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From nand...@apache.org
Subject svn commit: r688807 [11/17] - in /webservices/axis2/site/1_4_1: ./ adb/ adb/images/ images/ images/archi-guide/ images/userguide/ jibx/ src/
Date Mon, 25 Aug 2008 18:10:09 GMT
Added: webservices/axis2/site/1_4_1/mtom-guide.html
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/webservices/axis2/site/1_4_1/mtom-guide.html?rev=688807&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- webservices/axis2/site/1_4_1/mtom-guide.html (added)
+++ webservices/axis2/site/1_4_1/mtom-guide.html Mon Aug 25 11:10:04 2008
@@ -0,0 +1,889 @@
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+        <html><head><meta http-equiv="content-type" content="">Handling Binary data with Axis2 (MTOM/SwA)<link href="../css/axis-docs.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" media="all"></head><h1>Handling Binary Data with Axis2 (MTOM/SwA)</h1><p>This document describes how to use the Axis2 functionality to send/receive
+binary data with SOAP.</p>
+<h2>Content</h2><ul><li><a href="#1">Introduction</a><ul><li><a href="#11">Where Does MTOM Come In?</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a href="#2">MTOM with Axis2 </a><ul><li><a href="#21">Programming Model</a></li>
+<li><a href="#22">Enabling MTOM Optimization at Client Side</a></li>
+<li><a href="#23">Enabling MTOM Optimization at Server Side</a></li>
+<li><a href="#24">Accessing Received Binary Data (Sample Code) </a><ul><li><a href="#241">Service</a></li>
+<li><a href="#242">Client</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a href="#25">MTOM Databinding</a><ul><li><a href="#251">Using ADB</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a href="#3">SOAP with Attachments with Axis2</a><ul><li><a href="#31">Sending SwA Type Attachments</a></li>
+<li><a href="#32">Receiving SwA Type Attachments</a></li>
+<li><a href="#33">MTOM Backward Compatibility with SwA</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a href="#4">Advanced Topics </a><ul><li><a href="#41">File Caching for Attachments</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<a name="a1"></a><h2>Introduction</h2><p>Despite the flexibility, interoperability, and global acceptance of XML,
+there are times when serializing data into XML does not make sense. Web
+services users may want to transmit binary attachments of various sorts like
+images, drawings, XML docs, etc., together with a SOAP message. Such data is
+often in a particular binary format.<br />
+</p>
+<p>Traditionally, two techniques have been used in dealing with opaque data
+in XML;</p>
+<ol type="1"><li><strong>&quot;By value&quot;</strong></li>
+<blockquote>Sending binary data by value is achieved by embedding opaque data (of
+    course after some form of encoding) as an element or attribute content of
+    the XML component of data. The main advantage of this technique is that
+    it gives applications the ability to process and describe data, based
+    only on the XML component of the data.<p>XML supports opaque data as content through the use of either base64
+    or hexadecimal text encoding. Both techniques bloat the size of the data.
+    For UTF-8 underlying text encoding, base64 encoding increases the size of
+    the binary data by a factor of 1.33x of the original size, while
+    hexadecimal encoding expands data by a factor of 2x. The above factors
+    will be doubled if UTF-16 text encoding is used. Also of concern is the
+    overhead in processing costs (both real and perceived) for these formats,
+    especially when decoding back into raw binary.</p>
+</blockquote><li><strong>&quot;By reference&quot;</strong><blockquote>Sending binary data by reference is achieved by attaching pure
+      binary data as external unparsed general entities outside the XML
+      document and then embedding reference URIs to those entities as
+      elements or attribute values. This prevents the unnecessary bloating of
+      data and wasting of processing power. The primary obstacle for using
+      these unparsed entities is their heavy reliance on DTDs, which impedes
+      modularity as well as the use of XML namespaces.<p>There were several specifications introduced in the Web services
+      world to deal with this binary attachment problem using the &quot;by
+      reference&quot; technique. <a class="externalLink" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/SOAP-attachments">SOAP with Attachments</a>
+      is one such example. Since SOAP prohibits document type declarations
+      (DTD) in messages, this leads to the problem of not representing data
+      as part of the message infoset, therefore creating two data models.
+      This scenario is like sending attachments with an e-mail message. Even
+      though those attachments are related to the message content they are
+      not inside the message. This causes the technologies that process and
+      describe the data based on the XML component of the data to
+      malfunction. One example is WS-Security.</p>
+</blockquote></li>
+</ol>
+<a name="a11"></a><h3>Where Does MTOM Come In?</h3><p><a class="externalLink" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/PR-soap12-mtom-20041116/">MTOM (SOAP
+Message Transmission Optimization Mechanism)</a> is another specification
+that focuses on solving the &quot;Attachments&quot; problem. MTOM tries to leverage the
+advantages of the above two techniques by trying to merge the two techniques.
+MTOM is actually a &quot;by reference&quot; method. The wire format of a MTOM optimized
+message is the same as the SOAP with Attachments message, which also makes it
+backward compatible with SwA endpoints. The most notable feature of MTOM is
+the use of the XOP:Include element, which is defined in the <a class="externalLink" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/PR-xop10-20041116/">XML Binary Optimized
+Packaging (XOP)</a> specification to reference the binary attachments
+(external unparsed general entities) of the message. With the use of this
+exclusive element, the attached binary content logically becomes inline (by
+value) with the SOAP document even though it is actually attached separately.
+This merges the two realms by making it possible to work only with one data
+model. This allows the applications to process and describe by only looking
+at the XML part, making the reliance on DTDs obsolete. On a lighter note,
+MTOM has standardized the referencing mechanism of SwA. The following is an
+extract from the <a class="externalLink" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/PR-xop10-20041116/">XOP</a> specification.</p>
+<p><em>At the conceptual level, this binary data can be thought of as being
+base64-encoded in the XML Document. As this conceptual form might be needed
+during some processing of the XML document (e.g., for signing the XML
+document), it is necessary to have a one-to-one correspondence between XML
+Infosets and XOP Packages. Therefore, the conceptual representation of such
+binary data is as if it were base64-encoded, using the canonical lexical form
+of the XML Schema base64Binary datatype (see <a href="#XMLSchemaP2">[XML
+Schema Part 2: Datatypes Second Edition] </a><a class="externalLink" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-xmlschema-2-20041028/#base64Binary">3.2.16
+base64Binary</a>). In the reverse direction, XOP is capable of optimizing
+only base64-encoded Infoset data that is in the canonical lexical
+form.</em></p>
+<p>Apache Axis2 supports <strong>Base64 encoding</strong>, <strong>SOAP with
+Attachments</strong> and <strong>MTOM (SOAP Message Transmission Optimization
+Mechanism).</strong></p>
+<a name="a2"></a><h2>MTOM with Axis2</h2><a name="a21"></a><h3>Programming Model</h3><p>AXIOM is (and may be the first) Object Model that has the ability to hold
+binary data. It has this ability as OMText can hold raw binary content in the
+form of javax.activation.DataHandler. OMText has been chosen for this purpose
+with two reasons. One is that XOP (MTOM) is capable of optimizing only
+base64-encoded Infoset data that is in the canonical lexical form of XML
+Schema base64Binary datatype. Other one is to preserve the infoset in both
+the sender and receiver. (To store the binary content in the same kind of
+object regardless of whether it is optimized or not).</p>
+<p>MTOM allows to selectively encode portions of the message, which allows us
+to send base64encoded data as well as externally attached raw binary data
+referenced by the &quot;XOP&quot; element (optimized content) to be sent in a SOAP
+message. You can specify whether an OMText node that contains raw binary data
+or base64encoded binary data is qualified to be optimized at the time of
+construction of that node or later. For optimum efficiency of MTOM, a user is
+advised to send smaller binary attachments using base64encoding
+(non-optimized) and larger attachments as optimized content.</p>
+<p></p>
+<pre>        OMElement imageElement = fac.createOMElement(&quot;image&quot;, omNs);
+
+        // Creating the Data Handler for the file.  Any implementation of
+        // javax.activation.DataSource interface can fit here.
+        javax.activation.DataHandler dataHandler = new javax.activation.DataHandler(new FileDataSource(&quot;SomeFile&quot;));
+      
+        //create an OMText node with the above DataHandler and set optimized to true
+        OMText textData = <strong>fac.createOMText(dataHandler, true);</strong>
+
+        imageElement.addChild(textData);
+
+        //User can set optimized to false by using the following
+        //textData.doOptimize(false);</pre><p>Also, a user can create an optimizable binary content node using a base64
+encoded string, which contains encoded binary content, given with the MIME
+type of the actual binary representation.</p>
+<p></p>
+<pre>        String base64String = &quot;some_base64_encoded_string&quot;;
+        OMText binaryNode =<strong>fac.createOMText(base64String,&quot;image/jpg&quot;,true);</strong></pre><p>Axis2 uses javax.activation.DataHandler to handle the binary data. All the
+optimized binary content nodes will be serialized as Base64 Strings if &quot;MTOM
+is not enabled&quot;. You can also create binary content nodes, which will not be
+optimized at any case. They will be serialized and sent as Base64 Strings.</p>
+<p></p>
+<pre>        //create an OMText node with the above DataHandler and set &quot;optimized&quot; to false
+        //This data will be send as Base64 encoded string regardless of MTOM is enabled or not
+        javax.activation.DataHandler dataHandler = new javax.activation.DataHandler(new FileDataSource(&quot;SomeFile&quot;));
+        OMText textData = fac.createOMText(dataHandler, <strong>false</strong>); 
+        image.addChild(textData);</pre><a name="a22"></a><h3>Enabling MTOM Optimization on the Client Side</h3><p>In Options, set the &quot;enableMTOM&quot; property to True when sending
+messages.</p>
+<p></p>
+<pre>        ServiceClient serviceClient = new ServiceClient ();
+        Options options = new Options();
+        options.setTo(targetEPR);
+        <strong>options.setProperty(Constants.Configuration.ENABLE_MTOM, Constants.VALUE_TRUE);</strong>
+        serviceClient .setOptions(options);</pre><p>When this property is set to True, any SOAP envelope, regardless of
+whether it contains optimizable content or not, will be serialized as an MTOM
+optimized MIME message.</p>
+<p>Axis2 serializes all binary content nodes as Base64 encoded strings
+regardless of whether they are qualified to be optimized or not</p>
+<ul><li>if the &quot;enableMTOM&quot; property is set to False.</li>
+<li>if the envelope contains any element information items of the name
+    xop:Include (see <a href="#XOP">[XML-binary Optimized Packaging] </a><a class="externalLink" href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2005/REC-xop10-20050125/#xop_infosets">3. XOP
+    Infosets Constructs </a>).</li>
+</ul>
+<p>The user does <strong>not</strong> have to specify anything in order for
+Axis2 to receive MTOM optimised messages. Axis2 will automatically identify
+and de-serialize accordingly, as and when an MTOM message arrives.</p>
+<a name="a23"></a><h3>Enabling MTOM Optimization on the Server Side</h3><p>The Axis 2 server automatically identifies incoming MTOM optimized
+messages based on the content-type and de-serializes them accordingly. The
+user can enableMTOM on the server side for outgoing messages,</p>
+<blockquote><p>To enableMTOM globally for all services, users can set the &quot;enableMTOM&quot;
+  parameter to True in the Axis2.xml. When it is set, all outgoing messages
+  will be serialized and sent as MTOM optimized MIME messages. If it is not
+  set, all the binary data in the binary content nodes will be serialized as
+  Base64 encoded strings. This configuration can be overriden in services.xml
+  on the basis of per service and per operation.</p>
+</blockquote><pre>&lt;parameter name=&quot;enableMTOM&quot;&gt;true&lt;/parameter&gt;</pre><p>You must restart the server after setting this parameter.</p>
+<a name="a24"></a><h3>Accessing Received Binary Data (Sample Code)</h3><a name="a241"></a><ul><li><strong>Service</strong></li>
+</ul>
+<p></p>
+<pre>public class MTOMService {
+    public void uploadFileUsingMTOM(OMElement element) throws Exception {
+
+       <strong>OMText binaryNode = (OMText) (element.getFirstElement()).getFirstOMChild();
+       DataHandler actualDH;
+       actualDH = (DataHandler) binaryNode.getDataHandler();</strong>
+            
+       ... <em>Do whatever you need with the DataHandler</em> ...
+    }
+  }</pre><a name="a242"></a><ul><li><strong>Client</strong></li>
+</ul>
+<p></p>
+<pre>        ServiceClient sender = new ServiceClient();        
+        Options options = new Options();
+        options.setTo(targetEPR); 
+        // enabling MTOM
+        <strong>options.set(Constants.Configuration.ENABLE_MTOM, Constants.VALUE_TRUE);</strong>
+        ............
+
+        OMElement result = sender.sendReceive(payload);
+        OMElement ele = result.getFirstElement();
+        OMText binaryNode = (OMText) ele.getFirstOMChild();
+        
+        // Retrieving the DataHandler &amp; then do whatever the processing to the data
+        DataHandler actualDH;
+        actualDH = binaryNode.getDataHandler();
+        .............</pre><a name="a25"></a><h3>MTOM Databinding</h3><p>You can define a binary element in the schema using the schema
+type=&quot;xsd:base64Binary&quot;. Having an element with the type &quot;xsd:base64Binary&quot;
+is enough for the Axis2 code generators to identify possible MTOM
+attachments, and to generate code accordingly.</p>
+<p>Going a little further, you can use the xmime schema
+(http://www.w3.org/2005/05/xmlmime) to describe the binary content more
+precisely. With the xmime schema, you can indicate the type of content in the
+element at runtime using an MTOM attribute extension xmime:contentType.
+Furthermore, you can identify what type of data might be expected in the
+element using the xmime:expectedContentType. Putting it all together, our
+example element becomes:</p>
+<div class="source"><pre><pre>      &lt;element name=&quot;MyBinaryData&quot; xmime:expectedContentTypes='image/jpeg' &gt;
+        &lt;complexType&gt;
+          &lt;simpleContent&gt;
+            &lt;extension base=&quot;base64Binary&quot; &gt;
+
+              &lt;attribute ref=&quot;xmime:contentType&quot; use=&quot;required&quot;/&gt;
+            &lt;/extension&gt;
+          &lt;/simpleContent&gt;
+        &lt;/complexType&gt;
+      &lt;/element&gt;</pre></pre>
+</div>
+<p>You can also use the xmime:base64Binary type to express the above
+mentioned data much clearly.</p>
+<div class="source"><pre><pre>      &lt;element name=&quot;MyBinaryData&quot; xmime:expectedContentTypes='image/jpeg' type=&quot;xmime:base64Binary&quot;/&gt;</pre></pre>
+</div>
+<a name="a251"></a><h3>MTOM Databinding Using ADB</h3><p>Let's define a full, validated doc/lit style WSDL that uses the xmime
+schema, has a service that receives a file, and saves it in the server using
+the given path.</p>
+<div class="source"><pre><pre>&lt;wsdl:definitions xmlns:tns=&quot;http://ws.apache.org/axis2/mtomsample/&quot;
+        xmlns:mime=&quot;http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/wsdl/mime/&quot;
+        xmlns:http=&quot;http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/wsdl/http/&quot;
+        xmlns:soap12=&quot;http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/wsdl/soap12/&quot;
+        xmlns:xmime=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2005/05/xmlmime&quot;
+        xmlns:wsaw=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2006/05/addressing/wsdl&quot;
+        xmlns:xsd=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&quot;
+        xmlns:soap=&quot;http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/wsdl/soap/&quot;
+        xmlns:wsdl=&quot;http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/wsdl/&quot;
+        xmlns=&quot;http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/wsdl/&quot;
+        targetNamespace=&quot;http://ws.apache.org/axis2/mtomsample/&quot;&gt;
+
+        &lt;wsdl:types&gt;
+                &lt;xsd:schema xmlns=&quot;http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/wsdl/&quot;
+                        attributeFormDefault=&quot;qualified&quot; elementFormDefault=&quot;qualified&quot;
+                        targetNamespace=&quot;http://ws.apache.org/axis2/mtomsample/&quot;&gt;
+
+                        &lt;xsd:import namespace=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2005/05/xmlmime&quot;
+                                schemaLocation=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2005/05/xmlmime&quot; /&gt;
+                        &lt;xsd:complexType name=&quot;AttachmentType&quot;&gt;
+                                &lt;xsd:sequence&gt;
+                                        &lt;xsd:element minOccurs=&quot;0&quot; name=&quot;fileName&quot;
+                                                type=&quot;xsd:string&quot; /&gt;
+                                        &lt;xsd:element minOccurs=&quot;0&quot; name=&quot;binaryData&quot;
+                                                type=&quot;xmime:base64Binary&quot; /&gt;
+                                &lt;/xsd:sequence&gt;
+                        &lt;/xsd:complexType&gt;
+                        &lt;xsd:element name=&quot;AttachmentRequest&quot; type=&quot;tns:AttachmentType&quot; /&gt;
+                        &lt;xsd:element name=&quot;AttachmentResponse&quot; type=&quot;xsd:string&quot; /&gt;
+                &lt;/xsd:schema&gt;
+        &lt;/wsdl:types&gt;
+        &lt;wsdl:message name=&quot;AttachmentRequest&quot;&gt;
+                &lt;wsdl:part name=&quot;part1&quot; element=&quot;tns:AttachmentRequest&quot; /&gt;
+        &lt;/wsdl:message&gt;
+        &lt;wsdl:message name=&quot;AttachmentResponse&quot;&gt;
+                &lt;wsdl:part name=&quot;part1&quot; element=&quot;tns:AttachmentResponse&quot; /&gt;
+        &lt;/wsdl:message&gt;
+        &lt;wsdl:portType name=&quot;MTOMServicePortType&quot;&gt;
+                &lt;wsdl:operation name=&quot;attachment&quot;&gt;
+                        &lt;wsdl:input message=&quot;tns:AttachmentRequest&quot;
+                                wsaw:Action=&quot;attachment&quot; /&gt;
+                        &lt;wsdl:output message=&quot;tns:AttachmentResponse&quot;
+                                wsaw:Action=&quot;http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/wsdl/MTOMServicePortType/AttachmentResponse&quot; /&gt;
+                &lt;/wsdl:operation&gt;
+        &lt;/wsdl:portType&gt;
+        &lt;wsdl:binding name=&quot;MTOMServiceSOAP11Binding&quot;
+                type=&quot;tns:MTOMServicePortType&quot;&gt;
+                &lt;soap:binding transport=&quot;http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/http&quot;
+                        style=&quot;document&quot; /&gt;
+                &lt;wsdl:operation name=&quot;attachment&quot;&gt;
+                        &lt;soap:operation soapAction=&quot;attachment&quot; style=&quot;document&quot; /&gt;
+                        &lt;wsdl:input&gt;
+                                &lt;soap:body use=&quot;literal&quot; /&gt;
+                        &lt;/wsdl:input&gt;
+                        &lt;wsdl:output&gt;
+                                &lt;soap:body use=&quot;literal&quot; /&gt;
+                        &lt;/wsdl:output&gt;
+                &lt;/wsdl:operation&gt;
+        &lt;/wsdl:binding&gt;
+        &lt;wsdl:binding name=&quot;MTOMServiceSOAP12Binding&quot;
+                type=&quot;tns:MTOMServicePortType&quot;&gt;
+                &lt;soap12:binding transport=&quot;http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/http&quot;
+                        style=&quot;document&quot; /&gt;
+                &lt;wsdl:operation name=&quot;attachment&quot;&gt;
+                        &lt;soap12:operation soapAction=&quot;attachment&quot; style=&quot;document&quot; /&gt;
+                        &lt;wsdl:input&gt;
+                                &lt;soap12:body use=&quot;literal&quot; /&gt;
+                        &lt;/wsdl:input&gt;
+                        &lt;wsdl:output&gt;
+                                &lt;soap12:body use=&quot;literal&quot; /&gt;
+                        &lt;/wsdl:output&gt;
+                &lt;/wsdl:operation&gt;
+        &lt;/wsdl:binding&gt;
+        &lt;wsdl:service name=&quot;MTOMSample&quot;&gt;
+                &lt;wsdl:port name=&quot;MTOMSampleSOAP11port_http&quot;
+                        binding=&quot;tns:MTOMServiceSOAP11Binding&quot;&gt;
+                        &lt;soap:address
+                                location=&quot;http://localhost:8080/axis2/services/MTOMSample&quot; /&gt;
+                &lt;/wsdl:port&gt;
+                &lt;wsdl:port name=&quot;MTOMSampleSOAP12port_http&quot;
+                        binding=&quot;tns:MTOMServiceSOAP12Binding&quot;&gt;
+                        &lt;soap12:address
+                                location=&quot;http://localhost:8080/axis2/services/MTOMSample&quot; /&gt;
+                &lt;/wsdl:port&gt;
+        &lt;/wsdl:service&gt;
+&lt;/wsdl:definitions&gt;</pre></pre>
+</div>
+<p>The important point here is we import http://www.w3.org/2005/05/xmlmime
+and define the element 'binaryData' that utilizes MTOM.</p>
+<p>The next step is using the Axis2 tool 'WSDL2Java' to generate Java source
+files from this WSDL. See the 'Code Generator Tool' guide for more
+information. Here, we define an Ant task that chooses ADB (Axis2 Data
+Binding) as the databinding implementation. The name we list for the WSDL
+above is MTOMSample.wsdl, and we define our package name for our generated
+source files to 'sample.mtom.service' . Our Ant task for this example is:</p>
+<div class="source"><pre><pre>        
+&lt;target name=&quot;generate.service&quot;&gt;
+                 &lt;java classname=&quot;org.apache.axis2.wsdl.WSDL2Java&quot;&gt;
+                        &lt;arg value=&quot;-uri&quot; /&gt;
+                        &lt;arg value=&quot;${basedir}/resources/MTOMSample.wsdl&quot; /&gt;
+                        &lt;arg value=&quot;-ss&quot; /&gt;
+                        &lt;arg value=&quot;-sd&quot; /&gt;
+                          &lt;arg value=&quot;-g&quot;/&gt;
+                        &lt;arg value=&quot;-p&quot; /&gt;
+                        &lt;arg value=&quot;sample.mtom.service&quot; /&gt;
+                        &lt;arg value=&quot;-o&quot; /&gt;
+                        &lt;arg value=&quot;${service.dir}&quot; /&gt;
+                        &lt;classpath refid=&quot;class.path&quot; /&gt;
+                &lt;/java&gt;
+          &lt;/target&gt;</pre></pre>
+</div>
+<p>Now we are ready to code. Let's edit
+output/src/sample/mtom/service/MTOMSampleSkeleton.java and fill in the
+business logic. Here is an example:</p>
+<div class="source"><pre><pre>        public org.apache.ws.axis2.mtomsample.AttachmentResponse attachment(
+                        org.apache.ws.axis2.mtomsample.AttachmentRequest param0) throws Exception
+        {
+                AttachmentType attachmentRequest = param0.getAttachmentRequest();
+                Base64Binary binaryData = attachmentRequest.getBinaryData();
+                DataHandler dataHandler = binaryData.getBase64Binary();
+                File file = new File(
+                                attachmentRequest.getFileName());
+                FileOutputStream fileOutputStream = new FileOutputStream(file);
+                dataHandler.writeTo(fileOutputStream);
+                fileOutputStream.flush();
+                fileOutputStream.close();
+                
+                AttachmentResponse response = new AttachmentResponse();
+                response.setAttachmentResponse(&quot;File saved succesfully.&quot;);
+                return response;
+        }</pre></pre>
+</div>
+<p>The code above receives a file and writes it to the disk using the given
+file name. It returns a message once it is successful. Now let's define the
+client:</p>
+<div class="source"><pre><pre>        public static void transferFile(File file, String destination)
+                        throws RemoteException {
+                MTOMSampleStub serviceStub = new MTOMSampleStub();
+
+                // Enable MTOM in the client side
+                serviceStub._getServiceClient().getOptions().setProperty(
+                                Constants.Configuration.ENABLE_MTOM, Constants.VALUE_TRUE);
+                //Increase the time out when sending large attachments
+                serviceStub._getServiceClient().getOptions().setTimeOutInMilliSeconds(10000);
+
+                // Populating the code generated beans
+                AttachmentRequest attachmentRequest = new AttachmentRequest();
+                AttachmentType attachmentType = new AttachmentType();
+                Base64Binary base64Binary = new Base64Binary();
+
+                // Creating a javax.activation.FileDataSource from the input file.
+                FileDataSource fileDataSource = new FileDataSource(file);
+
+                // Create a dataHandler using the fileDataSource. Any implementation of
+                // javax.activation.DataSource interface can fit here.
+                DataHandler dataHandler = new DataHandler(fileDataSource);
+                base64Binary.setBase64Binary(dataHandler);
+                base64Binary.setContentType(dataHandler.getContentType());
+                attachmentType.setBinaryData(base64Binary);
+                attachmentType.setFileName(destination);
+                attachmentRequest.setAttachmentRequest(attachmentType);
+
+                AttachmentResponse response = serviceStub.attachment(attachmentRequest);
+                System.out.println(response.getAttachmentResponse());
+        }</pre></pre>
+</div>
+<p>The last step is to create an AAR with our Skeleton and the services.xml
+and then deploy the service. You can find the completed sample in the Axis2
+standard binary distribution under the samples/mtom directory</p>
+<a name="a252"></a><a name="a3"></a><h2>SOAP with Attachments (SwA) with Axis2</h2><a name="a31"></a><h3>Receiving SwA Type Attachments</h3><p>Axis2 automatically identifies SwA messages based on the content type.
+Axis2 stores the references on the received attachment parts (MIME parts) in
+the Message Context. Axis2 preserves the order of the received attachments
+when storing them in the MessageContext. Users can access binary attachments
+using the attachement API given in the Message Context using the content-id
+of the mime part as the key. Care needs be taken to rip off the &quot;cid&quot; prefix
+when content-id is taken from the &quot;Href&quot; attributes. Users can access the
+message context from whithin a service implementation class using the
+&quot;setOperationContext()&quot; method as shown in the following example.</p>
+<p>Note: Axis2 supports content-id based referencing only. Axis2 does not
+support Content Location based referencing of MIME parts.</p>
+<ul><li><strong>Sample service which accesses a received SwA type
+    attachment</strong></li>
+</ul>
+<div class="source"><pre><pre>public class SwA {
+    public SwA() {
+    }
+    
+    public void uploadAttachment(OMElement omEle) throws AxisFault {
+        OMElement child = (OMElement) omEle.getFirstOMChild();
+        OMAttribute attr = child.getAttribute(new QName(&quot;href&quot;));
+        
+        //Content ID processing
+        String contentID = attr.getAttributeValue();
+        contentID = contentID.trim();
+        if (contentID.substring(0, 3).equalsIgnoreCase(&quot;cid&quot;)) {
+            contentID = contentID.substring(4);
+        }
+        
+        MessageContext msgCtx = MessageContext.getCurrentMessageContext();
+        Attachments attachment = msgCtx.getAttachmentMap();
+        DataHandler dataHandler = attachment.getDataHandler(contentID);
+        ...........
+    }
+}</pre></pre>
+</div>
+<a name="a32"></a><h3>Sending SwA Type Attachments</h3><p>The user needs to set the &quot;enableSwA&quot; property to True in order to be able
+to send SwA messages. The Axis2 user is <strong>not</strong> expected to
+enable MTOM and SwA together. In such a situation, MTOM will get priority
+over SwA.</p>
+<p>This can be set using the axis2.xml as follows.</p>
+<div class="source"><pre><pre>  
+        &lt;parameter name=&quot;enableSwA&quot;&gt;true&lt;/parameter&gt;</pre></pre>
+</div>
+<p>&quot;enableSwA&quot; can also be set using the client side Options as follows</p>
+<div class="source"><pre><pre>  
+        options.setProperty(Constants.Configuration.ENABLE_SwA, Constants.VALUE_TRUE);</pre></pre>
+</div>
+<p>Users are expected to use the attachment API provided in the
+MessageContext to specify the binary attachments needed to be attached to the
+outgoing message as SwA type attachments. Client side SwA capability can be
+used only with the OperationClient api, since the user needs the ability to
+access the MessageContext.</p>
+<ul><li><strong>Sample client which sends a message with SwA type
+    attachments</strong></li>
+</ul>
+<div class="source"><pre><pre>   public void uploadFileUsingSwA(String fileName) throws Exception {
+
+        Options options = new Options();
+        options.setTo(targetEPR);
+        options.setProperty(Constants.Configuration.ENABLE_SWA, Constants.VALUE_TRUE);
+        options.setTransportInProtocol(Constants.TRANSPORT_HTTP);
+        options.setSoapVersionURI(SOAP11Constants.SOAP_ENVELOPE_NAMESPACE_URI);
+        options.setTo(targetEPR);
+  
+        ServiceClient sender = new ServiceClient(null,null);
+        sender.setOptions(options);
+        OperationClient mepClient = sender.createClient(ServiceClient.ANON_OUT_IN_OP);
+        
+        MessageContext mc = new MessageContext();   
+        mc.setEnvelope(createEnvelope());
+        FileDataSource fileDataSource = new FileDataSource(&quot;test-resources/mtom/test.jpg&quot;);
+        DataHandler dataHandler = new DataHandler(fileDataSource);
+        mc.addAttachment(&quot;FirstAttachment&quot;,dataHandler);
+       
+        mepClient.addMessageContext(mc);
+        mepClient.execute(true);
+    }</pre></pre>
+</div>
+<a name="a33"></a><h3>MTOM Backward Compatibility with SwA</h3><p>MTOM specification is designed to be backward compatible with the SOAP
+with Attachments specification. Even though the representation is different,
+both technologies have the same wire format. We can safely assume that any
+SOAP with Attachments endpoint can accept MTOM optimized messages and treat
+them as SOAP with Attachment messages - any MTOM optimized message is a valid
+SwA message.</p>
+<p>Note : Above backword compatibility was succesfully tested against Axis
+1.x</p>
+<ul><li><strong>A sample SwA message from Axis 1.x</strong></li>
+</ul>
+<div class="source"><pre><pre>Content-Type: multipart/related; type=&quot;text/xml&quot;; 
+          start=&quot;&lt;9D645C8EBB837CE54ABD027A3659535D&gt;&quot;;
+                boundary=&quot;----=_Part_0_1977511.1123163571138&quot;
+
+------=_Part_0_1977511.1123163571138
+Content-Type: text/xml; charset=UTF-8
+Content-Transfer-Encoding: binary
+Content-Id: &lt;9D645C8EBB837CE54ABD027A3659535D&gt;
+
+&lt;?xml version=&quot;1.0&quot; encoding=&quot;UTF-8&quot;?&gt;
+&lt;soapenv:Envelope xmlns:soapenv=&quot;....&quot;....&gt;
+    ........
+                &lt;source href=&quot;cid:3936AE19FBED55AE4620B81C73BDD76E&quot; xmlns=&quot;/&gt;
+
+    ........
+&lt;/soapenv:Envelope&gt;
+------=_Part_0_1977511.1123163571138
+Content-Type: text/plain
+Content-Transfer-Encoding: binary
+Content-Id: &lt;3936AE19FBED55AE4620B81C73BDD76E&gt;
+
+<em>Binary Data.....</em>
+------=_Part_0_1977511.1123163571138--</pre></pre>
+</div>
+<ul><li><strong>Corresponding MTOM message from Axis2</strong></li>
+</ul>
+<div class="source"><pre><pre>Content-Type: multipart/related; boundary=MIMEBoundary4A7AE55984E7438034;
+                         type=&quot;application/xop+xml&quot;; start=&quot;&lt;0.09BC7F4BE2E4D3EF1B@apache.org&gt;&quot;;
+                         start-info=&quot;text/xml; charset=utf-8&quot;
+
+--MIMEBoundary4A7AE55984E7438034
+content-type: application/xop+xml; charset=utf-8; type=&quot;application/soap+xml;&quot;
+content-transfer-encoding: binary
+content-id: &lt;0.09BC7F4BE2E4D3EF1B@apache.org&gt;
+
+&lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8'?&gt;
+&lt;soapenv:Envelope xmlns:soapenv=&quot;....&quot;....&gt;
+  ........
+         &lt;xop:Include href=&quot;cid:1.A91D6D2E3D7AC4D580@apache.org&quot; 
+                        xmlns:xop=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2004/08/xop/include&quot;&gt;
+         &lt;/xop:Include&gt;
+  ........
+
+&lt;/soapenv:Envelope&gt;
+--MIMEBoundary4A7AE55984E7438034
+content-type: application/octet-stream
+content-transfer-encoding: binary
+content-id: &lt;1.A91D6D2E3D7AC4D580@apache.org&gt;
+
+<em>Binary Data.....</em>
+--MIMEBoundary4A7AE55984E7438034--</pre></pre>
+</div>
+<a name="a4"></a><h2>Advanced Topics</h2><a name="a41"></a><h3>File Caching for Attachments</h3><p>Axis2 comes handy with a file caching mechanism for incoming attachments,
+which gives Axis2 the ability to handle very large attachments without
+buffering them in the memory at any time. Axis2 file caching streams the
+incoming MIME parts directly into the files, after reading the MIME part
+headers.</p>
+<p>Also, a user can specify a size threshold for the File caching (in bytes).
+When this threshold value is specified, only the attachments whose size is
+bigger than the threshold value will get cached in the files. Smaller
+attachments will remain in the memory.</p>
+<p>Note : It is a must to specify a directory to temporarily store the
+attachments. Also care should be taken to <strong>clean that
+directory</strong> from time to time.</p>
+<p>The following parameters need to be set in Axis2.xml in order to enable
+file caching.</p>
+<div class="source"><pre><pre>&lt;axisconfig name=&quot;AxisJava2.0&quot;&gt;
+
+    &lt;!-- ================================================= --&gt;
+    &lt;!-- Parameters --&gt;
+    &lt;!-- ================================================= --&gt;
+    &lt;parameter name=&quot;cacheAttachments&quot;&gt;true&lt;/parameter&gt;
+    &lt;parameter name=&quot;attachmentDIR&quot;&gt;<em>temp directory</em>&lt;/parameter&gt;
+
+    &lt;parameter name=&quot;sizeThreshold&quot;&gt;<em>4000</em>&lt;/parameter&gt;
+    .........
+    .........
+&lt;/axisconfig&gt;</pre></pre>
+</div>
+<p>Enabling file caching for client side receiving can be done for the by
+setting the Options as follows.</p>
+<div class="source"><pre><pre>options.setProperty(Constants.Configuration.CACHE_ATTACHMENTS,Constants.VALUE_TRUE);
+options.setProperty(Constants.Configuration.ATTACHMENT_TEMP_DIR,<em>TempDir</em>);
+options.setProperty(Constants.Configuration.FILE_SIZE_THRESHOLD, <em>&quot;4000&quot;</em>);</pre></pre>
+</div>
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+++ webservices/axis2/site/1_4_1/pojoguide.html Mon Aug 25 11:10:04 2008
@@ -0,0 +1,860 @@
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+                  
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+          </li>
+                  
+    <li class="none">
+              <strong>POJO Guide</strong>
+        </li>
+                  
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+                    <a href="../1_4_1/spring.html">Spring Guide</a>
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+  
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+        </div>
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+    <div id="bodyColumn">
+      <div id="contentBox">
+        <html lang="en" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en"><head><meta name="generator" content="HTML Tidy for Windows (vers 14 June 2007), see www.w3.org"><meta http-equiv="content-type" content="">POJO Web Services using Axis2<link href="../css/axis-docs.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" media="all"></head><h1>POJO Web Services using Apache Axis2</h1><p>Want a quick way to get a Web service up and running in no time?
+Then you should consider creating a Plain Old Java Object (POJO)
+that you can deploy using Apache Axis2 on Apache Tomcat. POJOs are
+fast to build and easy to maintain, which means you'll save a lot
+of time building and debugging your code. This document shows you
+how to take a simple POJO, and deploy it on Apache Tomcat as a Web
+service in the exploded directory format. You'll also learn how to
+take a POJO based on the Spring Framework, and deploy that as an
+AAR packaged Web service on Tomcat.</p>
+<h2>Content</h2><ul><li><a href="#introduction">Introduction</a></li>
+<li><a href="#pojo">The POJO</a></li>
+<li><a href="#pojows">POJO Web service using Apache Axis2 and
+Tomcat</a><ul><li><a href="#definingservice">Defining the Service:
+services.xml</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a href="#buildpojows">Building the POJO Web Service Using
+Ant</a></li>
+<li><a href="#testingpojows">Testing the POJO Web Service Using
+RPCServiceClient</a><ul><li><a href="#limitationspojo">Limitations and Strengths of
+POJO</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a href="#springpojows">Spring-based POJO Web Service</a><ul><li><a href="#quickintro">Quick Introduction</a></li>
+<li><a href="#servicedef">The Service Definition:
+services.xml</a></li>
+<li><a href="#initializingspring">Initializing the Spring
+application context: SpringInit</a></li>
+<li><a href="#testingrpc">Testing Using an
+RPCServiceClient</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a href="#jsr181pojows">JSR 181 Annotation support with POJO Web services</a><ul><li><a href="#jsr181definingservice">Sample JSR 181 POJO Web Service</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a href="#summary">Summary</a></li>
+<li><a href="#furtherstudy">For Further Study</a></li>
+</ul>
+<a name="introduction"></a><h2>Introduction</h2><p>The task of building a Web service can sometimes be
+overwhelming, but not with POJOs! The old-school Plain Old Java
+Object is a simple and quick way to get most, if not all, of your
+currently existing Java classes up on the Web as readily accessible
+Web services. This document describes how to build a POJO-style Web
+service with Apache Axis2 and Tomcat. It is organized as
+follows:</p>
+<ul><li>The POJO: This is the Java class that you'll use throughout
+this document</li>
+<li>POJO deployment</li>
+<li>Test the POJO Web service using an RPC based client</li>
+<li>Limitations of straight POJO</li>
+<li>Spring-based POJO Web service and deployment</li>
+</ul>
+<p>The code for the document can be found at
+Axis2_HOME/samples/pojoguide and Axis2_HOME/samples/pojoguidespring
+once you extract the <a href="../../download/1_4_1/download.html#std-bin">Axis2
+Standard Distribution</a>. (It is better to get it now as it will
+help you to follow along.) Let's get started.</p>
+<a name="pojo"></a><h2>The POJO</h2><p>The POJO you'll be using throughout this document is a Weather
+service POJO that consists of two classes: WeatherService and
+Weather. Weather contains the Weather data: Temperature, forecast,
+rain (will it rain?), and howMuchRain (See Code Listing 1).</p>
+<p><b>Code Listing 1: The Weather POJO</b></p>
+<pre>
+package sample.pojo.data;
+
+public class Weather{
+    float temperature;
+    String forecast;
+    boolean rain;
+    float howMuchRain;
+    
+    public void setTemperature(float temp){
+        temperature = temp;
+    }
+
+    public float getTemperature(){
+        return temperature;
+    }
+    
+    public void setForecast(String fore){
+        forecast = fore;
+    }
+
+    public String getForecast(){
+        return forecast;
+    }
+    
+    public void setRain(boolean r){
+        rain = r;
+    }
+
+    public boolean getRain(){
+        return rain;
+    }
+    
+    public void setHowMuchRain(float howMuch){
+        howMuchRain = howMuch;
+    }
+
+    public float getHowMuchRain(){
+        return howMuchRain;
+    }
+}
+</pre><p>And here's the WeatherService class, shown in Code Listing
+2.</p>
+<p><b>Code Listing 2: The WeatherService class</b></p>
+<pre>
+package sample.pojo.service;
+
+import sample.pojo.data.Weather;
+
+public class WeatherService{
+    Weather weather;
+    
+    public void setWeather(Weather weather){
+        this.weather = weather;
+    }
+
+    public Weather getWeather(){
+        return this.weather;
+    }
+}
+</pre><p>Note that it's all just straight POJOs with field items and
+<code>getter</code> and <code>setter</code> methods for each field.
+Next, you'll take a look at what you need to do to make it ready
+for deployment on Apache Axis2 and Tomcat.</p>
+<a name="pojows"></a><h2>POJO Web Service Using Apache Axis2 and Tomcat</h2><p>Got the POJOs? Great. This section will show you how to package
+them in the exploded directory format for easy deployment. First
+you'll look at the services.xml file that defines the Web service,
+and then you'll build the files using <a class="externalLink" href="http://ant.apache.org/">Apache Ant</a>, and deploy the Web service
+on Tomcat.</p>
+<a name="definingservice"></a><h3>Defining the Service: services.xml</h3><p>Before Axis2 can understand what is going on, you have to tell
+it to use the services.xml file. Let's get right into it (see Code
+Listing 3).</p>
+<p><b>Code Listing 3: The service definition file:
+services.xml</b></p>
+<pre>
+&lt;service name=&quot;WeatherService&quot; scope=&quot;application&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;description&gt;
+        Weather POJO Service
+    &lt;/description&gt;
+    &lt;messageReceivers&gt;
+        &lt;messageReceiver 
+            mep=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2004/08/wsdl/in-only&quot;
+    class=&quot;org.apache.axis2.rpc.receivers.RPCInOnlyMessageReceiver&quot;/&gt;
+        &lt;messageReceiver
+            mep=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2004/08/wsdl/in-out&quot;
+    class=&quot;org.apache.axis2.rpc.receivers.RPCMessageReceiver&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;/messageReceivers&gt;
+    &lt;parameter name=&quot;ServiceClass&quot;&gt;
+        sample.pojo.service.WeatherService
+    &lt;/parameter&gt;
+&lt;/service&gt;
+</pre><p>The name of the service is specified as WeatherService and the
+scope of the service is application. As you can see in the
+WeatherService POJO, there are two methods: IN-ONLY method and
+IN-OUT method. Hence the messageReceiver elements are ordered
+within the messageReceivers tag. Lastly, the ServiceClass parameter
+specifies the class of the Web service, which is
+sample.pojo.service.WeatherService. When operations of your Web
+service get called, the methods of the WeatherService class will be
+called. Next let usl take a look at an easy method of building your
+application using Ant.</p>
+<a name="buildpojows"></a><h2>Building the POJO Web Service Using Apache Ant</h2><p><a class="externalLink" href="http://ant.apache.org/">Ant</a> is a slick build tool.
+It helps reduce the time to build the applications, and several of
+the Axis2 command-line tools create the build.xml files for you.
+(We will not be going into too much detail on the build.xml file
+that you'll be using.)</p>
+<p>Here are the main Ant tasks you'll be using:</p>
+<ul><li>generate.service -- This Ant task builds the service relevant
+source, and copies the files to build/WeatherService</li>
+<li>rpc.client -- This task builds the client relevant files,
+builds a JAR at <em>build/lib/rpc-client.jar</em>, and then runs
+the client</li>
+</ul>
+<p>Before you can build the source, you'll need to download the
+Axis2 1.4.1-bin and 1.4.1-war distributions
+from <a href="../../download/1_4_1/download.html">here</a>. Then
+modify the following line inside the build.xml file (in the
+Axis2_HOME/samples/pojoguide directory in the extracted Axis2
+1.4.1 Standard Binary (bin) Distribution) :</p>
+<pre>
+&lt;property name=&quot;axis2.home&quot; value=&quot;c:\apps\axis2&quot; /&gt;
+</pre><p>This modification contains the path to the root of the unzipped
+Axis2 1.4.1-bin <a href="../../download/1_4_1/download.html#std-bin">download</a>.
+With that explanation, you'll now build the source by typing the
+following: ant</p>
+<p>The following directory format should now exist at
+build/WeatherService:</p>
+<pre>
+ - WeatherService
+   - META-INF
+     - services.xml
+   - sample
+     - pojo
+       - data
+         - Weather.class
+       - service
+         - WeatherService.class
+</pre><p>Simple isn't it? An excellent way to dive into Web services
+development.</p>
+<p>Now get a <a class="externalLink" href="http://tomcat.apache.org/">Tomcat</a>
+distribution (I used v5.5), and start it up by running
+<em>bin/startup.bat</em> or <em>bin/startup.sh</em>. Once it's
+running, deploy the Axis2 1.4.1-war by copying the
+axis2.war file to Tomcat's webapps directory. Tomcat will proceed
+by deploying axis2 and un-archiving it into the webapps directory.
+Now copy the WeatherService directory that was created at the time
+of building our project to:
+<em>&lt;tomcat-home&gt;/webapps/axis2/WEB-INF/services</em>.</p>
+<p>The service should deploy quickly. You willl test the Web
+service using the RPCServiceClient in the next section.</p>
+<a name="testingpojows"></a><h2>Testing the POJO Web Service Using RPCServiceClient</h2><p>OK, so the Web service should be running on Tomcat. Now you'll
+build a simple RPCServiceClient and test the POJO Web service.
+You'll first start out with the class constructs, creating the
+RPCServiceClient and initializing the values of the Weather class
+within the Web service (See Code Listing 4).</p>
+<p><b>Code Listing 4: Setting the weather</b></p>
+<pre>
+package sample.pojo.rpcclient;
+
+import javax.xml.namespace.QName;
+
+import org.apache.axis2.AxisFault;
+import org.apache.axis2.addressing.EndpointReference;
+import org.apache.axis2.client.Options;
+import org.apache.axis2.rpc.client.RPCServiceClient;
+
+import sample.pojo.data.Weather;
+
+
+public class WeatherRPCClient {
+
+    public static void main(String[] args1) throws AxisFault {
+
+        RPCServiceClient serviceClient = new RPCServiceClient();
+
+        Options options = serviceClient.getOptions();
+
+        EndpointReference targetEPR = new EndpointReference(
+                <b>&quot;http://localhost:8080/axis2/services/WeatherService&quot;);</b>
+        options.setTo(targetEPR);
+
+        // Setting the weather
+        QName opSetWeather =
+            new QName(&quot;http://service.pojo.sample/xsd&quot;, &quot;<b>setWeather&quot;);
+
+        Weather w = new Weather();
+
+        w.setTemperature((float)39.3);
+        w.setForecast(&quot;Cloudy with showers&quot;);
+        w.setRain(true);
+        w.setHowMuchRain((float)4.5);
+
+        Object[] opSetWeatherArgs = new Object[] { w };
+
+        serviceClient.invokeRobust(opSetWeather, opSetWeatherArgs);</b>
+...
+</pre><p>The most interesting code to note is in bold font. Notice the
+targetEPR variable you create, setting the endpoint reference to
+http://localhost:8080/axis2/services/WeatherService. This is where
+you deployed it on Axis2. You can also verify this by asking Axis2
+to list its services by going to the following URL:
+http://localhost:8080/axis2/services/listServices.</p>
+<p>Next the opSetWeather variable gets setup, pointing to the
+setWeather operation. Then the Weather data is created and
+initialized. Lastly, you invoke the Web service, which initializes
+the weather data (you'll verify this soon). Next you get back the
+weather data (see Code Listing 5).</p>
+<p><b>Code Listing 5: Getting the weather data</b></p>
+<pre>
+...
+        serviceClient.invokeRobust(opSetWeather, opSetWeatherArgs);
+
+        // Getting the weather
+        QName opGetWeather =
+            new QName(&quot;http://service.pojo.sample/xsd&quot;, &quot;<b>getWeather&quot;);
+
+        Object[] opGetWeatherArgs = new Object[] { };
+        Class[] returnTypes = new Class[] { Weather.class };
+        
+        Object[] response = serviceClient.invokeBlocking(opGetWeather,
+                opGetWeatherArgs, returnTypes);
+        
+        Weather result = (Weather) response[0];
+        
+        if (result == null) {
+            System.out.println(&quot;Weather didn't initialize!&quot;);
+            return;
+        }</b>
+...
+</pre><p>First you set the operation in opGetWeather to getWeather. Then
+you create an empty argument list. Note that this time you expect
+something back from the Web service, and so you create a list of
+return types. Then you invoke the Web service using a blocking call
+and wait for the weather data to be returned to you, and you place
+it in the result variable. Lastly, you make sure it isn't null and
+that it was successfully initialized by the previous call to
+setWeather. Now display the data to verify it. (see Code Listing
+6).</p>
+<p><b>Code Listing 6: Displaying the data</b></p>
+<pre>
+...
+            return;
+        }
+
+        // Displaying the result
+        <b>System.out.println(&quot;Temperature               : &quot; +
+                           result.getTemperature());
+        System.out.println(&quot;Forecast                  : &quot; +
+                           result.getForecast());
+        System.out.println(&quot;Rain                      : &quot; +
+                           result.getRain());
+        System.out.println(&quot;How much rain (in inches) : &quot; +
+                           result.getHowMuchRain());
+        
+    }</b>
+}
+</pre><p>You should receive the data shown in Code Listing 7.</p>
+<p><b>Code Listing 7: Output from running the client</b></p>
+<pre>
+rpc.client.run:
+     [java] Temperature               : 39.3
+     [java] Forecast                  : Cloudy with showers
+     [java] Rain                      : true
+     [java] How much rain (in inches) : 4.5
+</pre><p>Excellent! You have a working POJO Web service! Next you'll
+quickly morph this one into a Spring based POJO.</p>
+<a name="limitationspojo"></a><h3>Limitations and Strengths of POJO</h3><p>We've covered the strengths of using POJO based Web services,
+but what about any limitations? One main limitation of POJO based
+Web services is the lack of initialization support (meaning that
+you have to go into your Web service and initialize the values
+before the Web service is completely useful). However, you'll soon
+see how to overcome that limitation with a Spring based POJO, which
+is covered next.</p>
+<a name="springpojows"></a><h2>Spring-based POJO Web Service</h2><p>Spring is a hot framework for J2EE and makes bean usage a
+breeze. You'll use it in this section to create a Spring based POJO
+Web service. For this section, you'll need the spring.jar from the
+latest 1.x Spring download.</p>
+<a name="quickintro"></a><h3>Quick Introduction</h3><p>If you take a look at the source code of this document in
+Axis2_HOME/samples/pojoguidespring (to see how the Spring based
+POJO Web service is coded), you can see that the Weather class
+didn't change at all and the WeatherService class only got its name
+changed to WeatherSpringService.</p>
+<p>You'll also notice an applicationContext.xml file, which we'll
+cover later. It is used to setup the beans used in our Web
+service.</p>
+<p>Now you might wonder what the SpringInit.java class is for. This
+service is necessary to initialize the Spring Framework's
+application context.</p>
+<p>The client is pretty much the same, except you won't use it to
+initialize the Weather data in the Web service, since Spring does
+that for you using Inversion of Control (IoC), which is covered
+next.</p>
+<a name="servicedef"></a><h3>The Service Definition: services.xml</h3><p>Since the core POJOs didn't change, you move straight to the
+services.xml file. It's a bit longer this time because it
+instantiates two services in one file (see Code Listing 7).</p>
+<p><b>Code Listing 7: Defining the services: services.xml</b></p>
+<pre>
+&lt;serviceGroup&gt;
+  &lt;service <b>name=&quot;SpringInit&quot; 
+class=&quot;sample.spring.service.SpringInit</b>&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;description&gt;
+      This web service initializes Spring.
+    &lt;/description&gt;
+    <b>&lt;parameter name=&quot;ServiceClass&quot;&gt;
+        sample.spring.service.SpringInit
+    &lt;/parameter&gt;
+    &lt;parameter name=&quot;ServiceTCCL&quot;&gt;composite&lt;/parameter&gt;
+    &lt;parameter name=&quot;load-on-startup&quot;&gt;true&lt;/parameter&gt;</b>
+    &lt;operation name=&quot;springInit&quot;&gt;
+      &lt;messageReceiver 
+      class=&quot;org.apache.axis2.receivers.RawXMLINOutMessageReceiver&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;/operation&gt;
+  &lt;/service&gt;
+  &lt;service <b>name=&quot;WeatherSpringService</b>&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;description&gt;
+      Weather Spring POJO Axis2 AAR deployment
+    &lt;/description&gt;
+    <b>&lt;parameter name=&quot;ServiceClass&quot;&gt;
+        sample.spring.service.WeatherSpringService
+    &lt;/parameter&gt;
+    &lt;parameter name=&quot;ServiceObjectSupplier&quot;&gt;
+org.apache.axis2.extensions.spring.receivers.SpringAppContextAwareObjectSupplier
+    &lt;/parameter&gt;
+    &lt;parameter name=&quot;SpringBeanName&quot;&gt;
+        weatherSpringService
+    &lt;/parameter&gt;</b>
+    &lt;messageReceivers&gt;
+      &lt;messageReceiver mep=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2004/08/wsdl/in-only&quot;
+      class=&quot;org.apache.axis2.rpc.receivers.RPCInOnlyMessageReceiver&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;messageReceiver mep=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2004/08/wsdl/in-out&quot;
+      class=&quot;org.apache.axis2.rpc.receivers.RPCMessageReceiver&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;/messageReceivers&gt;
+  &lt;/service&gt;
+&lt;/serviceGroup&gt;
+</pre><p>You'll see a few familiar items in the above listing, and
+several changes. Once again, the items in bold are most important.
+The ServiceTCCL property under the SpringInit service makes sure
+that the Spring class loader is used for the Web service, allowing
+it to properly instantiate the Spring application context. The
+load-on-startup variable is a must-have so that the service loads
+up immediately on startup, creating the Spring application context.
+The WeatherSpringService stays similar to the WeatherService
+previously with a couple of additions: The ServiceObjectSupplier
+provides the service with the Spring application context, making it
+&quot;Spring Aware.&quot;</p>
+<p>Lastly, the SpringBeanName points to the name of the bean
+associated with this Web service, which is defined in the
+applicationContext.xml file (essentially the WeatherSpringService).
+We'll cover the applicationContext.xml file next. The application
+context, applicationContext.xml file tells the Spring Framework
+what beans are defined. For this example, you'll define three of
+them (see Code Listing 8).</p>
+<p><b>Code Listing 8: Defining the application context:
+applicationContext.xml</b></p>
+<pre>
+&lt;?xml version=&quot;1.0&quot; encoding=&quot;UTF-8&quot;?&gt;
+&lt;!DOCTYPE beans PUBLIC &quot;-//SPRING//DTD BEAN//EN&quot; 
+&quot;http://www.springframework.org/dtd/spring-beans.dtd&quot;&gt;
+
+&lt;beans&gt;
+  &lt;bean id=&quot;<b>applicationContext</b>&quot; class=
+&quot;org.apache.axis2.extensions.spring.receivers.ApplicationContextHolder&quot; /&gt;
+
+  <b>&lt;bean id=&quot;weatherSpringService&quot; 
+        class=&quot;sample.spring.service.WeatherSpringService&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;property name=&quot;weather&quot; ref=&quot;weatherBean&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;/bean&gt;
+
+  &lt;bean id=&quot;weatherBean&quot; class=&quot;sample.spring.bean.Weather&quot;&gt;
+    &lt;property name=&quot;temperature&quot; value=&quot;89.9&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;property name=&quot;forecast&quot; value=&quot;Sunny&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;property name=&quot;rain&quot; value=&quot;false&quot;/&gt;
+    &lt;property name=&quot;howMuchRain&quot; value=&quot;0.2&quot;/&gt;
+  &lt;/bean&gt;</b>
+&lt;/beans&gt;
+</pre><p>The first one is Axis2's hook into Spring's application context
+(needed since AAR deployment is quite different from regular WAR
+deployment). Next, you define the bean to which the services.xml
+file points, which is the weatherSpringService bean that points to
+the WeatherSpringService class. It has one field property that gets
+initialized by the Spring Framework - weather. This will be set to
+the weatherBean. The weatherBean is an instantiation of the Weather
+class that holds information on the weather. Spring will initialize
+it to the values shown above, and set the Weather object in the
+WeatherSpringService class to the weatherBean instantiation. Thus,
+when you deploy the Web service, you won't have to instantiate the
+values because they'll already be set.</p>
+<p>Next up is the SpringInit class.</p>
+<a name="initializingspring"></a><h3>Initializing the Spring Application Context: SpringInit</h3><p>Without the Spring application context being initialized
+quickly, you'll run into problems. The SpringInit class initializes
+the Spring application context on startup because it is a
+ServiceLifeCycle class whose startUp method gets called upon
+loading the class (and because its load-on-startup property is set
+in the services.xml file). The only code worth mentioning in this
+class is shown in Code Listing 9.</p>
+<p><b>Code Listing 9: SpringInit's startUp method</b></p>
+<pre>
+    public void startUp(ConfigurationContext ignore,
+                        AxisService service) {
+        <b>ClassLoader classLoader = service.getClassLoader();
+        ClassPathXmlApplicationContext appCtx = new
+            ClassPathXmlApplicationContext</b>(new String[]
+                                           {&quot;<b>applicationContext.xml</b>&quot;}, 
+                                           false);
+        <b>appCtx.setClassLoader(classLoader);
+        appCtx.refresh();</b>
+        if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
+            logger.debug(&quot;\n\nstartUp() set spring classloader &quot; +
+                         &quot;via axisService.getClassLoader() ... &quot;);
+        }
+    }
+</pre><p>Note that this method retrieves the Spring class loader, and
+creates an application context with applicationContext.xml as the
+parameters. This new application context then gets the Spring class
+loader as its class loader. The Spring Framework is now up and
+ready for our WeatherSpringService.</p>
+<h3>Build and Deploy Using Apache Axis2 and Tomcat</h3><p>Your POJO is now ready for primetime within the Spring
+Framework. Before you build, you'll first need to make sure the
+axis2-spring-1.4.1.jar and spring.jar files are in the
+project's <em>Axis2_HOME/lib</em> directory.</p>
+<p><strong>Note:</strong> The service will not deploy if you add
+the above .jar files to the service archive due to class loding
+issues.</p>
+<p>Now build the source and create an AAR file by typing: ant</p>
+<p>It'll be created at <em>target/WeatherSpringService.aar</em>.
+Copy it to
+<em>&lt;tomcat-home&gt;/webapps/axis2/WEB-INF/services</em>, and
+Axis2 should deploy it quickly.</p>
+<p>Next, test the Web service to see whether Spring will really
+initialize the weather data for you.</p>
+<a name="testingrpc"></a><h3>Testing Using an RPCServiceClient</h3><p>It's as simple as it was for the other Web service, except this
+time type: ant rpc.client</p>
+<p>Feel free to browse the code for this client in
+src/client/WeatherSpringRPCClient.java. Essentially, this client
+does the same thing as the client testing the WeatherService.
+Except that this one skips the &quot;Setting the weather&quot; task since the
+weather data should have already been set by the Spring framework
+at startup.</p>
+<p>Thus, you should get the following as output from the
+client:</p>
+<pre>
+run.client:
+    [javac] Compiling 1 source file to C:\axis2-1.4.1\samples\pojoguidespring\build\cl
+asses
+     <b>[java] Temperature               : 89.9
+     [java] Forecast                  : Sunny
+     [java] Rain                      : false
+     [java] How much rain (in inches) : 0.2</b></pre><p>Which are exactly the values you set in the
+applicationContext.xml file!</p>
+<a name="jsr181pojows"></a><h2>SR 181 Annotation support with POJO Web services</h2><p>Got the JSR 181 annotated POJOs? Great. This section will show you how to package
+them in to a jar format for easy pojo deployment with the help of Axis2 POJO deployer.
+First create the JSR 181 Annotated class.</p>
+<a name="jsr181definingservice"></a><h3>Sample JSR 181 POJO Web Service</h3><p>For example lets assume that our JSR 181 Annotated class is.
+</p>
+<pre>
+@WebService(name=&quot;JSR181TestService&quot; targetNamespace=&quot;http://www.test.org/jsr181/Example&quot;)
+@SOAPBinding(style=SOAPBinding.Style.RPC)
+public class TestService {
+    @WebMethod(operationName = &quot;echoMethod&quot;)
+    public String echoString(@WebParam(name=&quot;stringIn&quot;)String s){
+        return s;
+    }
+}
+</pre><p>Compile this with the help of the Axis2 libs in to a jar file.
+        Add one additional like to the axis2.xml to deploy jar files on the pojo directory
+    </p>
+<pre>
+        Ex: &lt;deployer extension=&quot;.jar&quot; directory=&quot;pojo&quot; class=&quot;org.apache.axis2.deployment.POJODeployer&quot;/&gt;
+    </pre><p>Create and pojo directory if its not alreay there under the Axis2 repository and put the JSR 181 Annotated
+jar insie that and start Axis2. You will see the service up and running !!</p>
+<a name="summary"></a><h2>Summary</h2><p>Apache Axis2 is an excellent way to expose your POJOs as Web
+services. Spring adds greater flexibility to your POJOs by adding
+beans support and initialization abilities, along with all the
+other goodies provided by the Spring framework.</p>
+<a name="furtherstudy"></a><h2>For Further Study</h2><p>Apache Axis2-<a class="externalLink" href="http://ws.apache.org/axis2/">http://ws.apache.org/axis2/</a></p>
+<p>Axis2 Architecture-<a class="externalLink" href="http://ws.apache.org/axis2/1_0/Axis2ArchitectureGuide.html">http://ws.apache.org/axis2/1_0/Axis2ArchitectureGuide.html</a></p>
+<p>Introduction to Apache Axis2-<a class="externalLink" href="http://www.redhat.com/magazine/021jul06/features/apache_axis2/">http://www.redhat.com/magazine/021jul06/features/apache_axis2/</a></p>
+<p>Working With Apache Axis2-<a class="externalLink" href="http://www.wso2.net/articles/axis2/java/2006/09/13/working-with-axis2">http://www.wso2.net/articles/axis2/java/2006/09/13/working-with-axis2</a></p>
+<p>Apache Tomcat-<a class="externalLink" href="http://tomcat.apache.org/">http://tomcat.apache.org</a></p>
+<p>Spring Framework-<a class="externalLink" href="http://www.springframework.org/">http://www.springframework.org/</a></p>
+</html>
+      </div>
+    </div>
+    <div class="clear">
+      <hr/>
+    </div>
+    <div id="footer">
+      <div class="xright">&#169;  
+          2004-2008
+    
+          Apache Software Foundation
+          
+  
+
+  
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+  </div>
+      <div class="clear">
+        <hr/>
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