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From slebre...@apache.org
Subject git commit: Add protocol v4 spec document
Date Thu, 02 Oct 2014 09:34:39 GMT
Repository: cassandra
Updated Branches:
  refs/heads/trunk f07c84208 -> b91250556


Add protocol v4 spec document


Project: http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/cassandra/repo
Commit: http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/cassandra/commit/b9125055
Tree: http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/cassandra/tree/b9125055
Diff: http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/cassandra/diff/b9125055

Branch: refs/heads/trunk
Commit: b9125055624ae18a8f871a8af8c1b5b8717a62aa
Parents: f07c842
Author: Sylvain Lebresne <sylvain@datastax.com>
Authored: Thu Oct 2 11:34:34 2014 +0200
Committer: Sylvain Lebresne <sylvain@datastax.com>
Committed: Thu Oct 2 11:34:34 2014 +0200

----------------------------------------------------------------------
 doc/native_protocol_v4.spec | 899 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 1 file changed, 899 insertions(+)
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http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/cassandra/blob/b9125055/doc/native_protocol_v4.spec
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/doc/native_protocol_v4.spec b/doc/native_protocol_v4.spec
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..02aac3b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/doc/native_protocol_v4.spec
@@ -0,0 +1,899 @@
+
+                             CQL BINARY PROTOCOL v4
+
+
+Table of Contents
+
+  1. Overview
+  2. Frame header
+    2.1. version
+    2.2. flags
+    2.3. stream
+    2.4. opcode
+    2.5. length
+  3. Notations
+  4. Messages
+    4.1. Requests
+      4.1.1. STARTUP
+      4.1.2. AUTH_RESPONSE
+      4.1.3. OPTIONS
+      4.1.4. QUERY
+      4.1.5. PREPARE
+      4.1.6. EXECUTE
+      4.1.7. BATCH
+      4.1.8. REGISTER
+    4.2. Responses
+      4.2.1. ERROR
+      4.2.2. READY
+      4.2.3. AUTHENTICATE
+      4.2.4. SUPPORTED
+      4.2.5. RESULT
+        4.2.5.1. Void
+        4.2.5.2. Rows
+        4.2.5.3. Set_keyspace
+        4.2.5.4. Prepared
+        4.2.5.5. Schema_change
+      4.2.6. EVENT
+      4.2.7. AUTH_CHALLENGE
+      4.2.8. AUTH_SUCCESS
+  5. Compression
+  6. Collection types
+  7. User Defined and tuple types
+  8. Result paging
+  9. Error codes
+  10. Changes from v3
+
+
+1. Overview
+
+  The CQL binary protocol is a frame based protocol. Frames are defined as:
+
+      0         8        16        24        32         40
+      +---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+
+      | version |  flags  |      stream       | opcode  |
+      +---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+
+      |                length                 |
+      +---------+---------+---------+---------+
+      |                                       |
+      .            ...  body ...              .
+      .                                       .
+      .                                       .
+      +----------------------------------------
+
+  The protocol is big-endian (network byte order).
+
+  Each frame contains a fixed size header (9 bytes) followed by a variable size
+  body. The header is described in Section 2. The content of the body depends
+  on the header opcode value (the body can in particular be empty for some
+  opcode values). The list of allowed opcode is defined Section 2.3 and the
+  details of each corresponding message is described Section 4.
+
+  The protocol distinguishes 2 types of frames: requests and responses. Requests
+  are those frame sent by the clients to the server, response are the ones sent
+  by the server. Note however that the protocol supports server pushes (events)
+  so responses does not necessarily come right after a client request.
+
+  Note to client implementors: clients library should always assume that the
+  body of a given frame may contain more data than what is described in this
+  document. It will however always be safe to ignore the remaining of the frame
+  body in such cases. The reason is that this may allow to sometimes extend the
+  protocol with optional features without needing to change the protocol
+  version.
+
+
+
+2. Frame header
+
+2.1. version
+
+  The version is a single byte that indicate both the direction of the message
+  (request or response) and the version of the protocol in use. The up-most bit
+  of version is used to define the direction of the message: 0 indicates a
+  request, 1 indicates a responses. This can be useful for protocol analyzers to
+  distinguish the nature of the packet from the direction which it is moving.
+  The rest of that byte is the protocol version (4 for the protocol defined in
+  this document). In other words, for this version of the protocol, version will
+  have one of:
+    0x04    Request frame for this protocol version
+    0x84    Response frame for this protocol version
+
+  Please note that the while every message ship with the version, only one version
+  of messages is accepted on a given connection. In other words, the first message
+  exchanged (STARTUP) sets the version for the connection for the lifetime of this
+  connection.
+
+  This document describe the version 3 of the protocol. For the changes made since
+  version 3, see Section 10.
+
+
+2.2. flags
+
+  Flags applying to this frame. The flags have the following meaning (described
+  by the mask that allow to select them):
+    0x01: Compression flag. If set, the frame body is compressed. The actual
+          compression to use should have been set up beforehand through the
+          Startup message (which thus cannot be compressed; Section 4.1.1).
+    0x02: Tracing flag. For a request frame, this indicate the client requires
+          tracing of the request. Note that not all requests support tracing.
+          Currently, only QUERY, PREPARE and EXECUTE queries support tracing.
+          Other requests will simply ignore the tracing flag if set. If a
+          request support tracing and the tracing flag was set, the response to
+          this request will have the tracing flag set and contain tracing
+          information.
+          If a response frame has the tracing flag set, its body contains
+          a tracing ID. The tracing ID is a [uuid] and is the first thing in
+          the frame body. The rest of the body will then be the usual body
+          corresponding to the response opcode.
+
+  The rest of the flags is currently unused and ignored.
+
+2.3. stream
+
+  A frame has a stream id (a [short] value). When sending request messages, this
+  stream id must be set by the client to a non-negative value (negative stream id
+  are reserved for streams initiated by the server; currently all EVENT messages
+  (section 4.2.6) have a streamId of -1). If a client sends a request message
+  with the stream id X, it is guaranteed that the stream id of the response to
+  that message will be X.
+
+  This allow to deal with the asynchronous nature of the protocol. If a client
+  sends multiple messages simultaneously (without waiting for responses), there
+  is no guarantee on the order of the responses. For instance, if the client
+  writes REQ_1, REQ_2, REQ_3 on the wire (in that order), the server might
+  respond to REQ_3 (or REQ_2) first. Assigning different stream id to these 3
+  requests allows the client to distinguish to which request an received answer
+  respond to. As there can only be 32768 different simultaneous streams, it is up
+  to the client to reuse stream id.
+
+  Note that clients are free to use the protocol synchronously (i.e. wait for
+  the response to REQ_N before sending REQ_N+1). In that case, the stream id
+  can be safely set to 0. Clients should also feel free to use only a subset of
+  the 32768 maximum possible stream ids if it is simpler for those
+  implementation.
+
+2.4. opcode
+
+  An integer byte that distinguish the actual message:
+    0x00    ERROR
+    0x01    STARTUP
+    0x02    READY
+    0x03    AUTHENTICATE
+    0x05    OPTIONS
+    0x06    SUPPORTED
+    0x07    QUERY
+    0x08    RESULT
+    0x09    PREPARE
+    0x0A    EXECUTE
+    0x0B    REGISTER
+    0x0C    EVENT
+    0x0D    BATCH
+    0x0E    AUTH_CHALLENGE
+    0x0F    AUTH_RESPONSE
+    0x10    AUTH_SUCCESS
+
+  Messages are described in Section 4.
+
+  (Note that there is no 0x04 message in this version of the protocol)
+
+
+2.5. length
+
+  A 4 byte integer representing the length of the body of the frame (note:
+  currently a frame is limited to 256MB in length).
+
+
+3. Notations
+
+  To describe the layout of the frame body for the messages in Section 4, we
+  define the following:
+
+    [int]          A 4 bytes integer
+    [long]         A 8 bytes integer
+    [short]        A 2 bytes unsigned integer
+    [string]       A [short] n, followed by n bytes representing an UTF-8
+                   string.
+    [long string]  An [int] n, followed by n bytes representing an UTF-8 string.
+    [uuid]         A 16 bytes long uuid.
+    [string list]  A [short] n, followed by n [string].
+    [bytes]        A [int] n, followed by n bytes if n >= 0. If n < 0,
+                   no byte should follow and the value represented is `null`.
+    [short bytes]  A [short] n, followed by n bytes if n >= 0.
+
+    [option]       A pair of <id><value> where <id> is a [short] representing
+                   the option id and <value> depends on that option (and can be
+                   of size 0). The supported id (and the corresponding <value>)
+                   will be described when this is used.
+    [option list]  A [short] n, followed by n [option].
+    [inet]         An address (ip and port) to a node. It consists of one
+                   [byte] n, that represents the address size, followed by n
+                   [byte] representing the IP address (in practice n can only be
+                   either 4 (IPv4) or 16 (IPv6)), following by one [int]
+                   representing the port.
+    [consistency]  A consistency level specification. This is a [short]
+                   representing a consistency level with the following
+                   correspondance:
+                     0x0000    ANY
+                     0x0001    ONE
+                     0x0002    TWO
+                     0x0003    THREE
+                     0x0004    QUORUM
+                     0x0005    ALL
+                     0x0006    LOCAL_QUORUM
+                     0x0007    EACH_QUORUM
+                     0x0008    SERIAL
+                     0x0009    LOCAL_SERIAL
+                     0x000A    LOCAL_ONE
+
+    [string map]      A [short] n, followed by n pair <k><v> where <k>
and <v>
+                      are [string].
+    [string multimap] A [short] n, followed by n pair <k><v> where <k>
is a
+                      [string] and <v> is a [string list].
+
+
+4. Messages
+
+4.1. Requests
+
+  Note that outside of their normal responses (described below), all requests
+  can get an ERROR message (Section 4.2.1) as response.
+
+4.1.1. STARTUP
+
+  Initialize the connection. The server will respond by either a READY message
+  (in which case the connection is ready for queries) or an AUTHENTICATE message
+  (in which case credentials will need to be provided using AUTH_RESPONSE).
+
+  This must be the first message of the connection, except for OPTIONS that can
+  be sent before to find out the options supported by the server. Once the
+  connection has been initialized, a client should not send any more STARTUP
+  message.
+
+  The body is a [string map] of options. Possible options are:
+    - "CQL_VERSION": the version of CQL to use. This option is mandatory and
+      currenty, the only version supported is "3.0.0". Note that this is
+      different from the protocol version.
+    - "COMPRESSION": the compression algorithm to use for frames (See section 5).
+      This is optional, if not specified no compression will be used.
+
+
+4.1.2. AUTH_RESPONSE
+
+  Answers a server authentication challenge.
+
+  Authentication in the protocol is SASL based. The server sends authentication
+  challenges (a bytes token) to which the client answer with this message. Those
+  exchanges continue until the server accepts the authentication by sending a
+  AUTH_SUCCESS message after a client AUTH_RESPONSE. It is however that client that
+  initiate the exchange by sending an initial AUTH_RESPONSE in response to a
+  server AUTHENTICATE request.
+
+  The body of this message is a single [bytes] token. The details of what this
+  token contains (and when it can be null/empty, if ever) depends on the actual
+  authenticator used.
+
+  The response to a AUTH_RESPONSE is either a follow-up AUTH_CHALLENGE message,
+  an AUTH_SUCCESS message or an ERROR message.
+
+
+4.1.3. OPTIONS
+
+  Asks the server to return what STARTUP options are supported. The body of an
+  OPTIONS message should be empty and the server will respond with a SUPPORTED
+  message.
+
+
+4.1.4. QUERY
+
+  Performs a CQL query. The body of the message must be:
+    <query><query_parameters>
+  where <query> is a [long string] representing the query and
+  <query_parameters> must be
+    <consistency><flags>[<n>[name_1]<value_1>...[name_n]<value_n>][<result_page_size>][<paging_state>][<serial_consistency>][<timestamp>]
+  where:
+    - <consistency> is the [consistency] level for the operation.
+    - <flags> is a [byte] whose bits define the options for this query and
+      in particular influence what the remainder of the message contains.
+      A flag is set if the bit corresponding to its `mask` is set. Supported
+      flags are, given there mask:
+        0x01: Values. In that case, a [short] <n> followed by <n> [bytes]
+              values are provided. Those value are used for bound variables in
+              the query. Optionally, if the 0x40 flag is present, each value
+              will be preceded by a [string] name, representing the name of
+              the marker the value must be binded to. This is optional, and
+              if not present, values will be binded by position.
+        0x02: Skip_metadata. If present, the Result Set returned as a response
+              to that query (if any) will have the NO_METADATA flag (see
+              Section 4.2.5.2).
+        0x04: Page_size. In that case, <result_page_size> is an [int]
+              controlling the desired page size of the result (in CQL3 rows).
+              See the section on paging (Section 8) for more details.
+        0x08: With_paging_state. If present, <paging_state> should be present.
+              <paging_state> is a [bytes] value that should have been returned
+              in a result set (Section 4.2.5.2). If provided, the query will be
+              executed but starting from a given paging state. This also to
+              continue paging on a different node from the one it has been
+              started (See Section 8 for more details).
+        0x10: With serial consistency. If present, <serial_consistency> should be
+              present. <serial_consistency> is the [consistency] level for the
+              serial phase of conditional updates. That consitency can only be
+              either SERIAL or LOCAL_SERIAL and if not present, it defaults to
+              SERIAL. This option will be ignored for anything else that a
+              conditional update/insert.
+        0x20: With default timestamp. If present, <timestamp> should be present.
+              <timestamp> is a [long] representing the default timestamp for the query
+              in microseconds (negative values are forbidden). If provided, this will
+              replace the server side assigned timestamp as default timestamp.
+              Note that a timestamp in the query itself will still override
+              this timestamp. This is entirely optional.
+        0x40: With names for values. This only makes sense if the 0x01 flag is set and
+              is ignored otherwise. If present, the values from the 0x01 flag will
+              be preceded by a name (see above). Note that this is only useful for
+              QUERY requests where named bind markers are used; for EXECUTE statements,
+              since the names for the expected values was returned during preparation,
+              a client can always provide values in the right order without any names
+              and using this flag, while supported, is almost surely inefficient.
+
+  Note that the consistency is ignored by some queries (USE, CREATE, ALTER,
+  TRUNCATE, ...).
+
+  The server will respond to a QUERY message with a RESULT message, the content
+  of which depends on the query.
+
+
+4.1.5. PREPARE
+
+  Prepare a query for later execution (through EXECUTE). The body consists of
+  the CQL query to prepare as a [long string].
+
+  The server will respond with a RESULT message with a `prepared` kind (0x0004,
+  see Section 4.2.5).
+
+
+4.1.6. EXECUTE
+
+  Executes a prepared query. The body of the message must be:
+    <id><query_parameters>
+  where <id> is the prepared query ID. It's the [short bytes] returned as a
+  response to a PREPARE message. As for <query_parameters>, it has the exact
+  same definition than in QUERY (see Section 4.1.4).
+
+  The response from the server will be a RESULT message.
+
+
+4.1.7. BATCH
+
+  Allows executing a list of queries (prepared or not) as a batch (note that
+  only DML statements are accepted in a batch). The body of the message must
+  be:
+    <type><n><query_1>...<query_n><consistency><flags>[<serial_consistency>][<timestamp>]
+  where:
+    - <type> is a [byte] indicating the type of batch to use:
+        - If <type> == 0, the batch will be "logged". This is equivalent to a
+          normal CQL3 batch statement.
+        - If <type> == 1, the batch will be "unlogged".
+        - If <type> == 2, the batch will be a "counter" batch (and non-counter
+          statements will be rejected).
+    - <flags> is a [byte] whose bits define the options for this query and
+      in particular influence the remainder of the message contains. It is similar
+      to the <flags> from QUERY and EXECUTE methods, except that the 4 rightmost
+      bits must always be 0 as their corresponding option do not make sense for
+      Batch. A flag is set if the bit corresponding to its `mask` is set. Supported
+      flags are, given there mask:
+        0x10: With serial consistency. If present, <serial_consistency> should be
+              present. <serial_consistency> is the [consistency] level for the
+              serial phase of conditional updates. That consitency can only be
+              either SERIAL or LOCAL_SERIAL and if not present, it defaults to
+              SERIAL. This option will be ignored for anything else that a
+              conditional update/insert.
+        0x20: With default timestamp. If present, <timestamp> should be present.
+              <timestamp> is a [long] representing the default timestamp for the query
+              in microseconds. If provided, this will replace the server side assigned
+              timestamp as default timestamp. Note that a timestamp in the query itself
+              will still override this timestamp. This is entirely optional.
+        0x40: With names for values. If set, then all values for all <query_i> must
be
+              preceded by a [string] <name_i> that have the same meaning as in QUERY
+              requests.
+    - <n> is a [short] indicating the number of following queries.
+    - <query_1>...<query_n> are the queries to execute. A <query_i> must
be of the
+      form:
+        <kind><string_or_id><n>[<name_1>]<value_1>...[<name_n>]<value_n>
+      where:
+       - <kind> is a [byte] indicating whether the following query is a prepared
+         one or not. <kind> value must be either 0 or 1.
+       - <string_or_id> depends on the value of <kind>. If <kind> == 0,
it should be
+         a [long string] query string (as in QUERY, the query string might contain
+         bind markers). Otherwise (that is, if <kind> == 1), it should be a
+         [short bytes] representing a prepared query ID.
+       - <n> is a [short] indicating the number (possibly 0) of following values.
+       - <name_i> is the optional name of the following <value_i>. It must be
present
+         if and only if the 0x40 flag is provided for the batch.
+       - <value_i> is the [bytes] to use for bound variable i (of bound variable <name_i>
+         if the 0x40 flag is used).
+    - <consistency> is the [consistency] level for the operation.
+    - <serial_consistency> is only present if the 0x10 flag is set. In that case,
+      <serial_consistency> is the [consistency] level for the serial phase of
+      conditional updates. That consitency can only be either SERIAL or
+      LOCAL_SERIAL and if not present will defaults to SERIAL. This option will
+      be ignored for anything else that a conditional update/insert.
+
+  The server will respond with a RESULT message.
+
+
+4.1.8. REGISTER
+
+  Register this connection to receive some type of events. The body of the
+  message is a [string list] representing the event types to register to. See
+  section 4.2.6 for the list of valid event types.
+
+  The response to a REGISTER message will be a READY message.
+
+  Please note that if a client driver maintains multiple connections to a
+  Cassandra node and/or connections to multiple nodes, it is advised to
+  dedicate a handful of connections to receive events, but to *not* register
+  for events on all connections, as this would only result in receiving
+  multiple times the same event messages, wasting bandwidth.
+
+
+4.2. Responses
+
+  This section describes the content of the frame body for the different
+  responses. Please note that to make room for future evolution, clients should
+  support extra informations (that they should simply discard) to the one
+  described in this document at the end of the frame body.
+
+4.2.1. ERROR
+
+  Indicates an error processing a request. The body of the message will be an
+  error code ([int]) followed by a [string] error message. Then, depending on
+  the exception, more content may follow. The error codes are defined in
+  Section 9, along with their additional content if any.
+
+
+4.2.2. READY
+
+  Indicates that the server is ready to process queries. This message will be
+  sent by the server either after a STARTUP message if no authentication is
+  required, or after a successful CREDENTIALS message.
+
+  The body of a READY message is empty.
+
+
+4.2.3. AUTHENTICATE
+
+  Indicates that the server require authentication, and which authentication
+  mechanism to use.
+
+  The authentication is SASL based and thus consists on a number of server
+  challenges (AUTH_CHALLENGE, Section 4.2.7) followed by client responses
+  (AUTH_RESPONSE, Section 4.1.2). The Initial exchange is however boostrapped
+  by an initial client response. The details of that exchange (including how
+  much challenge-response pair are required) are specific to the authenticator
+  in use. The exchange ends when the server sends an AUTH_SUCCESS message or
+  an ERROR message.
+
+  This message will be sent following a STARTUP message if authentication is
+  required and must be answered by a AUTH_RESPONSE message from the client.
+
+  The body consists of a single [string] indicating the full class name of the
+  IAuthenticator in use.
+
+
+4.2.4. SUPPORTED
+
+  Indicates which startup options are supported by the server. This message
+  comes as a response to an OPTIONS message.
+
+  The body of a SUPPORTED message is a [string multimap]. This multimap gives
+  for each of the supported STARTUP options, the list of supported values.
+
+
+4.2.5. RESULT
+
+  The result to a query (QUERY, PREPARE, EXECUTE or BATCH messages).
+
+  The first element of the body of a RESULT message is an [int] representing the
+  `kind` of result. The rest of the body depends on the kind. The kind can be
+  one of:
+    0x0001    Void: for results carrying no information.
+    0x0002    Rows: for results to select queries, returning a set of rows.
+    0x0003    Set_keyspace: the result to a `use` query.
+    0x0004    Prepared: result to a PREPARE message.
+    0x0005    Schema_change: the result to a schema altering query.
+
+  The body for each kind (after the [int] kind) is defined below.
+
+
+4.2.5.1. Void
+
+  The rest of the body for a Void result is empty. It indicates that a query was
+  successful without providing more information.
+
+
+4.2.5.2. Rows
+
+  Indicates a set of rows. The rest of body of a Rows result is:
+    <metadata><rows_count><rows_content>
+  where:
+    - <metadata> is composed of:
+        <flags><columns_count>[<paging_state>][<global_table_spec>?<col_spec_1>...<col_spec_n>]
+      where:
+        - <flags> is an [int]. The bits of <flags> provides information on the
+          formatting of the remaining informations. A flag is set if the bit
+          corresponding to its `mask` is set. Supported flags are, given there
+          mask:
+            0x0001    Global_tables_spec: if set, only one table spec (keyspace
+                      and table name) is provided as <global_table_spec>. If not
+                      set, <global_table_spec> is not present.
+            0x0002    Has_more_pages: indicates whether this is not the last
+                      page of results and more should be retrieve. If set, the
+                      <paging_state> will be present. The <paging_state> is a
+                      [bytes] value that should be used in QUERY/EXECUTE to
+                      continue paging and retrieve the remained of the result for
+                      this query (See Section 8 for more details).
+            0x0004    No_metadata: if set, the <metadata> is only composed of
+                      these <flags>, the <column_count> and optionally the
+                      <paging_state> (depending on the Has_more_pages flage) but
+                      no other information (so no <global_table_spec> nor <col_spec_i>).
+                      This will only ever be the case if this was requested
+                      during the query (see QUERY and RESULT messages).
+        - <columns_count> is an [int] representing the number of columns selected
+          by the query this result is of. It defines the number of <col_spec_i>
+          elements in and the number of element for each row in <rows_content>.
+        - <global_table_spec> is present if the Global_tables_spec is set in
+          <flags>. If present, it is composed of two [string] representing the
+          (unique) keyspace name and table name the columns return are of.
+        - <col_spec_i> specifies the columns returned in the query. There is
+          <column_count> such column specifications that are composed of:
+            (<ksname><tablename>)?<name><type>
+          The initial <ksname> and <tablename> are two [string] are only present
+          if the Global_tables_spec flag is not set. The <column_name> is a
+          [string] and <type> is an [option] that correspond to the description
+          (what this description is depends a bit on the context: in results to
+          selects, this will be either the user chosen alias or the selection used
+          (often a colum name, but it can be a function call too). In results to
+          a PREPARE, this will be either the name of the bind variable corresponding
+          or the column name for the variable if it is "anonymous") and type of
+          the corresponding result. The option for <type> is either a native
+          type (see below), in which case the option has no value, or a
+          'custom' type, in which case the value is a [string] representing
+          the full qualified class name of the type represented. Valid option
+          ids are:
+            0x0000    Custom: the value is a [string], see above.
+            0x0001    Ascii
+            0x0002    Bigint
+            0x0003    Blob
+            0x0004    Boolean
+            0x0005    Counter
+            0x0006    Decimal
+            0x0007    Double
+            0x0008    Float
+            0x0009    Int
+            0x000B    Timestamp
+            0x000C    Uuid
+            0x000D    Varchar
+            0x000E    Varint
+            0x000F    Timeuuid
+            0x0010    Inet
+            0x0020    List: the value is an [option], representing the type
+                            of the elements of the list.
+            0x0021    Map: the value is two [option], representing the types of the
+                           keys and values of the map
+            0x0022    Set: the value is an [option], representing the type
+                            of the elements of the set
+            0x0030    UDT: the value is <ks><udt_name><n><name_1><type_1>...<name_n><type_n>
+                           where:
+                              - <ks> is a [string] representing the keyspace name this
+                                UDT is part of.
+                              - <udt_name> is a [string] representing the UDT name.
+                              - <n> is a [short] reprensenting the number of fields
of
+                                the UDT, and thus the number of <name_i><type_i>
pair
+                                following
+                              - <name_i> is a [string] representing the name of the
+                                i_th field of the UDT.
+                              - <type_i> is an [option] representing the type of the
+                                i_th field of the UDT.
+            0x0031    Tuple: the value is <n><type_1>...<type_n> where
<n> is a [short]
+                             representing the number of value in the type, and <type_i>
+                             are [option] representing the type of the i_th component
+                             of the tuple
+
+    - <rows_count> is an [int] representing the number of rows present in this
+      result. Those rows are serialized in the <rows_content> part.
+    - <rows_content> is composed of <row_1>...<row_m> where m is <rows_count>.
+      Each <row_i> is composed of <value_1>...<value_n> where n is
+      <columns_count> and where <value_j> is a [bytes] representing the value
+      returned for the jth column of the ith row. In other words, <rows_content>
+      is composed of (<rows_count> * <columns_count>) [bytes].
+
+
+4.2.5.3. Set_keyspace
+
+  The result to a `use` query. The body (after the kind [int]) is a single
+  [string] indicating the name of the keyspace that has been set.
+
+
+4.2.5.4. Prepared
+
+  The result to a PREPARE message. The rest of the body of a Prepared result is:
+    <id><metadata><result_metadata>
+  where:
+    - <id> is [short bytes] representing the prepared query ID.
+    - <metadata> is defined exactly as for a Rows RESULT (See section 4.2.5.2; you
+      can however assume that the Has_more_pages flag is always off) and
+      is the specification for the variable bound in this prepare statement.
+    - <result_metadata> is defined exactly as <metadata> but correspond to the
+      metadata for the resultSet that execute this query will yield. Note that
+      <result_metadata> may be empty (have the No_metadata flag and 0 columns, See
+      section 4.2.5.2) and will be for any query that is not a Select. There is
+      in fact never a guarantee that this will non-empty so client should protect
+      themselves accordingly. The presence of this information is an
+      optimization that allows to later execute the statement that has been
+      prepared without requesting the metadata (Skip_metadata flag in EXECUTE).
+      Clients can safely discard this metadata if they do not want to take
+      advantage of that optimization.
+
+  Note that prepared query ID return is global to the node on which the query
+  has been prepared. It can be used on any connection to that node and this
+  until the node is restarted (after which the query must be reprepared).
+
+4.2.5.5. Schema_change
+
+  The result to a schema altering query (creation/update/drop of a
+  keyspace/table/index). The body (after the kind [int]) is the same
+  as the body for a "SCHEMA_CHANGE" event, so 3 strings:
+    <change_type><target><options>
+  Please refer to the section 4.2.6 below for the meaning of those fields.
+
+  Note that queries to create and drop an index are considered as change
+  updating the table the index is on.
+
+
+4.2.6. EVENT
+
+  And event pushed by the server. A client will only receive events for the
+  type it has REGISTER to. The body of an EVENT message will start by a
+  [string] representing the event type. The rest of the message depends on the
+  event type. The valid event types are:
+    - "TOPOLOGY_CHANGE": events related to change in the cluster topology.
+      Currently, events are sent when new nodes are added to the cluster, and
+      when nodes are removed. The body of the message (after the event type)
+      consists of a [string] and an [inet], corresponding respectively to the
+      type of change ("NEW_NODE" or "REMOVED_NODE") followed by the address of
+      the new/removed node.
+    - "STATUS_CHANGE": events related to change of node status. Currently,
+      up/down events are sent. The body of the message (after the event type)
+      consists of a [string] and an [inet], corresponding respectively to the
+      type of status change ("UP" or "DOWN") followed by the address of the
+      concerned node.
+    - "SCHEMA_CHANGE": events related to schema change. After the event type,
+      the rest of the message will be <change_type><target><options> where:
+        - <change_type> is a [string] representing the type of changed involved.
+          It will be one of "CREATED", "UPDATED" or "DROPPED".
+        - <target> is a [string] that can be one of "KEYSPACE", "TABLE" or "TYPE"
+          and describes what has been modified ("TYPE" stands for modifications
+          related to user types).
+        - <options> depends on the preceding <target>. If <target> is
+          "KEYSPACE", then <options> will be a single [string] representing the
+          keyspace changed. Otherwise, if <target> is "TABLE" or "TYPE", then
+          <options> will be 2 [string]: the first one will be the keyspace
+          containing the affected object, and the second one will be the name
+          of said affected object (so either the table name or the user type
+          name).
+
+  All EVENT message have a streamId of -1 (Section 2.3).
+
+  Please note that "NEW_NODE" and "UP" events are sent based on internal Gossip
+  communication and as such may be sent a short delay before the binary
+  protocol server on the newly up node is fully started. Clients are thus
+  advise to wait a short time before trying to connect to the node (1 seconds
+  should be enough), otherwise they may experience a connection refusal at
+  first.
+
+4.2.7. AUTH_CHALLENGE
+
+  A server authentication challenge (see AUTH_RESPONSE (Section 4.1.2) for more
+  details).
+
+  The body of this message is a single [bytes] token. The details of what this
+  token contains (and when it can be null/empty, if ever) depends on the actual
+  authenticator used.
+
+  Clients are expected to answer the server challenge by an AUTH_RESPONSE
+  message.
+
+4.2.7. AUTH_SUCCESS
+
+  Indicate the success of the authentication phase. See Section 4.2.3 for more
+  details.
+
+  The body of this message is a single [bytes] token holding final information
+  from the server that the client may require to finish the authentication
+  process. What that token contains and whether it can be null depends on the
+  actual authenticator used.
+
+
+5. Compression
+
+  Frame compression is supported by the protocol, but then only the frame body
+  is compressed (the frame header should never be compressed).
+
+  Before being used, client and server must agree on a compression algorithm to
+  use, which is done in the STARTUP message. As a consequence, a STARTUP message
+  must never be compressed.  However, once the STARTUP frame has been received
+  by the server can be compressed (including the response to the STARTUP
+  request). Frame do not have to be compressed however, even if compression has
+  been agreed upon (a server may only compress frame above a certain size at its
+  discretion). A frame body should be compressed if and only if the compressed
+  flag (see Section 2.2) is set.
+
+  As of this version 2 of the protocol, the following compressions are available:
+    - lz4 (https://code.google.com/p/lz4/). In that, note that the 4 first bytes
+      of the body will be the uncompressed length (followed by the compressed
+      bytes).
+    - snappy (https://code.google.com/p/snappy/). This compression might not be
+      available as it depends on a native lib (server-side) that might not be
+      avaivable on some installation.
+
+
+6. Collection types
+
+  This section describe the serialization format for the collection types:
+  list, map and set. This serialization format is both useful to decode values
+  returned in RESULT messages but also to encode values for EXECUTE ones.
+
+  The serialization formats are:
+     List: a [int] n indicating the size of the list, followed by n elements.
+           Each element is [bytes] representing the serialized element
+           value.
+     Map: a [int] n indicating the size of the map, followed by n entries.
+          Each entry is composed of two [bytes] representing the key and
+          the value of the entry map.
+     Set: a [int] n indicating the size of the set, followed by n elements.
+          Each element is [bytes] representing the serialized element
+          value.
+
+
+7. User defined and tuple types
+
+  This section describes the serialization format for User defined types (UDT) and
+  tuple values. UDT (resp. tuple) values are the values of the User Defined Types
+  (resp. tuple type) as defined in section 4.2.5.2.
+
+  A UDT value is composed of successive [bytes] values, one for each field of the UDT
+  value (in the order defined by the type). A UDT value will generally have one value
+  for each field of the type it represents, but it is allowed to have less values than
+  the type has fields.
+
+  A tuple value has the exact same serialization format, i.e. a succession of
+  [bytes] values representing the components of the tuple.
+
+
+8. Result paging
+
+  The protocol allows for paging the result of queries. For that, the QUERY and
+  EXECUTE messages have a <result_page_size> value that indicate the desired
+  page size in CQL3 rows.
+
+  If a positive value is provided for <result_page_size>, the result set of the
+  RESULT message returned for the query will contain at most the
+  <result_page_size> first rows of the query result. If that first page of result
+  contains the full result set for the query, the RESULT message (of kind `Rows`)
+  will have the Has_more_pages flag *not* set. However, if some results are not
+  part of the first response, the Has_more_pages flag will be set and the result
+  will contain a <paging_state> value. In that case, the <paging_state> value
+  should be used in a QUERY or EXECUTE message (that has the *same* query than
+  the original one or the behavior is undefined) to retrieve the next page of
+  results.
+
+  Only CQL3 queries that return a result set (RESULT message with a Rows `kind`)
+  support paging. For other type of queries, the <result_page_size> value is
+  ignored.
+
+  Note to client implementors:
+  - While <result_page_size> can be as low as 1, it will likely be detrimental
+    to performance to pick a value too low. A value below 100 is probably too
+    low for most use cases.
+  - Clients should not rely on the actual size of the result set returned to
+    decide if there is more result to fetch or not. Instead, they should always
+    check the Has_more_pages flag (unless they did not enabled paging for the query
+    obviously). Clients should also not assert that no result will have more than
+    <result_page_size> results. While the current implementation always respect
+    the exact value of <result_page_size>, we reserve ourselves the right to return
+    slightly smaller or bigger pages in the future for performance reasons.
+
+
+9. Error codes
+
+  The supported error codes are described below:
+    0x0000    Server error: something unexpected happened. This indicates a
+              server-side bug.
+    0x000A    Protocol error: some client message triggered a protocol
+              violation (for instance a QUERY message is sent before a STARTUP
+              one has been sent)
+    0x0100    Bad credentials: CREDENTIALS request failed because Cassandra
+              did not accept the provided credentials.
+
+    0x1000    Unavailable exception. The rest of the ERROR message body will be
+                <cl><required><alive>
+              where:
+                <cl> is the [consistency] level of the query having triggered
+                     the exception.
+                <required> is an [int] representing the number of node that
+                           should be alive to respect <cl>
+                <alive> is an [int] representing the number of replica that
+                        were known to be alive when the request has been
+                        processed (since an unavailable exception has been
+                        triggered, there will be <alive> < <required>)
+    0x1001    Overloaded: the request cannot be processed because the
+              coordinator node is overloaded
+    0x1002    Is_bootstrapping: the request was a read request but the
+              coordinator node is bootstrapping
+    0x1003    Truncate_error: error during a truncation error.
+    0x1100    Write_timeout: Timeout exception during a write request. The rest
+              of the ERROR message body will be
+                <cl><received><blockfor><writeType>
+              where:
+                <cl> is the [consistency] level of the query having triggered
+                     the exception.
+                <received> is an [int] representing the number of nodes having
+                           acknowledged the request.
+                <blockfor> is the number of replica whose acknowledgement is
+                           required to achieve <cl>.
+                <writeType> is a [string] that describe the type of the write
+                            that timeouted. The value of that string can be one
+                            of:
+                             - "SIMPLE": the write was a non-batched
+                               non-counter write.
+                             - "BATCH": the write was a (logged) batch write.
+                               If this type is received, it means the batch log
+                               has been successfully written (otherwise a
+                               "BATCH_LOG" type would have been send instead).
+                             - "UNLOGGED_BATCH": the write was an unlogged
+                               batch. Not batch log write has been attempted.
+                             - "COUNTER": the write was a counter write
+                               (batched or not).
+                             - "BATCH_LOG": the timeout occured during the
+                               write to the batch log when a (logged) batch
+                               write was requested.
+    0x1200    Read_timeout: Timeout exception during a read request. The rest
+              of the ERROR message body will be
+                <cl><received><blockfor><data_present>
+              where:
+                <cl> is the [consistency] level of the query having triggered
+                     the exception.
+                <received> is an [int] representing the number of nodes having
+                           answered the request.
+                <blockfor> is the number of replica whose response is
+                           required to achieve <cl>. Please note that it is
+                           possible to have <received> >= <blockfor> if
+                           <data_present> is false. And also in the (unlikely)
+                           case were <cl> is achieved but the coordinator node
+                           timeout while waiting for read-repair
+                           acknowledgement.
+                <data_present> is a single byte. If its value is 0, it means
+                               the replica that was asked for data has not
+                               responded. Otherwise, the value is != 0.
+
+    0x2000    Syntax_error: The submitted query has a syntax error.
+    0x2100    Unauthorized: The logged user doesn't have the right to perform
+              the query.
+    0x2200    Invalid: The query is syntactically correct but invalid.
+    0x2300    Config_error: The query is invalid because of some configuration issue
+    0x2400    Already_exists: The query attempted to create a keyspace or a
+              table that was already existing. The rest of the ERROR message
+              body will be <ks><table> where:
+                <ks> is a [string] representing either the keyspace that
+                     already exists, or the keyspace in which the table that
+                     already exists is.
+                <table> is a [string] representing the name of the table that
+                        already exists. If the query was attempting to create a
+                        keyspace, <table> will be present but will be the empty
+                        string.
+    0x2500    Unprepared: Can be thrown while a prepared statement tries to be
+              executed if the provide prepared statement ID is not known by
+              this host. The rest of the ERROR message body will be [short
+              bytes] representing the unknown ID.
+
+10. Changes from v3
+
+


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