQL language uses <em>identifiers</em> (or <em>names</em>) to identify tables, columns and other objects. An identifier is a token matching the regular expression <code lang="a-zA-Z">[a-zA-Z0-9_]</code><code>*</code>.</p><p>A number of such identifiers, like <code>SELECT</code> or <code>WITH</code>, are <em>keywords</em>. They have a fixed meaning for the language and most are reserved. The list of those keywords can be found in <a href="#appendixA">Appendix A</a>.</p><p>Identifiers and (unquoted) keywords are case insensitive. Thus <code>SELECT</code> is the same than <code>select</code> or <code>sElEcT</code>, and <code>myId</code> is the same than <code>myid</code> or <code>MYID</code> for instance. A convention often used (in particular by the samples of this documentation) is to use u
 pper case for keywords and lower case for other identifiers.</p><p>There is a second kind of identifiers called <em>quoted identifiers</em> defined by enclosing an arbitrary sequence of characters in double-quotes(<code>"</code>). Quoted identifiers are never keywords. Thus <code>"select"</code> is not a reserved keyword and can be used to refer to a column, while <code>select</code> would raise a parse error. Also, contrarily to unquoted identifiers and keywords, quoted identifiers are case sensitive (<code>"My Quoted Id"</code> is <em>different</em> from <code>"my quoted id"</code>). A fully lowercase quoted identifier that matches <code lang="a-zA-Z">[a-zA-Z0-9_]</code><code>*</code> is equivalent to the unquoted identifier obtained by removing the double-quote (so <code>"myid"</code> is equivalent to <code>myid</code> and to <code>myId</code> but different from <code>"myId"</code>). Inside a quoted identifier, the double-quote character can be repeated to escape it, so <code>"fo
 o "" bar"</code> is a valid identifier.</p><h3 id="constants">Constants</h3><p>CQL defines the following kind of <em>constants</em>: strings, integers, floats, booleans, uuids and blobs:</p><ul><li>A string constant is an arbitrary sequence of characters characters enclosed by single-quote(<code>'</code>). One can include a single-quote in a string by repeating it, e.g. <code>'It''s raining today'</code>. Those are not to be confused with quoted identifiers that use double-quotes.</li><li>An integer constant is defined by <code>'-'?[0-9]+</code>.</li><li>A float constant is defined by <code>'-'?[0-9]+('.'[0-9]*)?([eE][+-]?[0-9+])?</code>. On top of that, <code>NaN</code> and <code>Infinity</code> are also float constants.</li><li>A boolean constant is either <code>true</code> or <code>false</code> up to case-insensitivity (i.e. <code>True</code> is a valid boolean constant).</li><li>A <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universally_unique_identifier">UUID</a> constant is defined b
 y <code>hex{8}-hex{4}-hex{4}-hex{4}-hex{12}</code> where <code>hex</code> is an hexadecimal character, e.g. <code>[0-9a-fA-F]</code> and <code>{4}</code> is the number of such characters.</li><li>A blob constant is an hexadecimal number defined by <code>0[xX](hex)+</code> where <code>hex</code> is an hexadecimal character, e.g. <code>[0-9a-fA-F]</code>.</li></ul><p>For how these constants are typed, see the <a href="#types">data types section</a>.</p><h3 id="Comments">Comments</h3><p>A comment in CQL is a line beginning by either double dashes (<code>--</code>) or double slash (<code>//</code>).</p><p>Multi-line comments are also supported through enclosure within <code>/*</code> and <code>*/</code> (but nesting is not supported).</p><pre class="sample"><pre>-- This is a comment
 // This is a comment too
@@ -573,7 +573,7 @@ UPDATE plays SET scores = scores - [ 12,
 )
 </pre></pre><p>then the <code>token</code> function will take a single argument of type <code>text</code> (in that case, the partition key is <code>userid</code> (there is no clustering columns so the partition key is the same than the primary key)), and the return type will be <code>bigint</code>.</p><h3 id="uuidFun">Uuid</h3><p>The <code>uuid</code> function takes no parameters and generates a random type 4 uuid suitable for use in INSERT or SET statements.</p><h3 id="timeuuidFun">Timeuuid functions</h3><h4 id="now"><code>now</code></h4><p>The <code>now</code> function takes no arguments and generates a new unique timeuuid (at the time where the statement using it is executed). Note that this method is useful for insertion but is largely non-sensical in <code>WHERE</code> clauses. For instance, a query of the form</p><pre class="sample"><pre>SELECT * FROM myTable WHERE t = now()
 </pre></pre><p>will never return any result by design, since the value returned by <code>now()</code> is guaranteed to be unique.</p><h4 id="minTimeuuidandmaxTimeuuid"><code>minTimeuuid</code> and <code>maxTimeuuid</code></h4><p>The <code>minTimeuuid</code> (resp. <code>maxTimeuuid</code>) function takes a <code>timestamp</code> value <code>t</code> (which can be <a href="#usingtimestamps">either a timestamp or a date string</a>) and return a <em>fake</em> <code>timeuuid</code> corresponding to the <em>smallest</em> (resp. <em>biggest</em>) possible <code>timeuuid</code> having for timestamp <code>t</code>. So for instance:</p> <pre class="sample"><pre>SELECT * FROM myTable WHERE t > maxTimeuuid('2013-01-01 00:05+0000') AND t &lt; minTimeuuid('2013-02-02 10:00+0000')
-</pre></pre> <p>will select all rows where the <code>timeuuid</code> column <code>t</code> is strictly older than &#8216;2013-01-01 00:05+0000&#8217; but strictly younger than &#8216;2013-02-02 10:00+0000&#8217;.  Please note that <code>t >= maxTimeuuid('2013-01-01 00:05+0000')</code> would still <em>not</em> select a <code>timeuuid</code> generated exactly at &#8216;2013-01-01 00:05+0000&#8217; and is essentially equivalent to <code>t > maxTimeuuid('2013-01-01 00:05+0000')</code>.</p><p><em>Warning</em>: We called the values generated by <code>minTimeuuid</code> and <code>maxTimeuuid</code> <em>fake</em> UUID because they do no respect the Time-Based UUID generation process specified by the <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4122.txt">RFC 4122</a>. In particular, the value returned by these 2 methods will not be unique. This means you should only use those methods for querying (as in the example above). Inserting the result of those methods is almost certainly <em>a bad idea</em>.
 </p><h4 id="dateOfandunixTimestampOf"><code>dateOf</code> and <code>unixTimestampOf</code></h4><p>The <code>dateOf</code> and <code>unixTimestampOf</code> functions take a <code>timeuuid</code> argument and extract the embedded timestamp. However, while the <code>dateof</code> function return it with the <code>timestamp</code> type (that most client, including cqlsh, interpret as a date), the <code>unixTimestampOf</code> function returns it as a <code>bigint</code> raw value.</p><h3 id="blobFun">Blob conversion functions</h3><p>A number of functions are provided to &#8220;convert&#8221; the native types into binary data (<code>blob</code>). For every <code>&lt;native-type></code> <code>type</code> supported by CQL3 (a notable exceptions is <code>blob</code>, for obvious reasons), the function <code>typeAsBlob</code> takes a argument of type <code>type</code> and return it as a <code>blob</code>.  Conversely, the function <code>blobAsType</code> takes a 64-bit <code>blob</code> argum
 ent and convert it to a <code>bigint</code> value.  And so for instance, <code>bigintAsBlob(3)</code> is <code>0x0000000000000003</code> and <code>blobAsBigint(0x0000000000000003)</code> is <code>3</code>.</p><h2 id="udfs">User-Defined Functions</h2><p>User-defined functions allow execution of user-provided code in Cassandra. By default, Cassandra supports defining functions in <em>Java</em> and <em>JavaScript</em>. Support for other JSR 223 compliant scripting languages (such as Python, Ruby, and Scala) can be added by adding a JAR to the classpath.</p><p>UDFs are part of the Cassandra schema.  As such, they are automatically propagated to all nodes in the cluster.</p><p>UDFs can be <em>overloaded</em> - i.e. multiple UDFs with different argument types but the same function name. Example:</p><pre class="sample"><pre>CREATE FUNCTION sample ( arg int ) ...;
+</pre></pre> <p>will select all rows where the <code>timeuuid</code> column <code>t</code> is strictly older than &#8216;2013-01-01 00:05+0000&#8217; but strictly younger than &#8216;2013-02-02 10:00+0000&#8217;.  Please note that <code>t >= maxTimeuuid('2013-01-01 00:05+0000')</code> would still <em>not</em> select a <code>timeuuid</code> generated exactly at &#8216;2013-01-01 00:05+0000&#8217; and is essentially equivalent to <code>t > maxTimeuuid('2013-01-01 00:05+0000')</code>.</p><p><em>Warning</em>: We called the values generated by <code>minTimeuuid</code> and <code>maxTimeuuid</code> <em>fake</em> UUID because they do no respect the Time-Based UUID generation process specified by the <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4122.txt">RFC 4122</a>. In particular, the value returned by these 2 methods will not be unique. This means you should only use those methods for querying (as in the example above). Inserting the result of those methods is almost certainly <em>a bad idea</em>.
 </p><h3 id="timeFun">Time conversion functions</h3><p>A number of functions are provided to &#8220;convert&#8221; a <code>timeuuid</code>, a <code>timestamp</code> or a <code>date</code> into another <code>native</code> type.</p><table><tr><th>function name    </th><th>input type   </th><th>description</th></tr><tr><td><code>toDate</code>            </td><td><code>timeuuid</code>      </td><td>Converts the <code>timeuuid</code> argument into a <code>date</code> type</td></tr><tr><td><code>toDate</code>            </td><td><code>timestamp</code>     </td><td>Converts the <code>timestamp</code> argument into a <code>date</code> type</td></tr><tr><td><code>toTimestamp</code>       </td><td><code>timeuuid</code>      </td><td>Converts the <code>timeuuid</code> argument into a <code>timestamp</code> type</td></tr><tr><td><code>toTimestamp</code>       </td><td><code>date</code>          </td><td>Converts the <code>date</code> argument into a <code>timestamp</code> type</td></tr><tr><td><
 code>toUnixTimestamp</code>   </td><td><code>timeuuid</code>      </td><td>Converts the <code>timeuuid</code> argument into a <code>bigInt</code> raw value</td></tr><tr><td><code>toUnixTimestamp</code>   </td><td><code>timestamp</code>     </td><td>Converts the <code>timestamp</code> argument into a <code>bigInt</code> raw value</td></tr><tr><td><code>toUnixTimestamp</code>   </td><td><code>date</code>          </td><td>Converts the <code>date</code> argument into a <code>bigInt</code> raw value</td></tr><tr><td><code>dateOf</code>            </td><td><code>timeuuid</code>      </td><td>Similar to <code>toTimestamp(timeuuid)</code> (DEPRECATED)</td></tr><tr><td><code>unixTimestampOf</code>   </td><td><code>timeuuid</code>      </td><td>Similar to <code>toUnixTimestamp(timeuuid)</code> (DEPRECATED)</td></tr></table><h3 id="blobFun">Blob conversion functions</h3><p>A number of functions are provided to &#8220;convert&#8221; the native types into binary data (<code>blob</code>). For ev
 ery <code>&lt;native-type></code> <code>type</code> supported by CQL3 (a notable exceptions is <code>blob</code>, for obvious reasons), the function <code>typeAsBlob</code> takes a argument of type <code>type</code> and return it as a <code>blob</code>.  Conversely, the function <code>blobAsType</code> takes a 64-bit <code>blob</code> argument and convert it to a <code>bigint</code> value.  And so for instance, <code>bigintAsBlob(3)</code> is <code>0x0000000000000003</code> and <code>blobAsBigint(0x0000000000000003)</code> is <code>3</code>.</p><h2 id="udfs">User-Defined Functions</h2><p>User-defined functions allow execution of user-provided code in Cassandra. By default, Cassandra supports defining functions in <em>Java</em> and <em>JavaScript</em>. Support for other JSR 223 compliant scripting languages (such as Python, Ruby, and Scala) can be added by adding a JAR to the classpath.</p><p>UDFs are part of the Cassandra schema.  As such, they are automatically propagated to all no
 des in the cluster.</p><p>UDFs can be <em>overloaded</em> - i.e. multiple UDFs with different argument types but the same function name. Example:</p><pre class="sample"><pre>CREATE FUNCTION sample ( arg int ) ...;
 CREATE FUNCTION sample ( arg text ) ...;
 </pre></pre><p>User-defined functions are susceptible to all of the normal problems with the chosen programming language.  Accordingly, implementations should be safe against null pointer exceptions, illegal arguments, or any other potential source of exceptions.  An exception during function execution will result in the entire statement failing.</p><p>It is valid to use <em>complex</em> types like collections, tuple types and user-defined types as argument and return types. Tuple types and user-defined types are handled by the conversion functions of the DataStax Java Driver. Please see the documentation of the Java Driver for details on handling tuple types and user-defined types.</p><p>Arguments for functions can be literals or terms. Prepared statement placeholders can be used, too.</p><p>Note that you can use the double-quoted string syntax to enclose the UDF source code. For example:</p><pre class="sample"><pre>CREATE FUNCTION some_function ( arg int )
   RETURNS NULL ON NULL INPUT
@@ -628,4 +628,4 @@ INSERT INTO atable (pk, val) VALUES (3,3
 INSERT INTO atable (pk, val) VALUES (4,4);
 SELECT average(val) FROM atable;
 </pre></pre><p></p><p>See <a href="#createAggregateStmt"><code>CREATE AGGREGATE</code></a> and <a href="#dropAggregateStmt"><code>DROP AGGREGATE</code></a>.</p><h2 id="json">JSON Support</h2><p>Cassandra 2.2 introduces JSON support to <a href="#selectStmt"><code>SELECT</code></a> and <a href="#insertStmt"><code>INSERT</code></a> statements.  This support does not fundamentally alter the CQL API (for example, the schema is still enforced), it simply provides a convenient way to work with JSON documents.</p><h3 id="selectJson">SELECT JSON</h3><p>With <code>SELECT</code> statements, the new <code>JSON</code> keyword can be used to return each row as a single <code>JSON</code> encoded map.  The remainder of the <code>SELECT</code> statment behavior is the same.</p><p>The result map keys are the same as the column names in a normal result set.  For example, a statement like "<code>SELECT JSON a, ttl(b) FROM ...</code>" would result in a map with keys <code>"a"</code> and <code>"ttl(b)"</
 code>.  However, this is one notable exception: for symmetry with <code>INSERT JSON</code> behavior, case-sensitive column names with upper-case letters will be surrounded with double quotes.  For example, "<code>SELECT JSON myColumn FROM ...</code>" would result in a map key <code>"\"myColumn\""</code> (note the escaped quotes).</p><p>The map values will <code>JSON</code>-encoded representations (as described below) of the result set values.</p><h3 id="insertJson">INSERT JSON</h3><p>With <code>INSERT</code> statements, the new <code>JSON</code> keyword can be used to enable inserting a <code>JSON</code> encoded map as a single row.  The format of the <code>JSON</code> map should generally match that returned by a <code>SELECT JSON</code> statement on the same table.  In particular, case-sensitive column names should be surrounded with double quotes.  For example, to insert into a table with two columns named &#8220;myKey&#8221; and &#8220;value&#8221;, you would do the following:</
 p><pre class="sample"><pre>INSERT INTO mytable JSON '{"\"myKey\"": 0, "value": 0}'
-</pre></pre><p>Any columns which are ommitted from the <code>JSON</code> map will be defaulted to a <code>NULL</code> value (which will result in a tombstone being created).</p><h3 id="jsonEncoding">JSON Encoding of Cassandra Data Types</h3><p>Where possible, Cassandra will represent and accept data types in their native <code>JSON</code> representation.  Cassandra will also accept string representations matching the CQL literal format for all data types.  The following table describes the encodings that Cassandra will accept in <code>INSERT JSON</code> values (and <code>fromJson()</code> arguments) as well as the format Cassandra will use when returning data for <code>SELECT JSON</code> statements (and <code>fromJson()</code>):</p><table><tr><th>type    </th><th>formats accepted   </th><th>return format </th><th>notes</th></tr><tr><td><code>ascii</code>    </td><td>string                </td><td>string           </td><td>Uses JSON&#8217;s <code>\u</code> character escape</td></tr><
 tr><td><code>bigint</code>   </td><td>integer, string       </td><td>integer          </td><td>String must be valid 64 bit integer</td></tr><tr><td><code>blob</code>     </td><td>string                </td><td>string           </td><td>String should be 0x followed by an even number of hex digits</td></tr><tr><td><code>boolean</code>  </td><td>boolean, string       </td><td>boolean          </td><td>String must be &#8220;true&#8221; or "false"</td></tr><tr><td><code>date</code>     </td><td>string                </td><td>string           </td><td>Date in format <code>YYYY-MM-DD</code>, timezone UTC</td></tr><tr><td><code>decimal</code>  </td><td>integer, float, string</td><td>float            </td><td>May exceed 32 or 64-bit IEEE-754 floating point precision in client-side decoder</td></tr><tr><td><code>double</code>   </td><td>integer, float, string</td><td>float            </td><td>String must be valid integer or float</td></tr><tr><td><code>float</code>    </td><td>integer, float,
  string</td><td>float            </td><td>String must be valid integer or float</td></tr><tr><td><code>inet</code>     </td><td>string                </td><td>string           </td><td>IPv4 or IPv6 address</td></tr><tr><td><code>int</code>      </td><td>integer, string       </td><td>integer          </td><td>String must be valid 32 bit integer</td></tr><tr><td><code>text</code>     </td><td>string                </td><td>string           </td><td>Uses JSON&#8217;s <code>\u</code> character escape</td></tr><tr><td><code>time</code>     </td><td>string                </td><td>string           </td><td>Time of day in format <code>HH-MM-SS[.fffffffff]</code></td></tr><tr><td><code>timestamp</code></td><td>integer, string       </td><td>string           </td><td>A timestamp. Strings constant are allow to input timestamps as dates, see <a href="#usingdates">Working with dates</a> below for more information.  Datestamps with format <code>YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS.SSS</code> are returned.</td></
 tr><tr><td><code>timeuuid</code> </td><td>string                </td><td>string           </td><td>Type 1 UUID. See <a href="#constants">Constants</a> for the UUID format</td></tr><tr><td><code>uuid</code>     </td><td>string                </td><td>string           </td><td>See <a href="#constants">Constants</a> for the UUID format</td></tr><tr><td><code>varchar</code>  </td><td>string                </td><td>string           </td><td>Uses JSON&#8217;s <code>\u</code> character escape</td></tr><tr><td><code>varint</code>   </td><td>integer, string       </td><td>integer          </td><td>Variable length; may overflow 32 or 64 bit integers in client-side decoder</td></tr></table><h3 id="fromJson">The fromJson() Function</h3><p>The <code>fromJson()</code> function may be used similarly to <code>INSERT JSON</code>, but for a single column value.  It may only be used in the <code>VALUES</code> clause of an <code>INSERT</code> statement or as one of the column values in an <code>UPDATE<
 /code>, <code>DELETE</code>, or <code>SELECT</code> statement.  For example, it cannot be used in the selection clause of a <code>SELECT</code> statement.</p><h3 id="toJson">The toJson() Function</h3><p>The <code>toJson()</code> function may be used similarly to <code>SELECT JSON</code>, but for a single column value.  It may only be used in the selection clause of a <code>SELECT</code> statement.</p><h2 id="appendixA">Appendix A: CQL Keywords</h2><p>CQL distinguishes between <em>reserved</em> and <em>non-reserved</em> keywords. Reserved keywords cannot be used as identifier, they are truly reserved for the language (but one can enclose a reserved keyword by double-quotes to use it as an identifier). Non-reserved keywords however only have a specific meaning in certain context but can used as identifer otherwise. The only <em>raison d'être</em> of these non-reserved keywords is convenience: some keyword are non-reserved when it was always easy for the parser to decide whether the
 y were used as keywords or not.</p><table><tr><th>Keyword      </th><th>Reserved? </th></tr><tr><td><code>ADD</code>          </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>AGGREGATE</code>    </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>ALL</code>          </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>ALTER</code>        </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>AND</code>          </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>ANY</code>          </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>APPLY</code>        </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>AS</code>           </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>ASC</code>          </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>ASCII</code>        </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>AUTHORIZE</code>    </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>BATCH</code>        </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>BEGIN</code>        </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>BIGINT</code>       </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>BLOB</code>         </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>BOOLEAN</code>      </td><td>no  </t
 d></tr><tr><td><code>BY</code>           </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>CLUSTERING</code>   </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>COLUMNFAMILY</code> </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>COMPACT</code>      </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>CONSISTENCY</code>  </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>COUNT</code>        </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>COUNTER</code>      </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>CREATE</code>       </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>DATE</code>         </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>DECIMAL</code>      </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>DELETE</code>       </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>DESC</code>         </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>DESCRIBE</code>     </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>DETERMINISTIC</code> </td><td>no </td></tr><tr><td><code>DISTINCT</code>     </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>DOUBLE</code>       </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>DROP</code>         </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>EACH_QU
 ORUM</code>  </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>EXECUTE</code>      </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>FUNCTION</code>     </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>FINALFUNC</code>    </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>FLOAT</code>        </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>FROM</code>         </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>GRANT</code>        </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>IN</code>           </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>INDEX</code>        </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>CUSTOM</code>       </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>INITCOND</code>     </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>INSERT</code>       </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>INT</code>          </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>INTO</code>         </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>KEY</code>          </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>KEYSPACE</code>     </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>LANGUAGE</code>     </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>LEVEL</code>        </td><td>no  </
 td></tr><tr><td><code>LIMIT</code>        </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>LOCAL_ONE</code>    </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>LOCAL_QUORUM</code> </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>MODIFY</code>       </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>NORECURSIVE</code>  </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>NON</code>          </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>NOSUPERUSER</code>  </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>OF</code>           </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>ON</code>           </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>ONE</code>          </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>OR</code>           </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>ORDER</code>        </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>PASSWORD</code>     </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>PERMISSION</code>   </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>PERMISSIONS</code>  </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>PRIMARY</code>      </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>QUORUM</code>       </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>REPLAC
 E</code>      </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>RETURNS</code>      </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>REVOKE</code>       </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>ROLE</code>         </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>ROLES</code>        </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>SCHEMA</code>       </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>SELECT</code>       </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>SET</code>          </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>SFUNC</code>        </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>STORAGE</code>      </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>STYPE</code>        </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>SUPERUSER</code>    </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>TABLE</code>        </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>TEXT</code>         </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>TIME</code>         </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>TIMESTAMP</code>    </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>TIMEUUID</code>     </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>THREE</code>        </td><td>yes <
 /td></tr><tr><td><code>TOKEN</code>        </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>TRUNCATE</code>     </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>TTL</code>          </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>TWO</code>          </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>TYPE</code>         </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>UPDATE</code>       </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>USE</code>          </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>USER</code>         </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>USERS</code>        </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>USING</code>        </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>UUID</code>         </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>VALUES</code>       </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>VARCHAR</code>      </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>VARINT</code>       </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>WHERE</code>        </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>WITH</code>         </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>WRITETIME</code>    </td><td>no  </td></tr></table><h2 id="app
 endixB">Appendix B: CQL Reserved Types</h2><p>The following type names are not currently used by CQL, but are reserved for potential future use.  User-defined types may not use reserved type names as their name.</p><table><tr><th>type      </th></tr><tr><td><code>byte</code>      </td></tr><tr><td><code>smallint</code>  </td></tr><tr><td><code>complex</code>   </td></tr><tr><td><code>enum</code>      </td></tr><tr><td><code>date</code>      </td></tr><tr><td><code>interval</code>  </td></tr><tr><td><code>macaddr</code>   </td></tr><tr><td><code>bitstring</code> </td></tr></table><h2 id="changes">Changes</h2><p>The following describes the changes in each version of CQL.</p><h3 id="a3.3.0">3.3.0</h3><ul><li>User-defined functions are now supported through <a href="#createFunctionStmt"><code>CREATE FUNCTION</code></a> and <a href="#dropFunctionStmt"><code>DROP FUNCTION</code></a>, </li><li>User-defined aggregates are now supported through <a href="#createAggregateStmt"><code>CREATE AGG
 REGATE</code></a> and <a href="#dropAggregateStmt"><code>DROP AGGREGATE</code></a>.</li><li>Allows double-dollar enclosed strings literals as an alternative to single-quote enclosed strings.</li><li>Introduces Roles to supercede user based authentication and access control</li></ul><h3 id="a3.2.0">3.2.0</h3><ul><li>User-defined types are now supported through <a href="#createTypeStmt"><code>CREATE TYPE</code></a>, <a href="#alterTypeStmt"><code>ALTER TYPE</code></a>, and <a href="#dropTypeStmt"><code>DROP TYPE</code></a></li><li><a href="#createIndexStmt"><code>CREATE INDEX</code></a> now supports indexing collection columns, including indexing the keys of map collections through the <code>keys()</code> function</li><li>Indexes on collections may be queried using the new <code>CONTAINS</code> and <code>CONTAINS KEY</code> operators</li><li>Tuple types were added to hold fixed-length sets of typed positional fields (see the section on <a href="#types">types</a>)</li><li><a href="#dro
 pIndexStmt"><code>DROP INDEX</code></a> now supports optionally specifying a keyspace</li></ul><h3 id="a3.1.7">3.1.7</h3><ul><li><code>SELECT</code> statements now support selecting multiple rows in a single partition using an <code>IN</code> clause on combinations of clustering columns.  See <a href="#selectWhere">SELECT WHERE</a> clauses.</li><li><code>IF NOT EXISTS</code> and <code>IF EXISTS</code> syntax is now supported by <code>CREATE USER</code> and <code>DROP USER</code> statmenets, respectively.</li></ul><h3 id="a3.1.6">3.1.6</h3><ul><li>A new <a href="#uuidFun"><code>uuid</code> method</a> has been added.</li><li>Support for <code>DELETE ... IF EXISTS</code> syntax.</li></ul><h3 id="a3.1.5">3.1.5</h3><ul><li>It is now possible to group clustering columns in a relatiion, see <a href="#selectWhere">SELECT WHERE</a> clauses.</li><li>Added support for <code>STATIC</code> columns, see <a href="#createTableStatic">static in CREATE TABLE</a>.</li></ul><h3 id="a3.1.4">3.1.4</h3><u
 l><li><code>CREATE INDEX</code> now allows specifying options when creating CUSTOM indexes (see <a href="#createIndexStmt">CREATE INDEX reference</a>).</li></ul><h3 id="a3.1.3">3.1.3</h3><ul><li>Millisecond precision formats have been added to the timestamp parser (see <a href="#usingtimestamps">working with dates</a>).</li></ul><h3 id="a3.1.2">3.1.2</h3><ul><li><code>NaN</code> and <code>Infinity</code> has been added as valid float contants. They are now reserved keywords. In the unlikely case you we using them as a column identifier (or keyspace/table one), you will noew need to double quote them (see <a href="#identifiers">quote identifiers</a>).</li></ul><h3 id="a3.1.1">3.1.1</h3><ul><li><code>SELECT</code> statement now allows listing the partition keys (using the <code>DISTINCT</code> modifier). See <a href="https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/CASSANDRA-4536">CASSANDRA-4536</a>.</li><li>The syntax <code>c IN ?</code> is now supported in <code>WHERE</code> clauses. In that c
 ase, the value expected for the bind variable will be a list of whatever type <code>c</code> is.</li><li>It is now possible to use named bind variables (using <code>:name</code> instead of <code>?</code>).</li></ul><h3 id="a3.1.0">3.1.0</h3><ul><li><a href="#alterTableStmt">ALTER TABLE</a> <code>DROP</code> option has been reenabled for CQL3 tables and has new semantics now: the space formerly used by dropped columns will now be eventually reclaimed (post-compaction). You should not readd previously dropped columns unless you use timestamps with microsecond precision (see <a href="https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/CASSANDRA-3919">CASSANDRA-3919</a> for more details).</li><li><code>SELECT</code> statement now supports aliases in select clause. Aliases in WHERE and ORDER BY clauses are not supported. See the <a href="#selectStmt">section on select</a> for details.</li><li><code>CREATE</code> statements for <code>KEYSPACE</code>, <code>TABLE</code> and <code>INDEX</code> now suppor
 ts an <code>IF NOT EXISTS</code> condition. Similarly, <code>DROP</code> statements support a <code>IF EXISTS</code> condition.</li><li><code>INSERT</code> statements optionally supports a <code>IF NOT EXISTS</code> condition and <code>UPDATE</code> supports <code>IF</code> conditions.</li></ul><h3 id="a3.0.5">3.0.5</h3><ul><li><code>SELECT</code>, <code>UPDATE</code>, and <code>DELETE</code> statements now allow empty <code>IN</code> relations (see <a href="https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/CASSANDRA-5626">CASSANDRA-5626</a>).</li></ul><h3 id="a3.0.4">3.0.4</h3><ul><li>Updated the syntax for custom <a href="#createIndexStmt">secondary indexes</a>.</li><li>Non-equal condition on the partition key are now never supported, even for ordering partitioner as this was not correct (the order was <strong>not</strong> the one of the type of the partition key). Instead, the <code>token</code> method should always be used for range queries on the partition key (see <a href="#selectWhere">W
 HERE clauses</a>).</li></ul><h3 id="a3.0.3">3.0.3</h3><ul><li>Support for custom <a href="#createIndexStmt">secondary indexes</a> has been added.</li></ul><h3 id="a3.0.2">3.0.2</h3><ul><li>Type validation for the <a href="#constants">constants</a> has been fixed. For instance, the implementation used to allow <code>'2'</code> as a valid value for an <code>int</code> column (interpreting it has the equivalent of <code>2</code>), or <code>42</code> as a valid <code>blob</code> value (in which case <code>42</code> was interpreted as an hexadecimal representation of the blob). This is no longer the case, type validation of constants is now more strict. See the <a href="#types">data types</a> section for details on which constant is allowed for which type.</li><li>The type validation fixed of the previous point has lead to the introduction of <a href="#constants">blobs constants</a> to allow inputing blobs. Do note that while inputing blobs as strings constant is still supported by this 
 version (to allow smoother transition to blob constant), it is now deprecated (in particular the <a href="#types">data types</a> section does not list strings constants as valid blobs) and will be removed by a future version. If you were using strings as blobs, you should thus update your client code ASAP to switch blob constants.</li><li>A number of functions to convert native types to blobs have also been introduced. Furthermore the token function is now also allowed in select clauses. See the <a href="#functions">section on functions</a> for details.</li></ul><h3 id="a3.0.1">3.0.1</h3><ul><li><a href="#usingtimestamps">Date strings</a> (and timestamps) are no longer accepted as valid <code>timeuuid</code> values. Doing so was a bug in the sense that date string are not valid <code>timeuuid</code>, and it was thus resulting in <a href="https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/CASSANDRA-4936">confusing behaviors</a>.  However, the following new methods have been added to help working 
 with <code>timeuuid</code>: <code>now</code>, <code>minTimeuuid</code>, <code>maxTimeuuid</code> , <code>dateOf</code> and <code>unixTimestampOf</code>. See the <a href="#usingtimeuuid">section dedicated to these methods</a> for more detail.</li><li>&#8220;Float constants&#8221;#constants now support the exponent notation. In other words, <code>4.2E10</code> is now a valid floating point value.</li></ul><h2 id="Versioning">Versioning</h2><p>Versioning of the CQL language adheres to the <a href="http://semver.org">Semantic Versioning</a> guidelines. Versions take the form X.Y.Z where X, Y, and Z are integer values representing major, minor, and patch level respectively. There is no correlation between Cassandra release versions and the CQL language version.</p><table><tr><th>version</th><th>description</th></tr><tr><td>Major     </td><td>The major version <em>must</em> be bumped when backward incompatible changes are introduced. This should rarely occur.</td></tr><tr><td>Minor     </
 td><td>Minor version increments occur when new, but backward compatible, functionality is introduced.</td></tr><tr><td>Patch     </td><td>The patch version is incremented when bugs are fixed.</td></tr></table></body></html>
\ No newline at end of file
+</pre></pre><p>Any columns which are ommitted from the <code>JSON</code> map will be defaulted to a <code>NULL</code> value (which will result in a tombstone being created).</p><h3 id="jsonEncoding">JSON Encoding of Cassandra Data Types</h3><p>Where possible, Cassandra will represent and accept data types in their native <code>JSON</code> representation.  Cassandra will also accept string representations matching the CQL literal format for all data types.  The following table describes the encodings that Cassandra will accept in <code>INSERT JSON</code> values (and <code>fromJson()</code> arguments) as well as the format Cassandra will use when returning data for <code>SELECT JSON</code> statements (and <code>fromJson()</code>):</p><table><tr><th>type    </th><th>formats accepted   </th><th>return format </th><th>notes</th></tr><tr><td><code>ascii</code>    </td><td>string                </td><td>string           </td><td>Uses JSON&#8217;s <code>\u</code> character escape</td></tr><
 tr><td><code>bigint</code>   </td><td>integer, string       </td><td>integer          </td><td>String must be valid 64 bit integer</td></tr><tr><td><code>blob</code>     </td><td>string                </td><td>string           </td><td>String should be 0x followed by an even number of hex digits</td></tr><tr><td><code>boolean</code>  </td><td>boolean, string       </td><td>boolean          </td><td>String must be &#8220;true&#8221; or "false"</td></tr><tr><td><code>date</code>     </td><td>string                </td><td>string           </td><td>Date in format <code>YYYY-MM-DD</code>, timezone UTC</td></tr><tr><td><code>decimal</code>  </td><td>integer, float, string</td><td>float            </td><td>May exceed 32 or 64-bit IEEE-754 floating point precision in client-side decoder</td></tr><tr><td><code>double</code>   </td><td>integer, float, string</td><td>float            </td><td>String must be valid integer or float</td></tr><tr><td><code>float</code>    </td><td>integer, float,
  string</td><td>float            </td><td>String must be valid integer or float</td></tr><tr><td><code>inet</code>     </td><td>string                </td><td>string           </td><td>IPv4 or IPv6 address</td></tr><tr><td><code>int</code>      </td><td>integer, string       </td><td>integer          </td><td>String must be valid 32 bit integer</td></tr><tr><td><code>list</code>     </td><td>list, string          </td><td>list             </td><td>Uses JSON&#8217;s native list representation</td></tr><tr><td><code>map</code>      </td><td>map, string           </td><td>map              </td><td>Uses JSON&#8217;s native map representation</td></tr><tr><td><code>set</code>      </td><td>list, string          </td><td>list             </td><td>Uses JSON&#8217;s native list representation</td></tr><tr><td><code>text</code>     </td><td>string                </td><td>string           </td><td>Uses JSON&#8217;s <code>\u</code> character escape</td></tr><tr><td><code>time</code>     </td><
 td>string                </td><td>string           </td><td>Time of day in format <code>HH-MM-SS[.fffffffff]</code></td></tr><tr><td><code>timestamp</code></td><td>integer, string       </td><td>string           </td><td>A timestamp. Strings constant are allow to input timestamps as dates, see <a href="#usingdates">Working with dates</a> below for more information.  Datestamps with format <code>YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS.SSS</code> are returned.</td></tr><tr><td><code>timeuuid</code> </td><td>string                </td><td>string           </td><td>Type 1 UUID. See <a href="#constants">Constants</a> for the UUID format</td></tr><tr><td><code>tuple</code>    </td><td>list, string          </td><td>list             </td><td>Uses JSON&#8217;s native list representation</td></tr><tr><td><code>UDT</code>      </td><td>map, string           </td><td>map              </td><td>Uses JSON&#8217;s native map representation with field names as keys</td></tr><tr><td><code>uuid</code>     </td><td>strin
 g                </td><td>string           </td><td>See <a href="#constants">Constants</a> for the UUID format</td></tr><tr><td><code>varchar</code>  </td><td>string                </td><td>string           </td><td>Uses JSON&#8217;s <code>\u</code> character escape</td></tr><tr><td><code>varint</code>   </td><td>integer, string       </td><td>integer          </td><td>Variable length; may overflow 32 or 64 bit integers in client-side decoder</td></tr></table><h3 id="fromJson">The fromJson() Function</h3><p>The <code>fromJson()</code> function may be used similarly to <code>INSERT JSON</code>, but for a single column value.  It may only be used in the <code>VALUES</code> clause of an <code>INSERT</code> statement or as one of the column values in an <code>UPDATE</code>, <code>DELETE</code>, or <code>SELECT</code> statement.  For example, it cannot be used in the selection clause of a <code>SELECT</code> statement.</p><h3 id="toJson">The toJson() Function</h3><p>The <code>toJson()</c
 ode> function may be used similarly to <code>SELECT JSON</code>, but for a single column value.  It may only be used in the selection clause of a <code>SELECT</code> statement.</p><h2 id="appendixA">Appendix A: CQL Keywords</h2><p>CQL distinguishes between <em>reserved</em> and <em>non-reserved</em> keywords. Reserved keywords cannot be used as identifier, they are truly reserved for the language (but one can enclose a reserved keyword by double-quotes to use it as an identifier). Non-reserved keywords however only have a specific meaning in certain context but can used as identifer otherwise. The only <em>raison d'être</em> of these non-reserved keywords is convenience: some keyword are non-reserved when it was always easy for the parser to decide whether they were used as keywords or not.</p><table><tr><th>Keyword      </th><th>Reserved? </th></tr><tr><td><code>ADD</code>          </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>AGGREGATE</code>    </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>ALL<
 /code>          </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>ALTER</code>        </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>AND</code>          </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>ANY</code>          </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>APPLY</code>        </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>AS</code>           </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>ASC</code>          </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>ASCII</code>        </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>AUTHORIZE</code>    </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>BATCH</code>        </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>BEGIN</code>        </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>BIGINT</code>       </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>BLOB</code>         </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>BOOLEAN</code>      </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>BY</code>           </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>CLUSTERING</code>   </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>COLUMNFAMILY</code> </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>COMPACT</code>      </td><td>no 
  </td></tr><tr><td><code>CONSISTENCY</code>  </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>COUNT</code>        </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>COUNTER</code>      </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>CREATE</code>       </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>DATE</code>         </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>DECIMAL</code>      </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>DELETE</code>       </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>DESC</code>         </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>DESCRIBE</code>     </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>DETERMINISTIC</code> </td><td>no </td></tr><tr><td><code>DISTINCT</code>     </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>DOUBLE</code>       </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>DROP</code>         </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>EACH_QUORUM</code>  </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>EXECUTE</code>      </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>FUNCTION</code>     </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>FINALFUNC</code>    </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>FLO
 AT</code>        </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>FROM</code>         </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>GRANT</code>        </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>IN</code>           </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>INDEX</code>        </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>CUSTOM</code>       </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>INITCOND</code>     </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>INSERT</code>       </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>INT</code>          </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>INTO</code>         </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>KEY</code>          </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>KEYSPACE</code>     </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>LANGUAGE</code>     </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>LEVEL</code>        </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>LIMIT</code>        </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>LOCAL_ONE</code>    </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>LOCAL_QUORUM</code> </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>MODIFY</code>       </td><td>ye
 s </td></tr><tr><td><code>NORECURSIVE</code>  </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>NON</code>          </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>NOSUPERUSER</code>  </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>OF</code>           </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>ON</code>           </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>ONE</code>          </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>OR</code>           </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>ORDER</code>        </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>PASSWORD</code>     </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>PERMISSION</code>   </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>PERMISSIONS</code>  </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>PRIMARY</code>      </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>QUORUM</code>       </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>REPLACE</code>      </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>RETURNS</code>      </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>REVOKE</code>       </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>ROLE</code>         </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>RO
 LES</code>        </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>SCHEMA</code>       </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>SELECT</code>       </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>SET</code>          </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>SFUNC</code>        </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>STORAGE</code>      </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>STYPE</code>        </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>SUPERUSER</code>    </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>TABLE</code>        </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>TEXT</code>         </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>TIME</code>         </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>TIMESTAMP</code>    </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>TIMEUUID</code>     </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>THREE</code>        </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>TOKEN</code>        </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>TRUNCATE</code>     </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>TTL</code>          </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>TWO</code>          </td><td>y
 es </td></tr><tr><td><code>TYPE</code>         </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>UPDATE</code>       </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>USE</code>          </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>USER</code>         </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>USERS</code>        </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>USING</code>        </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>UUID</code>         </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>VALUES</code>       </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>VARCHAR</code>      </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>VARINT</code>       </td><td>no  </td></tr><tr><td><code>WHERE</code>        </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>WITH</code>         </td><td>yes </td></tr><tr><td><code>WRITETIME</code>    </td><td>no  </td></tr></table><h2 id="appendixB">Appendix B: CQL Reserved Types</h2><p>The following type names are not currently used by CQL, but are reserved for potential future use.  User-defined types may not use reserved type names as their name.</p><table><t
 r><th>type      </th></tr><tr><td><code>byte</code>      </td></tr><tr><td><code>smallint</code>  </td></tr><tr><td><code>complex</code>   </td></tr><tr><td><code>enum</code>      </td></tr><tr><td><code>date</code>      </td></tr><tr><td><code>interval</code>  </td></tr><tr><td><code>macaddr</code>   </td></tr><tr><td><code>bitstring</code> </td></tr></table><h2 id="changes">Changes</h2><p>The following describes the changes in each version of CQL.</p><h3 id="a3.3.0">3.3.0</h3><ul><li>User-defined functions are now supported through <a href="#createFunctionStmt"><code>CREATE FUNCTION</code></a> and <a href="#dropFunctionStmt"><code>DROP FUNCTION</code></a>, </li><li>User-defined aggregates are now supported through <a href="#createAggregateStmt"><code>CREATE AGGREGATE</code></a> and <a href="#dropAggregateStmt"><code>DROP AGGREGATE</code></a>.</li><li>Allows double-dollar enclosed strings literals as an alternative to single-quote enclosed strings.</li><li>Introduces Roles to super
 cede user based authentication and access control</li></ul><h3 id="a3.2.0">3.2.0</h3><ul><li>User-defined types are now supported through <a href="#createTypeStmt"><code>CREATE TYPE</code></a>, <a href="#alterTypeStmt"><code>ALTER TYPE</code></a>, and <a href="#dropTypeStmt"><code>DROP TYPE</code></a></li><li><a href="#createIndexStmt"><code>CREATE INDEX</code></a> now supports indexing collection columns, including indexing the keys of map collections through the <code>keys()</code> function</li><li>Indexes on collections may be queried using the new <code>CONTAINS</code> and <code>CONTAINS KEY</code> operators</li><li>Tuple types were added to hold fixed-length sets of typed positional fields (see the section on <a href="#types">types</a>)</li><li><a href="#dropIndexStmt"><code>DROP INDEX</code></a> now supports optionally specifying a keyspace</li></ul><h3 id="a3.1.7">3.1.7</h3><ul><li><code>SELECT</code> statements now support selecting multiple rows in a single partition using 
 an <code>IN</code> clause on combinations of clustering columns.  See <a href="#selectWhere">SELECT WHERE</a> clauses.</li><li><code>IF NOT EXISTS</code> and <code>IF EXISTS</code> syntax is now supported by <code>CREATE USER</code> and <code>DROP USER</code> statmenets, respectively.</li></ul><h3 id="a3.1.6">3.1.6</h3><ul><li>A new <a href="#uuidFun"><code>uuid</code> method</a> has been added.</li><li>Support for <code>DELETE ... IF EXISTS</code> syntax.</li></ul><h3 id="a3.1.5">3.1.5</h3><ul><li>It is now possible to group clustering columns in a relatiion, see <a href="#selectWhere">SELECT WHERE</a> clauses.</li><li>Added support for <code>STATIC</code> columns, see <a href="#createTableStatic">static in CREATE TABLE</a>.</li></ul><h3 id="a3.1.4">3.1.4</h3><ul><li><code>CREATE INDEX</code> now allows specifying options when creating CUSTOM indexes (see <a href="#createIndexStmt">CREATE INDEX reference</a>).</li></ul><h3 id="a3.1.3">3.1.3</h3><ul><li>Millisecond precision formats
  have been added to the timestamp parser (see <a href="#usingtimestamps">working with dates</a>).</li></ul><h3 id="a3.1.2">3.1.2</h3><ul><li><code>NaN</code> and <code>Infinity</code> has been added as valid float contants. They are now reserved keywords. In the unlikely case you we using them as a column identifier (or keyspace/table one), you will noew need to double quote them (see <a href="#identifiers">quote identifiers</a>).</li></ul><h3 id="a3.1.1">3.1.1</h3><ul><li><code>SELECT</code> statement now allows listing the partition keys (using the <code>DISTINCT</code> modifier). See <a href="https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/CASSANDRA-4536">CASSANDRA-4536</a>.</li><li>The syntax <code>c IN ?</code> is now supported in <code>WHERE</code> clauses. In that case, the value expected for the bind variable will be a list of whatever type <code>c</code> is.</li><li>It is now possible to use named bind variables (using <code>:name</code> instead of <code>?</code>).</li></ul><h3 id="a
 3.1.0">3.1.0</h3><ul><li><a href="#alterTableStmt">ALTER TABLE</a> <code>DROP</code> option has been reenabled for CQL3 tables and has new semantics now: the space formerly used by dropped columns will now be eventually reclaimed (post-compaction). You should not readd previously dropped columns unless you use timestamps with microsecond precision (see <a href="https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/CASSANDRA-3919">CASSANDRA-3919</a> for more details).</li><li><code>SELECT</code> statement now supports aliases in select clause. Aliases in WHERE and ORDER BY clauses are not supported. See the <a href="#selectStmt">section on select</a> for details.</li><li><code>CREATE</code> statements for <code>KEYSPACE</code>, <code>TABLE</code> and <code>INDEX</code> now supports an <code>IF NOT EXISTS</code> condition. Similarly, <code>DROP</code> statements support a <code>IF EXISTS</code> condition.</li><li><code>INSERT</code> statements optionally supports a <code>IF NOT EXISTS</code> conditio
 n and <code>UPDATE</code> supports <code>IF</code> conditions.</li></ul><h3 id="a3.0.5">3.0.5</h3><ul><li><code>SELECT</code>, <code>UPDATE</code>, and <code>DELETE</code> statements now allow empty <code>IN</code> relations (see <a href="https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/CASSANDRA-5626">CASSANDRA-5626</a>).</li></ul><h3 id="a3.0.4">3.0.4</h3><ul><li>Updated the syntax for custom <a href="#createIndexStmt">secondary indexes</a>.</li><li>Non-equal condition on the partition key are now never supported, even for ordering partitioner as this was not correct (the order was <strong>not</strong> the one of the type of the partition key). Instead, the <code>token</code> method should always be used for range queries on the partition key (see <a href="#selectWhere">WHERE clauses</a>).</li></ul><h3 id="a3.0.3">3.0.3</h3><ul><li>Support for custom <a href="#createIndexStmt">secondary indexes</a> has been added.</li></ul><h3 id="a3.0.2">3.0.2</h3><ul><li>Type validation for the <a href="#c
 onstants">constants</a> has been fixed. For instance, the implementation used to allow <code>'2'</code> as a valid value for an <code>int</code> column (interpreting it has the equivalent of <code>2</code>), or <code>42</code> as a valid <code>blob</code> value (in which case <code>42</code> was interpreted as an hexadecimal representation of the blob). This is no longer the case, type validation of constants is now more strict. See the <a href="#types">data types</a> section for details on which constant is allowed for which type.</li><li>The type validation fixed of the previous point has lead to the introduction of <a href="#constants">blobs constants</a> to allow inputing blobs. Do note that while inputing blobs as strings constant is still supported by this version (to allow smoother transition to blob constant), it is now deprecated (in particular the <a href="#types">data types</a> section does not list strings constants as valid blobs) and will be removed by a future version
 . If you were using strings as blobs, you should thus update your client code ASAP to switch blob constants.</li><li>A number of functions to convert native types to blobs have also been introduced. Furthermore the token function is now also allowed in select clauses. See the <a href="#functions">section on functions</a> for details.</li></ul><h3 id="a3.0.1">3.0.1</h3><ul><li><a href="#usingtimestamps">Date strings</a> (and timestamps) are no longer accepted as valid <code>timeuuid</code> values. Doing so was a bug in the sense that date string are not valid <code>timeuuid</code>, and it was thus resulting in <a href="https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/CASSANDRA-4936">confusing behaviors</a>.  However, the following new methods have been added to help working with <code>timeuuid</code>: <code>now</code>, <code>minTimeuuid</code>, <code>maxTimeuuid</code> , <code>dateOf</code> and <code>unixTimestampOf</code>. See the <a href="#usingtimeuuid">section dedicated to these methods</a>
  for more detail.</li><li>&#8220;Float constants&#8221;#constants now support the exponent notation. In other words, <code>4.2E10</code> is now a valid floating point value.</li></ul><h2 id="Versioning">Versioning</h2><p>Versioning of the CQL language adheres to the <a href="http://semver.org">Semantic Versioning</a> guidelines. Versions take the form X.Y.Z where X, Y, and Z are integer values representing major, minor, and patch level respectively. There is no correlation between Cassandra release versions and the CQL language version.</p><table><tr><th>version</th><th>description</th></tr><tr><td>Major     </td><td>The major version <em>must</em> be bumped when backward incompatible changes are introduced. This should rarely occur.</td></tr><tr><td>Minor     </td><td>Minor version increments occur when new, but backward compatible, functionality is introduced.</td></tr><tr><td>Patch     </td><td>The patch version is incremented when bugs are fixed.</td></tr></table></body></html>
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