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From Alex Boisvert <>
Subject Re: How to define a task for all subprojects
Date Sun, 14 Jun 2009 22:25:16 GMT
On Sun, Jun 14, 2009 at 2:52 PM, Martin Grotzke <> wrote:

> Just what I wonder: why is this Buildr::ant()? Isn't ant() an instance
> method of the Buildr::Ant module (according to [1])?

Yes, it is... and that's why you can't call it directly ;)

In Ruby, modules have no instances.  Instance methods are available only in
classes that mix-in the module.

The reason why the ant() method is available in Buildr is because

1) the Buildr module includes the Ant module (see buildr/java/ant.rb)

module Buildr
  include Ant

and 2) the Buildr module extends itself so it gets all the instance methods
of the modules it includes (see buildr/buildr.rb)

# Methods defined in Buildr are both instance methods (e.g. when included in
# and class methods when invoked like Buildr.artifacts().
module Buildr ; extend self ; end

Nifty, eh?   (I still do get confused by all this mixin stuff myself)


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