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File Component

The File component provides access to file systems; allowing files to be processed by any other Camel Components or messages from other components can be saved to disk.

URI format




Where fileOrDirectoryName represents the underlying file name. Camel will determine if fileOrDirectoryName is a file or directory.

Camel 2.x

See File2 as the File component in Camel 2.x has been greatly enhanced, and has a lot of changes and new features.

Important Information

See the section "Common gotchas with folder and filenames" below.


In Camel 1.5 or older the file consumer uses an internal timestamp for last polling. This timestamp is used to match for new or changed files: if file modified timestamp > last poll timestamp => file can be consumed. Beware that its not persistent in any way so restarting Camel will restart the lastpolltime variable and you can potentially consume the same file again.

You can disable this algorithm with the new option consumer.timestamp=false or setting the consumer.alwaysConsume=true. Camel keeps track of consumed files which leads to a memory leak for large number of files in Camel 1.5.0 and older. This was replaced with a LRU cache in Camel 1.6.0.

Notice: This algorithm has been marked for @deprecation and has been removed in Camel 2.0. We strongly encourage you to use a different strategy for matching new files: such as deleting or moving the file after processing, then new files is always if there exists a file in the directory to poll.

Cannot move/delete file after processing on Windows

There is a potential issue on Windows platform with Camel 1.5.x. That it cannot move or delete the file after processing. You should get an exception thrown.
The workaround is to convert the body to a String after consuming using convertBodyTo: eg from("file://inbox").convertBodyTo(String.class).to("file://outbox");.
There should be a fix in Camel 1.6.0 to remedy this, but we would like to get feedback on this issue. So if you are on Windows please give it a go.

URI Options

Name Default Value Description
consumer.initialDelay 1000 Camel 1.4: milliseconds before polling the file/directory starts
consumer.delay 500 Camel 1.4: milliseconds before the next poll of the file/directory
consumer.useFixedDelay false Camel 1.4: true to use fixed delay between pools, otherwise fixed rate is used. See ScheduledExecutorService in JDK for details.
consumer.exclusiveReadLock true Camel 1.5: Used by FileConsumer. If set to true Camel will only poll the files if it has exclusive read lock to the file (= the file is not in progress of being written). Camel will wait until the file lock is granted. Setting to false Camel will poll the file even if its in progress of being written (= this is the behavior of Camel 1.4).
consumer.recursive true/false if a directory, will look for changes in files in all the sub directories. Notice: Default value in Camel 1.4 or older is true. In Camel 1.5 the default value is changed to false.
consumer.regexPattern null will only fire a an exchange for a file that matches the regex pattern
consumer.alwaysConsume false Camel 1.5: @deprecated. Is used to force consuming the file even if it hasn't changed since last time it was consumed. Is useful if you for instance move files back into a folder and the file keeps the original timestamp.
consumer.timestamp true Camel 1.5: @deprecated. This option is introduced to have similar name as the same option in FTP component. Setting this option will internally in Camel set the consumer.alwaysConsume option to the ! value. So if this option is true, then alwaysConsume is false and vice verca.
consumer.generateEmptyExchangeWhenIdle false @deprecated. Option only for the FileConsumer. If this option is true and there was no files to process we simulate processing a single empty file, so an exchange is fired. Note: In this situation the File attribute in FileExchange is null.
lock true if true will lock the file for the duration of the processing
delete false If delete is true then the file will be deleted when it is processed (the default is to move it, see below)
noop false If true then the file is not moved or deleted in any way (see below). This option is good for read only data, or for ETL type requirements.
moveNamePrefix .camel/ The prefix String perpended to the filename when moving it. For example to move processed files into the done directory, set this value to 'done/'
moveNamePostfix null The postfix String appended to the filename when moving it. For example to rename processed files from foo to foo.old set this value to '.old'
append true When writing do we append to the end of the file, or replace it?
autoCreate true If set to true Camel will create the directory to the file if the file path does not exists - Uses File#mkdirs()
bufferSize 128kb Write buffer sized in bytes. Camel uses a default of 128 * 1024 bytes.
ignoreFileNameHeader false @deprecated. If this flag is enabled then producers will ignore the '' header and generate a new dynamic filename
excludedNamePrefixes null @deprecated. Is used to exclude files if filename is starting with any of the given prefixes. The parameter is a String[]
excludedNamePostfixes null @deprecated. Is used to exclude files if filename is ending with any of the given prefixes. The parameter is a String[]
excludedNamePrefix null Camel 1.5: Is used to exclude files if filename is starting with the given prefix.
excludedNamePostfix null Camel 1.5: Is used to exclude files if filename is ending with the given postfix.
expression null Camel 1.5: Use expression to dynamically set the filename. This allows you to very easily set dynamic pattern style filenames. If an expression is set it take precedes over the header. (Note: The header can itself also be an expression). The expression options supports both String and Expression types. If the expression is a String type then its always evaluated using the File Language. If the expression is an Expression type then this type is of course used as it - this allows for instance to use OGNL as expression too.
preMoveNamePrefix null Camel 1.5.1/2.0: The prefix String perpended to the filename when moving it before processing. For example to move in progress files into the inprogress directory, set this value to 'inprogress/'
preMoveNamePostfix null Camel 1.5.1/2.0: The postfix String appended to the filename when moving it before processing. For example to rename in progress files from foo to foo.inprogress set this value to '.inprogress'
preMoveExpression null Camel 1.5.1/2.0: Use expression to dynamically set the filename when moving it before processing. For example to move in progress file into the order directory and use ,bak as extension set this value to 'order/${file:name.noext}.bat'

Default behavior for file consumer

  • By default the file is locked for the duration of the processing.
  • After the route has completed they are moved into the .camel subdirectory; so that they appear to be deleted.
  • The File Consumer will always skip any file which name starts with a dot, such as ".", ".camel", ".m2" or ".groovy".
  • Only files (not directories) is matched for valid filename if options such as: consumer.regexPattern, excludeNamePrefix, excludeNamePostfix is used. Notice: this only works properly in Camel 1.5.0, due to issue CAMEL-920.

Default Behavior Changed in Camel 1.5.0

In Camel 1.5 the file consumer will avoid polling files that is currently in the progress of being written (see option consumer.exclusiveReadLock). However this requires Camel being able to rename the file for its testing. If the Camel user hasn't this rights on the file system, you can set this option to false to revert the change to the default behavior of Camel 1.4 or older.

The recursive option has changed its default value from true to false in Camel 1.5.0.

Move and Delete operations

Any move or delete operations is executed after (post command) the routing has completed. So during processing of the Exchange the file is still located in the inbox folder.
Lets illustrate this with an example:


When a file is dropped in the inbox folder the file consumer notices this and creates a new FileExchange that is routed to the handleOrder bean. The bean then processes the File. At this point in time the File is still located in the inbox folder. After the bean completes and thus the route is completed the file consumer will perform the move operation and move the file to the done sub folder.

By default Camel will move consumed files to the sub folder .camel relative where the file was consumed.

Available in Camel 1.5.1 or newer
We have introduced a pre move operation to move files before they are processed. This allows you to mark which files has been scanned as they are moved to this sub folder before being processed.
The following options support pre move:

  • preMoveNamePrefix
  • preMoveNamePostfix
  • preMoveExpression

You can combine the pre move and the regular move:


So in this situation the file is in the inprogress folder when being processed, and after it's processed it's moved to the done folder.

Message Headers

The following message headers can be used to affect the behavior of the component

Header Description Specifies the output file name (relative to the endpoint directory) to be used for the output message when sending to the endpoint. If this is not present and no expression either then a generated message Id is used as filename instead. New in Camel 1.4: The actual absolute filepath (path + name) for the output file that was written. This header is set by Camel and its purpose is providing end-users the name of the file that was written.

Common gotchas with folder and filenames

When Camel is producing files (writing files) there are a few gotchas how to set a filename of your choice. By default Camel will use the message id as the filename, and since the message id is normally a unique generated id you will end up with filenames such as: ID-MACHINENAME\2443-1211718892437\1-0. Such a filename is not desired and therefore best practice is to provide the filename in the message header "".

The sample code below produces files using the message id as the filename:


To use report.txt as the filename you have to do:

from("direct:report").setHeader(FileComponent.HEADER_FILE_NAME, constant("report.txt")).to( "file:target/reports");

Canel will default try to auto create the folder if it does not exists, and this is a bad combination with the UUID filename from above. So if you have:


And you want Camel to store in the file report.txt and autoCreate is true, then Camel will create the folder: target/reports/report.txt/. To fix this set the autoCreate=false and create the folder target/reports manually.


With auto create disabled Camel will store the report in the report.txt as expected.

File consumer, scanning for new files gotcha

This only applies to Camel 1.x
The file consumer scans for new files by keeping an internal modified timestamp of the last consumed file. So if you copy a new file that has an older modified timestamp, then Camel will not pickup this file. This can happen if you are testing and you copy the same file back to the folder that has just been consumed. To remedy this modify the timestamp before copying the file back.

Filename Expression

In Camel 1.5 we have support for setting the filename using an expression. This can be set either using the expression option or as a string based File Language expression in the header. See the File Language for some samples.


Read from a directory and write to another directory


Listen on a directory and create a message for each file dropped there. Copy the contents to the outputdir and delete the file in the inputdir.

Read from a directory and process the message in java

from("file://inputdir/").process(new Processor() {
  public void process(Exchange exchange) throws Exception {
    Object body = exchange.getIn().getBody();
    // do some business logic with the input body

Body will be File object pointing to the file that was just dropped to the inputdir directory.

Read files from a directory and send the content to a jms queue


By default the file endpoint sends a FileMessage which contains a File as body. If you send this directly to the jms component the jms message will only contain the File object but not the content. By converting the File to a String the message will contain the file contents what is probably what you want to do.

The route above using Spring DSL:

      <from uri="file://inputdir/"/>
      <convertBodyTo type="java.lang.String"/>
      <to uri="jms:test.queue"/>

Writing to files

Camel is of course also able to write files, eg. producing files. In the sample below we receive some reports on the SEDA queue that we processes before they are written to a directory.

public void testToFile() throws Exception {
    MockEndpoint mock = getMockEndpoint("mock:result");

    template.sendBody("seda:reports", "This is a great report");


protected JndiRegistry createRegistry() throws Exception {
    // bind our processor in the registry with the given id
    JndiRegistry reg = super.createRegistry();
    reg.bind("processReport", new ProcessReport());
    return reg;

protected RouteBuilder createRouteBuilder() throws Exception {
    return new RouteBuilder() {
        public void configure() throws Exception {
            // the reports from the seda queue is processed by our processor
            // before they are written to files in the target/reports directory
            from("seda:reports").processRef("processReport").to("file://target/test-reports", "mock:result");

private class ProcessReport implements Processor {

    public void process(Exchange exchange) throws Exception {
        String body = exchange.getIn().getBody(String.class);
        // do some business logic here

        // set the output to the file

        // set the output filename using java code logic, notice that this is done by setting
        // a special header property of the out exchange
        exchange.getOut().setHeader(Exchange.FILE_NAME, "report.txt");


Using expression for filenames

In this sample we want to move consumed files to a backup folder using todays date as a sub foldername:


See File Language for more samples.

Write to subdirectory using FileComponent.HEADER_FILE_NAME

Using a single route, it is possible to write a file to any number of subdirectories. If you have a route setup as such

    <from uri="bean:myBean"/>
    <to uri="file:/rootDirectory"/>

You can have myBean set the FileComponent.HEADER_FILE_NAME to values such as:

FileComponent.HEADER_FILE_NAME = hello.txt => /rootDirectory/hello.txt
FileComponent.HEADER_FILE_NAME = foo/bye.txt => /rootDirectory/foo/bye.txt

This allows you to have a single route to write files to multiple destinations.

See Also

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