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From su...@apache.org
Subject svn commit: r1797063 [1/5] - in /avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2: ./ examples/ examples/java-example/ examples/java-example/src/ examples/java-example/src/main/ examples/java-example/src/main/java/ examples/java-example/src/main/java/example/ examples/mr-...
Date Wed, 31 May 2017 15:48:44 GMT
Author: suraj
Date: Wed May 31 15:48:43 2017
New Revision: 1797063

URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc?rev=1797063&view=rev
Log:
Update the correct avro-docs

Added:
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/broken-links.xml
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/example.py
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/java-example/
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/java-example/pom.xml
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/java-example/src/
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/java-example/src/main/
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/java-example/src/main/java/
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/java-example/src/main/java/example/
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/java-example/src/main/java/example/GenericMain.java
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/java-example/src/main/java/example/SpecificMain.java
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/mr-example/
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/mr-example/pom.xml
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/mr-example/src/
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/mr-example/src/main/
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/mr-example/src/main/java/
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/mr-example/src/main/java/example/
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/mr-example/src/main/java/example/AvroWordCount.java
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/mr-example/src/main/java/example/GenerateData.java
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/mr-example/src/main/java/example/MapReduceAvroWordCount.java
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/mr-example/src/main/java/example/MapReduceColorCount.java
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/mr-example/src/main/java/example/MapredColorCount.java
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/user.avsc
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/gettingstartedjava.html
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/gettingstartedjava.pdf   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/gettingstartedpython.html
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/gettingstartedpython.pdf   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/htmldocs/
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/htmldocs/canonical-completeness.html
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/idl.html
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/idl.pdf   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/images/
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/images/apache_feather.gif   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/images/avro-logo.png   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/images/built-with-forrest-button.png   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/images/favicon.ico   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/images/instruction_arrow.png   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/index.html
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/index.pdf   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/linkmap.html
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/linkmap.pdf   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/mr.html
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/mr.pdf   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/sasl.html
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/sasl.pdf   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/CommonMessages_de.xml
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/CommonMessages_en_US.xml
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/CommonMessages_es.xml
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/CommonMessages_fr.xml
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/basic.css
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/breadcrumbs-optimized.js
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/breadcrumbs.js
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/css/
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/fontsize.js
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/getBlank.js
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/getMenu.js
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/images/
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/images/README.txt
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/images/add.jpg   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/images/apache-thanks.png   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/images/built-with-cocoon.gif   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/images/built-with-forrest-button.png   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/images/chapter.gif   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/images/chapter_open.gif   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/images/current.gif   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/images/error.png   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/images/external-link.gif   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/images/fix.jpg   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/images/forrest-credit-logo.png   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/images/hack.jpg   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/images/header_white_line.gif   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/images/info.png   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/images/instruction_arrow.png   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/images/label.gif   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/images/page.gif   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/images/pdfdoc.gif   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/images/poddoc.png   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/images/printer.gif   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/images/rc-b-l-15-1body-2menu-3menu.png   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/images/rc-b-r-15-1body-2menu-3menu.png   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/images/rc-b-r-5-1header-2tab-selected-3tab-selected.png   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/images/rc-t-l-5-1header-2searchbox-3searchbox.png   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/images/rc-t-l-5-1header-2tab-selected-3tab-selected.png   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/images/rc-t-l-5-1header-2tab-unselected-3tab-unselected.png   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/images/rc-t-r-15-1body-2menu-3menu.png   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/images/rc-t-r-5-1header-2searchbox-3searchbox.png   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/images/rc-t-r-5-1header-2tab-selected-3tab-selected.png   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/images/rc-t-r-5-1header-2tab-unselected-3tab-unselected.png   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/images/remove.jpg   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/images/rss.png   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/images/spacer.gif   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/images/success.png   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/images/txtdoc.png   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/images/update.jpg   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/images/valid-html401.png   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/images/vcss.png   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/images/warning.png   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/images/xmldoc.gif   (with props)
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/menu.js
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/note.txt
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/print.css
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/profile.css
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/prototype.js
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/screen.css
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/scripts/
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/skin/translations/
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/spec.html
    avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/spec.pdf   (with props)

Added: avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/broken-links.xml
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/broken-links.xml?rev=1797063&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/broken-links.xml (added)
+++ avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/broken-links.xml Wed May 31 15:48:43 2017
@@ -0,0 +1,2 @@
+<broken-links>
+</broken-links>

Added: avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/example.py
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/example.py?rev=1797063&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/example.py (added)
+++ avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/example.py Wed May 31 15:48:43 2017
@@ -0,0 +1,33 @@
+#
+# Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+# or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+# distributed with this work for additional information
+# regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+# to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+# "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+# with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+#
+#   http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+#
+# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
+# software distributed under the License is distributed on an
+# "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
+# KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
+# specific language governing permissions and limitations
+# under the License.
+#
+import avro.schema
+from avro.datafile import DataFileReader, DataFileWriter
+from avro.io import DatumReader, DatumWriter
+
+schema = avro.schema.parse(open("user.avsc").read())
+
+writer = DataFileWriter(open("/tmp/users.avro", "w"), DatumWriter(), schema)
+writer.append({"name": "Alyssa", "favorite_number": 256, "WTF": 2})
+writer.append({"name": "Ben", "favorite_number": 7, "favorite_color": "red"})
+writer.close()
+
+reader = DataFileReader(open("/tmp/users.avro", "r"), DatumReader())
+for user in reader:
+    print user
+reader.close()

Added: avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/java-example/pom.xml
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/java-example/pom.xml?rev=1797063&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/java-example/pom.xml (added)
+++ avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/java-example/pom.xml Wed May 31 15:48:43 2017
@@ -0,0 +1,70 @@
+<!--
+  - Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+  - or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+  - distributed with this work for additional information
+  - regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+  - to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+  - "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+  - with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+  -
+  -   http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+  -
+  - Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
+  - software distributed under the License is distributed on an
+  - "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
+  - KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
+  - specific language governing permissions and limitations
+  - under the License.
+  -->
+<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
+  xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/maven-v4_0_0.xsd">
+  <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
+  <groupId>example</groupId>
+  <artifactId>java-example</artifactId>
+  <packaging>jar</packaging>
+  <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
+  <name>java-example</name>
+  <url>http://maven.apache.org</url>
+  <dependencies>
+    <dependency>
+      <groupId>junit</groupId>
+      <artifactId>junit</artifactId>
+      <version>3.8.1</version>
+      <scope>test</scope>
+    </dependency>
+    <dependency>
+      <groupId>org.apache.avro</groupId>
+      <artifactId>avro</artifactId>
+      <version>1.7.5</version>
+    </dependency>
+  </dependencies>
+  <build>
+    <plugins>
+      <plugin>
+        <groupId>org.apache.avro</groupId>
+        <artifactId>avro-maven-plugin</artifactId>
+        <version>1.7.5</version>
+        <executions>
+          <execution>
+            <phase>generate-sources</phase>
+            <goals>
+              <goal>schema</goal>
+            </goals>
+            <configuration>
+              <sourceDirectory>${project.basedir}/../</sourceDirectory>
+              <outputDirectory>${project.basedir}/src/main/java/</outputDirectory>
+            </configuration>
+          </execution>
+        </executions>
+      </plugin>
+      <plugin>
+        <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
+        <artifactId>maven-compiler-plugin</artifactId>
+        <configuration>
+          <source>1.6</source>
+          <target>1.6</target>
+        </configuration>
+      </plugin>
+    </plugins>
+  </build>
+</project>

Added: avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/java-example/src/main/java/example/GenericMain.java
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/java-example/src/main/java/example/GenericMain.java?rev=1797063&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/java-example/src/main/java/example/GenericMain.java (added)
+++ avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/java-example/src/main/java/example/GenericMain.java Wed May 31 15:48:43 2017
@@ -0,0 +1,71 @@
+/**
+ * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ * or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ * distributed with this work for additional information
+ * regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ * "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ *
+ *     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ *
+ * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
+ * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
+ * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
+ * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
+ * limitations under the License.
+ */
+
+package example;
+
+import java.io.File;
+import java.io.IOException;
+
+import org.apache.avro.Schema;
+import org.apache.avro.Schema.Parser;
+import org.apache.avro.file.DataFileReader;
+import org.apache.avro.file.DataFileWriter;
+import org.apache.avro.generic.GenericData;
+import org.apache.avro.generic.GenericDatumReader;
+import org.apache.avro.generic.GenericDatumWriter;
+import org.apache.avro.generic.GenericRecord;
+import org.apache.avro.io.DatumReader;
+import org.apache.avro.io.DatumWriter;
+
+public class GenericMain {
+  public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException {
+    Schema schema = new Parser().parse(new File("/home/skye/code/cloudera/avro/doc/examples/user.avsc"));
+
+    GenericRecord user1 = new GenericData.Record(schema);
+    user1.put("name", "Alyssa");
+    user1.put("favorite_number", 256);
+    // Leave favorite color null
+
+    GenericRecord user2 = new GenericData.Record(schema);
+    user2.put("name", "Ben");
+    user2.put("favorite_number", 7);
+    user2.put("favorite_color", "red");
+
+    // Serialize user1 and user2 to disk
+    File file = new File("users.avro");
+    DatumWriter<GenericRecord> datumWriter = new GenericDatumWriter<GenericRecord>(schema);
+    DataFileWriter<GenericRecord> dataFileWriter = new DataFileWriter<GenericRecord>(datumWriter);
+    dataFileWriter.create(schema, file);
+    dataFileWriter.append(user1);
+    dataFileWriter.append(user2);
+    dataFileWriter.close();
+
+    // Deserialize users from disk
+    DatumReader<GenericRecord> datumReader = new GenericDatumReader<GenericRecord>(schema);
+    DataFileReader<GenericRecord> dataFileReader = new DataFileReader<GenericRecord>(file, datumReader);
+    GenericRecord user = null;
+    while (dataFileReader.hasNext()) {
+      // Reuse user object by passing it to next(). This saves us from
+      // allocating and garbage collecting many objects for files with
+      // many items.
+      user = dataFileReader.next(user);
+      System.out.println(user);
+    }
+
+  }
+}

Added: avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/java-example/src/main/java/example/SpecificMain.java
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/java-example/src/main/java/example/SpecificMain.java?rev=1797063&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/java-example/src/main/java/example/SpecificMain.java (added)
+++ avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/java-example/src/main/java/example/SpecificMain.java Wed May 31 15:48:43 2017
@@ -0,0 +1,73 @@
+/**
+ * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ * or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ * distributed with this work for additional information
+ * regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ * "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ *
+ *     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ *
+ * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
+ * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
+ * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
+ * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
+ * limitations under the License.
+ */
+
+package example;
+
+import java.io.File;
+import java.io.IOException;
+
+import org.apache.avro.file.DataFileReader;
+import org.apache.avro.file.DataFileWriter;
+import org.apache.avro.io.DatumReader;
+import org.apache.avro.io.DatumWriter;
+import org.apache.avro.specific.SpecificDatumReader;
+import org.apache.avro.specific.SpecificDatumWriter;
+
+import example.avro.User;
+
+public class SpecificMain {
+  public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException {
+    User user1 = new User();
+    user1.setName("Alyssa");
+    user1.setFavoriteNumber(256);
+    // Leave favorite color null
+
+    // Alternate constructor
+    User user2 = new User("Ben", 7, "red");
+
+    // Construct via builder
+    User user3 = User.newBuilder()
+             .setName("Charlie")
+             .setFavoriteColor("blue")
+             .setFavoriteNumber(null)
+             .build();
+
+    // Serialize user1 and user2 to disk
+    File file = new File("users.avro");
+    DatumWriter<User> userDatumWriter = new SpecificDatumWriter<User>(User.class);
+    DataFileWriter<User> dataFileWriter = new DataFileWriter<User>(userDatumWriter);
+    dataFileWriter.create(user1.getSchema(), file);
+    dataFileWriter.append(user1);
+    dataFileWriter.append(user2);
+    dataFileWriter.append(user3);
+    dataFileWriter.close();
+
+    // Deserialize Users from disk
+    DatumReader<User> userDatumReader = new SpecificDatumReader<User>(User.class);
+    DataFileReader<User> dataFileReader = new DataFileReader<User>(file, userDatumReader);
+    User user = null;
+    while (dataFileReader.hasNext()) {
+      // Reuse user object by passing it to next(). This saves us from
+      // allocating and garbage collecting many objects for files with
+      // many items.
+      user = dataFileReader.next(user);
+      System.out.println(user);
+    }
+
+  }
+}

Added: avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/mr-example/pom.xml
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/mr-example/pom.xml?rev=1797063&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/mr-example/pom.xml (added)
+++ avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/mr-example/pom.xml Wed May 31 15:48:43 2017
@@ -0,0 +1,77 @@
+<!--
+  - Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+  - or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+  - distributed with this work for additional information
+  - regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+  - to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+  - "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+  - with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+  -
+  -   http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+  -
+  - Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
+  - software distributed under the License is distributed on an
+  - "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
+  - KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
+  - specific language governing permissions and limitations
+  - under the License.
+  -->
+<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
+         xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
+  <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
+
+  <groupId>example</groupId>
+  <artifactId>mr-example</artifactId>
+  <version>1.0</version>
+  <packaging>jar</packaging>
+
+  <name>mr-example</name>
+
+  <build>
+    <plugins>
+      <plugin>
+        <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
+        <artifactId>maven-compiler-plugin</artifactId>
+        <configuration>
+          <source>1.6</source>
+          <target>1.6</target>
+        </configuration>
+      </plugin>
+      <plugin>
+        <groupId>org.apache.avro</groupId>
+        <artifactId>avro-maven-plugin</artifactId>
+        <version>1.7.5</version>
+        <executions>
+          <execution>
+            <phase>generate-sources</phase>
+            <goals>
+              <goal>schema</goal>
+            </goals>
+            <configuration>
+              <sourceDirectory>${project.basedir}/../</sourceDirectory>
+              <outputDirectory>${project.build.directory}/generated-sources/java</outputDirectory>
+            </configuration>
+          </execution>
+        </executions>
+      </plugin>
+    </plugins>
+  </build>
+
+  <dependencies>
+    <dependency>
+      <groupId>org.apache.avro</groupId>
+      <artifactId>avro</artifactId>
+      <version>1.7.5</version>
+    </dependency>
+    <dependency>
+      <groupId>org.apache.avro</groupId>
+      <artifactId>avro-mapred</artifactId>
+      <version>1.7.5</version>
+    </dependency>
+    <dependency>
+      <groupId>org.apache.hadoop</groupId>
+      <artifactId>hadoop-core</artifactId>
+      <version>1.1.0</version>
+    </dependency>
+  </dependencies>
+</project>

Added: avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/mr-example/src/main/java/example/AvroWordCount.java
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/mr-example/src/main/java/example/AvroWordCount.java?rev=1797063&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/mr-example/src/main/java/example/AvroWordCount.java (added)
+++ avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/mr-example/src/main/java/example/AvroWordCount.java Wed May 31 15:48:43 2017
@@ -0,0 +1,105 @@
+/**
+ * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ * or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ * distributed with this work for additional information
+ * regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ * "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ *
+ *     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ *
+ * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
+ * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
+ * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
+ * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
+ * limitations under the License.
+ */
+
+package example;
+
+import java.io.IOException;
+import java.util.*;
+
+import org.apache.avro.*;
+import org.apache.avro.Schema.Type;
+import org.apache.avro.mapred.*;
+import org.apache.hadoop.conf.*;
+import org.apache.hadoop.fs.Path;
+import org.apache.hadoop.io.*;
+import org.apache.hadoop.mapred.*;
+import org.apache.hadoop.util.*;
+
+/**
+ * The classic WordCount example modified to output Avro Pair<CharSequence,
+ * Integer> records instead of text.
+ */
+public class AvroWordCount extends Configured implements Tool {
+
+  public static class Map extends MapReduceBase implements Mapper<LongWritable, Text, Text, IntWritable> {
+    private final static IntWritable one = new IntWritable(1);
+    private Text word = new Text();
+
+    public void map(LongWritable key, Text value, OutputCollector<Text, IntWritable> output, Reporter reporter)
+        throws IOException {
+      String line = value.toString();
+      StringTokenizer tokenizer = new StringTokenizer(line);
+      while (tokenizer.hasMoreTokens()) {
+        word.set(tokenizer.nextToken());
+        output.collect(word, one);
+      }
+    }
+  }
+
+  public static class Reduce extends MapReduceBase
+    implements Reducer<Text, IntWritable,
+                       AvroWrapper<Pair<CharSequence, Integer>>, NullWritable> {
+
+    public void reduce(Text key, Iterator<IntWritable> values,
+        OutputCollector<AvroWrapper<Pair<CharSequence, Integer>>, NullWritable> output,
+        Reporter reporter) throws IOException {
+      int sum = 0;
+      while (values.hasNext()) {
+        sum += values.next().get();
+      }
+      output.collect(new AvroWrapper<Pair<CharSequence, Integer>>(
+          new Pair<CharSequence, Integer>(key.toString(), sum)),
+          NullWritable.get());
+    }
+  }
+
+  public int run(String[] args) throws Exception {
+    if (args.length != 2) {
+      System.err.println("Usage: AvroWordCount <input path> <output path>");
+      return -1;
+    }
+
+    JobConf conf = new JobConf(AvroWordCount.class);
+    conf.setJobName("wordcount");
+
+    // We call setOutputSchema first so we can override the configuration
+    // parameters it sets
+    AvroJob.setOutputSchema(conf, Pair.getPairSchema(Schema.create(Type.STRING),
+        Schema.create(Type.INT)));
+
+    conf.setMapperClass(Map.class);
+    conf.setReducerClass(Reduce.class);
+
+    conf.setInputFormat(TextInputFormat.class);
+
+    conf.setMapOutputKeyClass(Text.class);
+    conf.setMapOutputValueClass(IntWritable.class);
+    conf.setOutputKeyComparatorClass(Text.Comparator.class);
+
+    FileInputFormat.setInputPaths(conf, new Path(args[0]));
+    FileOutputFormat.setOutputPath(conf, new Path(args[1]));
+
+    JobClient.runJob(conf);
+    return 0;
+  }
+
+  public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
+    int res = ToolRunner.run(new Configuration(), new AvroWordCount(), args);
+    System.exit(res);
+  }
+}

Added: avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/mr-example/src/main/java/example/GenerateData.java
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/mr-example/src/main/java/example/GenerateData.java?rev=1797063&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/mr-example/src/main/java/example/GenerateData.java (added)
+++ avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/mr-example/src/main/java/example/GenerateData.java Wed May 31 15:48:43 2017
@@ -0,0 +1,57 @@
+/**
+ * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ * or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ * distributed with this work for additional information
+ * regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ * "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ *
+ *     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ *
+ * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
+ * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
+ * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
+ * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
+ * limitations under the License.
+ */
+
+package example;
+
+import java.io.File;
+import java.io.IOException;
+import java.util.Random;
+
+import org.apache.avro.file.DataFileWriter;
+import org.apache.avro.io.DatumWriter;
+import org.apache.avro.specific.SpecificDatumWriter;
+
+import example.avro.User;
+
+public class GenerateData {
+  public static final String[] COLORS = {"red", "orange", "yellow", "green", "blue", "purple", null};
+  public static final int USERS = 20;
+  public static final String PATH = "./input/users.avro";
+
+  public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException {
+    // Open data file
+    File file = new File(PATH);
+    if (file.getParentFile() != null) {
+      file.getParentFile().mkdirs();
+    }
+    DatumWriter<User> userDatumWriter = new SpecificDatumWriter<User>(User.class);
+    DataFileWriter<User> dataFileWriter = new DataFileWriter<User>(userDatumWriter);
+    dataFileWriter.create(User.SCHEMA$, file);
+
+    // Create random users
+    User user;
+    Random random = new Random();
+    for (int i = 0; i < USERS; i++) {
+      user = new User("user", null, COLORS[random.nextInt(COLORS.length)]);
+      dataFileWriter.append(user);
+      System.out.println(user);
+    }
+
+    dataFileWriter.close();
+  }
+}

Added: avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/mr-example/src/main/java/example/MapReduceAvroWordCount.java
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/mr-example/src/main/java/example/MapReduceAvroWordCount.java?rev=1797063&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/mr-example/src/main/java/example/MapReduceAvroWordCount.java (added)
+++ avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/mr-example/src/main/java/example/MapReduceAvroWordCount.java Wed May 31 15:48:43 2017
@@ -0,0 +1,124 @@
+/**
+ * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ * or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ * distributed with this work for additional information
+ * regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ * "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ *
+ *     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ *
+ * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
+ * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
+ * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
+ * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
+ * limitations under the License.
+ */
+
+package example;
+
+import java.io.IOException;
+import java.util.*;
+
+import org.apache.avro.Schema;
+import org.apache.avro.Schema.Type;
+import org.apache.avro.mapred.AvroWrapper;
+import org.apache.avro.mapred.Pair;
+import org.apache.avro.mapreduce.AvroJob;
+import org.apache.hadoop.conf.Configuration;
+import org.apache.hadoop.conf.Configured;
+import org.apache.hadoop.fs.Path;
+import org.apache.hadoop.io.IntWritable;
+import org.apache.hadoop.io.LongWritable;
+import org.apache.hadoop.io.NullWritable;
+import org.apache.hadoop.io.Text;
+import org.apache.hadoop.mapreduce.Job;
+import org.apache.hadoop.mapreduce.Mapper;
+import org.apache.hadoop.mapreduce.Reducer;
+import org.apache.hadoop.mapreduce.lib.input.FileInputFormat;
+import org.apache.hadoop.mapreduce.lib.input.TextInputFormat;
+import org.apache.hadoop.mapreduce.lib.output.FileOutputFormat;
+import org.apache.hadoop.util.Tool;
+import org.apache.hadoop.util.ToolRunner;
+
+/**
+ * The classic WordCount example modified to output Avro Pair<CharSequence,
+ * Integer> records instead of text.
+ */
+public class MapReduceAvroWordCount extends Configured implements Tool {
+
+  public static class Map
+    extends Mapper<LongWritable, Text, Text, IntWritable> {
+
+    private final static IntWritable one = new IntWritable(1);
+    private Text word = new Text();
+
+    public void map(LongWritable key, Text value, Context context)
+      throws IOException, InterruptedException {
+      String line = value.toString();
+      StringTokenizer tokenizer = new StringTokenizer(line);
+      while (tokenizer.hasMoreTokens()) {
+        word.set(tokenizer.nextToken());
+        context.write(word, one);
+      }
+    }
+  }
+
+  public static class Reduce
+    extends Reducer<Text, IntWritable,
+            AvroWrapper<Pair<CharSequence, Integer>>, NullWritable> {
+
+    public void reduce(Text key, Iterable<IntWritable> values,
+                       Context context)
+      throws IOException, InterruptedException {
+      int sum = 0;
+      for (IntWritable value : values) {
+        sum += value.get();
+      }
+      context.write(new AvroWrapper<Pair<CharSequence, Integer>>
+                    (new Pair<CharSequence, Integer>(key.toString(), sum)),
+                    NullWritable.get());
+    }
+  }
+
+  public int run(String[] args) throws Exception {
+    if (args.length != 2) {
+      System.err.println("Usage: AvroWordCount <input path> <output path>");
+      return -1;
+    }
+
+    Job job = new Job(getConf());
+    job.setJarByClass(MapReduceAvroWordCount.class);
+    job.setJobName("wordcount");
+
+    // We call setOutputSchema first so we can override the configuration
+    // parameters it sets
+    AvroJob.setOutputKeySchema(job,
+                               Pair.getPairSchema(Schema.create(Type.STRING),
+                                                  Schema.create(Type.INT)));
+    job.setOutputValueClass(NullWritable.class);
+
+    job.setMapperClass(Map.class);
+    job.setReducerClass(Reduce.class);
+
+    job.setInputFormatClass(TextInputFormat.class);
+
+    job.setMapOutputKeyClass(Text.class);
+    job.setMapOutputValueClass(IntWritable.class);
+    job.setSortComparatorClass(Text.Comparator.class);
+
+    FileInputFormat.setInputPaths(job, new Path(args[0]));
+    FileOutputFormat.setOutputPath(job, new Path(args[1]));
+
+    job.waitForCompletion(true);
+
+    return 0;
+  }
+
+  public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
+    int res =
+      ToolRunner.run(new Configuration(), new MapReduceAvroWordCount(), args);
+    System.exit(res);
+  }
+}

Added: avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/mr-example/src/main/java/example/MapReduceColorCount.java
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/mr-example/src/main/java/example/MapReduceColorCount.java?rev=1797063&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/mr-example/src/main/java/example/MapReduceColorCount.java (added)
+++ avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/mr-example/src/main/java/example/MapReduceColorCount.java Wed May 31 15:48:43 2017
@@ -0,0 +1,107 @@
+/**
+ * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ * or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ * distributed with this work for additional information
+ * regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ * "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ *
+ *     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ *
+ * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
+ * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
+ * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
+ * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
+ * limitations under the License.
+ */
+
+package example;
+
+import java.io.IOException;
+
+import org.apache.avro.Schema;
+import org.apache.avro.mapred.AvroKey;
+import org.apache.avro.mapred.AvroValue;
+import org.apache.avro.mapreduce.AvroJob;
+import org.apache.avro.mapreduce.AvroKeyInputFormat;
+import org.apache.avro.mapreduce.AvroKeyValueOutputFormat;
+import org.apache.hadoop.conf.Configured;
+import org.apache.hadoop.fs.Path;
+import org.apache.hadoop.io.IntWritable;
+import org.apache.hadoop.io.NullWritable;
+import org.apache.hadoop.io.Text;
+import org.apache.hadoop.mapreduce.Job;
+import org.apache.hadoop.mapreduce.Mapper;
+import org.apache.hadoop.mapreduce.Reducer;
+import org.apache.hadoop.mapreduce.lib.input.FileInputFormat;
+import org.apache.hadoop.mapreduce.lib.output.FileOutputFormat;
+import org.apache.hadoop.util.Tool;
+import org.apache.hadoop.util.ToolRunner;
+
+import example.avro.User;
+
+public class MapReduceColorCount extends Configured implements Tool {
+
+  public static class ColorCountMapper extends
+      Mapper<AvroKey<User>, NullWritable, Text, IntWritable> {
+
+    @Override
+    public void map(AvroKey<User> key, NullWritable value, Context context)
+        throws IOException, InterruptedException {
+
+      CharSequence color = key.datum().getFavoriteColor();
+      if (color == null) {
+        color = "none";
+      }
+      context.write(new Text(color.toString()), new IntWritable(1));
+    }
+  }
+
+  public static class ColorCountReducer extends
+      Reducer<Text, IntWritable, AvroKey<CharSequence>, AvroValue<Integer>> {
+
+    @Override
+    public void reduce(Text key, Iterable<IntWritable> values,
+        Context context) throws IOException, InterruptedException {
+
+      int sum = 0;
+      for (IntWritable value : values) {
+        sum += value.get();
+      }
+      context.write(new AvroKey<CharSequence>(key.toString()), new AvroValue<Integer>(sum));
+    }
+  }
+
+  public int run(String[] args) throws Exception {
+    if (args.length != 2) {
+      System.err.println("Usage: MapReduceColorCount <input path> <output path>");
+      return -1;
+    }
+
+    Job job = new Job(getConf());
+    job.setJarByClass(MapReduceColorCount.class);
+    job.setJobName("Color Count");
+
+    FileInputFormat.setInputPaths(job, new Path(args[0]));
+    FileOutputFormat.setOutputPath(job, new Path(args[1]));
+
+    job.setInputFormatClass(AvroKeyInputFormat.class);
+    job.setMapperClass(ColorCountMapper.class);
+    AvroJob.setInputKeySchema(job, User.getClassSchema());
+    job.setMapOutputKeyClass(Text.class);
+    job.setMapOutputValueClass(IntWritable.class);
+
+    job.setOutputFormatClass(AvroKeyValueOutputFormat.class);
+    job.setReducerClass(ColorCountReducer.class);
+    AvroJob.setOutputKeySchema(job, Schema.create(Schema.Type.STRING));
+    AvroJob.setOutputValueSchema(job, Schema.create(Schema.Type.INT));
+
+    return (job.waitForCompletion(true) ? 0 : 1);
+  }
+
+  public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
+    int res = ToolRunner.run(new MapReduceColorCount(), args);
+    System.exit(res);
+  }
+}

Added: avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/mr-example/src/main/java/example/MapredColorCount.java
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/mr-example/src/main/java/example/MapredColorCount.java?rev=1797063&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/mr-example/src/main/java/example/MapredColorCount.java (added)
+++ avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/mr-example/src/main/java/example/MapredColorCount.java Wed May 31 15:48:43 2017
@@ -0,0 +1,93 @@
+/**
+ * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ * or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ * distributed with this work for additional information
+ * regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ * "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ *
+ *     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ *
+ * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
+ * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
+ * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
+ * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
+ * limitations under the License.
+ */
+
+package example;
+
+import java.io.IOException;
+
+import org.apache.avro.*;
+import org.apache.avro.Schema.Type;
+import org.apache.avro.mapred.*;
+import org.apache.hadoop.conf.*;
+import org.apache.hadoop.fs.Path;
+import org.apache.hadoop.mapred.*;
+import org.apache.hadoop.util.*;
+
+import example.avro.User;
+
+public class MapredColorCount extends Configured implements Tool {
+
+  public static class ColorCountMapper extends AvroMapper<User, Pair<CharSequence, Integer>> {
+    @Override
+    public void map(User user, AvroCollector<Pair<CharSequence, Integer>> collector, Reporter reporter)
+        throws IOException {
+      CharSequence color = user.getFavoriteColor();
+      // We need this check because the User.favorite_color field has type ["string", "null"]
+      if (color == null) {
+        color = "none";
+      }
+      collector.collect(new Pair<CharSequence, Integer>(color, 1));
+    }
+  }
+
+  public static class ColorCountReducer extends AvroReducer<CharSequence, Integer,
+                                                            Pair<CharSequence, Integer>> {
+    @Override
+    public void reduce(CharSequence key, Iterable<Integer> values,
+                       AvroCollector<Pair<CharSequence, Integer>> collector,
+                       Reporter reporter)
+        throws IOException {
+      int sum = 0;
+      for (Integer value : values) {
+        sum += value;
+      }
+      collector.collect(new Pair<CharSequence, Integer>(key, sum));
+    }
+  }
+
+  public int run(String[] args) throws Exception {
+    if (args.length != 2) {
+      System.err.println("Usage: MapredColorCount <input path> <output path>");
+      return -1;
+    }
+
+    JobConf conf = new JobConf(getConf(), MapredColorCount.class);
+    conf.setJobName("colorcount");
+
+    FileInputFormat.setInputPaths(conf, new Path(args[0]));
+    FileOutputFormat.setOutputPath(conf, new Path(args[1]));
+
+    AvroJob.setMapperClass(conf, ColorCountMapper.class);
+    AvroJob.setReducerClass(conf, ColorCountReducer.class);
+
+    // Note that AvroJob.setInputSchema and AvroJob.setOutputSchema set
+    // relevant config options such as input/output format, map output
+    // classes, and output key class.
+    AvroJob.setInputSchema(conf, User.getClassSchema());
+    AvroJob.setOutputSchema(conf, Pair.getPairSchema(Schema.create(Type.STRING),
+        Schema.create(Type.INT)));
+
+    JobClient.runJob(conf);
+    return 0;
+  }
+
+  public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
+    int res = ToolRunner.run(new Configuration(), new MapredColorCount(), args);
+    System.exit(res);
+  }
+}

Added: avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/user.avsc
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/user.avsc?rev=1797063&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/user.avsc (added)
+++ avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/examples/user.avsc Wed May 31 15:48:43 2017
@@ -0,0 +1,9 @@
+{"namespace": "example.avro",
+ "type": "record",
+ "name": "User",
+ "fields": [
+     {"name": "name", "type": "string"},
+     {"name": "favorite_number",  "type": ["int", "null"]},
+     {"name": "favorite_color", "type": ["string", "null"]}
+ ]
+}

Added: avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/gettingstartedjava.html
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/gettingstartedjava.html?rev=1797063&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/gettingstartedjava.html (added)
+++ avro/site/publish/docs/1.8.2/gettingstartedjava.html Wed May 31 15:48:43 2017
@@ -0,0 +1,694 @@
+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
+<html>
+<head>
+<META http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
+<meta content="Apache Forrest" name="Generator">
+<meta name="Forrest-version" content="0.9">
+<meta name="Forrest-skin-name" content="pelt">
+<title>Apache Avro&#153; 1.8.2
+ Getting Started (Java)</title>
+<link type="text/css" href="skin/basic.css" rel="stylesheet">
+<link media="screen" type="text/css" href="skin/screen.css" rel="stylesheet">
+<link media="print" type="text/css" href="skin/print.css" rel="stylesheet">
+<link type="text/css" href="skin/profile.css" rel="stylesheet">
+<script src="skin/getBlank.js" language="javascript" type="text/javascript"></script><script src="skin/getMenu.js" language="javascript" type="text/javascript"></script><script src="skin/fontsize.js" language="javascript" type="text/javascript"></script>
+<link rel="shortcut icon" href="images/favicon.ico">
+</head>
+<body onload="init()">
+<script type="text/javascript">ndeSetTextSize();</script>
+<div id="top">
+<!--+
+    |breadtrail
+    +-->
+<div class="breadtrail">
+<a href="http://www.apache.org/">Apache</a> &gt; <a href="http://avro.apache.org/">Avro</a> &gt; <a href="http://avro.apache.org/">Avro</a><script src="skin/breadcrumbs.js" language="JavaScript" type="text/javascript"></script>
+</div>
+<!--+
+    |header
+    +-->
+<div class="header">
+<!--+
+    |start group logo
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+        PDF</a>
+</div>
+<h1>Apache Avro&#153; 1.8.2
+ Getting Started (Java)</h1>
+<div id="front-matter">
+<div id="minitoc-area">
+<ul class="minitoc">
+<li>
+<a href="#download_install">Download</a>
+</li>
+<li>
+<a href="#Defining+a+schema">Defining a schema</a>
+</li>
+<li>
+<a href="#Serializing+and+deserializing+with+code+generation">Serializing and deserializing with code generation</a>
+<ul class="minitoc">
+<li>
+<a href="#Compiling+the+schema">Compiling the schema</a>
+</li>
+<li>
+<a href="#Creating+Users">Creating Users</a>
+</li>
+<li>
+<a href="#Serializing">Serializing</a>
+</li>
+<li>
+<a href="#Deserializing">Deserializing</a>
+</li>
+<li>
+<a href="#Compiling+and+running+the+example+code">Compiling and running the example code</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+<a href="#Serializing+and+deserializing+without+code+generation">Serializing and deserializing without code generation</a>
+<ul class="minitoc">
+<li>
+<a href="#Creating+users">Creating users</a>
+</li>
+<li>
+<a href="#Serializing-N101DE">Serializing</a>
+</li>
+<li>
+<a href="#Deserializing-N10207">Deserializing</a>
+</li>
+<li>
+<a href="#Compiling+and+running+the+example+code-N10249">Compiling and running the example code</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+</div>
+    
+<p>
+      This is a short guide for getting started with Apache Avro&#153; using
+      Java.  This guide only covers using Avro for data serialization; see
+      Patrick Hunt's <a href="https://github.com/phunt/avro-rpc-quickstart">Avro
+      RPC Quick Start</a> for a good introduction to using Avro for RPC.
+    </p>
+    
+<a name="download_install"></a>
+<h2 class="h3">Download</h2>
+<div class="section">
+<p>
+        Avro implementations for C, C++, C#, Java, PHP, Python, and Ruby can be
+        downloaded from the <a href="http://avro.apache.org/releases.html">Apache Avro&#153;
+        Releases</a> page.  This guide uses Avro 1.8.2
+, the latest
+        version at the time of writing.  For the examples in this guide,
+        download <em>avro-1.8.2
+.jar</em> and
+        <em>avro-tools-1.8.2
+.jar</em>.  The Avro Java implementation
+        also depends on the <a href="http://jackson.codehaus.org/">Jackson</a>
+        JSON library.  From the Jackson <a href="http://wiki.fasterxml.com/JacksonDownload">download page</a>,
+        download the core-asl and mapper-asl jars.  Add
+        <em>avro-1.8.2
+.jar</em> and the Jackson jars to your project's
+        classpath (avro-tools will be used for code generation).
+      </p>
+<p>
+        Alternatively, if you are using Maven, add the following dependency to
+        your POM:
+      </p>
+<pre class="code">
+&lt;dependency&gt;
+  &lt;groupId&gt;org.apache.avro&lt;/groupId&gt;
+  &lt;artifactId&gt;avro&lt;/artifactId&gt;
+  &lt;version&gt;1.8.2
+&lt;/version&gt;
+&lt;/dependency&gt;
+      </pre>
+<p>
+        As well as the Avro Maven plugin (for performing code generation):
+      </p>
+<pre class="code">
+&lt;plugin&gt;
+  &lt;groupId&gt;org.apache.avro&lt;/groupId&gt;
+  &lt;artifactId&gt;avro-maven-plugin&lt;/artifactId&gt;
+  &lt;version&gt;1.8.2
+&lt;/version&gt;
+  &lt;executions&gt;
+    &lt;execution&gt;
+      &lt;phase&gt;generate-sources&lt;/phase&gt;
+      &lt;goals&gt;
+        &lt;goal&gt;schema&lt;/goal&gt;
+      &lt;/goals&gt;
+      &lt;configuration&gt;
+        &lt;sourceDirectory&gt;${project.basedir}/src/main/avro/&lt;/sourceDirectory&gt;
+        &lt;outputDirectory&gt;${project.basedir}/src/main/java/&lt;/outputDirectory&gt;
+      &lt;/configuration&gt;
+    &lt;/execution&gt;
+  &lt;/executions&gt;
+&lt;/plugin&gt;
+&lt;plugin&gt;
+  &lt;groupId&gt;org.apache.maven.plugins&lt;/groupId&gt;
+  &lt;artifactId&gt;maven-compiler-plugin&lt;/artifactId&gt;
+  &lt;configuration&gt;
+    &lt;source&gt;1.6&lt;/source&gt;
+    &lt;target&gt;1.6&lt;/target&gt;
+  &lt;/configuration&gt;
+&lt;/plugin&gt;
+      </pre>
+<p>
+        You may also build the required Avro jars from source.  Building Avro is
+        beyond the scope of this guide; see the <a href="https://cwiki.apache.org/AVRO/Build+Documentation">Build
+        Documentation</a> page in the wiki for more information.
+      </p>
+</div>
+
+    
+<a name="Defining+a+schema"></a>
+<h2 class="h3">Defining a schema</h2>
+<div class="section">
+<p>
+        Avro schemas are defined using JSON.  Schemas are composed of <a href="spec.html#schema_primitive">primitive types</a>
+        (<span class="codefrag">null</span>, <span class="codefrag">boolean</span>, <span class="codefrag">int</span>,
+        <span class="codefrag">long</span>, <span class="codefrag">float</span>, <span class="codefrag">double</span>,
+        <span class="codefrag">bytes</span>, and <span class="codefrag">string</span>) and <a href="spec.html#schema_complex">complex types</a> (<span class="codefrag">record</span>,
+        <span class="codefrag">enum</span>, <span class="codefrag">array</span>, <span class="codefrag">map</span>,
+        <span class="codefrag">union</span>, and <span class="codefrag">fixed</span>).  You can learn more about
+        Avro schemas and types from the specification, but for now let's start
+        with a simple schema example, <em>user.avsc</em>:
+      </p>
+<pre class="code">
+{"namespace": "example.avro",
+ "type": "record",
+ "name": "User",
+ "fields": [
+     {"name": "name", "type": "string"},
+     {"name": "favorite_number",  "type": ["int", "null"]},
+     {"name": "favorite_color", "type": ["string", "null"]}
+ ]
+}
+      </pre>
+<p>
+        This schema defines a record representing a hypothetical user.  (Note
+        that a schema file can only contain a single schema definition.)  At
+        minimum, a record definition must include its type (<span class="codefrag">"type":
+        "record"</span>), a name (<span class="codefrag">"name": "User"</span>), and fields, in
+        this case <span class="codefrag">name</span>, <span class="codefrag">favorite_number</span>, and
+        <span class="codefrag">favorite_color</span>.  We also define a namespace
+        (<span class="codefrag">"namespace": "example.avro"</span>), which together with the name
+        attribute defines the "full name" of the schema
+        (<span class="codefrag">example.avro.User</span> in this case).
+
+      </p>
+<p>
+        Fields are defined via an array of objects, each of which defines a name
+        and type (other attributes are optional, see the <a href="spec.html#schema_record">record specification</a> for more
+        details).  The type attribute of a field is another schema object, which
+        can be either a primitive or complex type.  For example, the
+        <span class="codefrag">name</span> field of our User schema is the primitive type
+        <span class="codefrag">string</span>, whereas the <span class="codefrag">favorite_number</span> and
+        <span class="codefrag">favorite_color</span> fields are both <span class="codefrag">union</span>s,
+        represented by JSON arrays.  <span class="codefrag">union</span>s are a complex type that
+        can be any of the types listed in the array; e.g.,
+        <span class="codefrag">favorite_number</span> can either be an <span class="codefrag">int</span> or
+        <span class="codefrag">null</span>, essentially making it an optional field.
+      </p>
+</div>
+
+    
+<a name="Serializing+and+deserializing+with+code+generation"></a>
+<h2 class="h3">Serializing and deserializing with code generation</h2>
+<div class="section">
+<a name="Compiling+the+schema"></a>
+<h3 class="h4">Compiling the schema</h3>
+<p>
+          Code generation allows us to automatically create classes based on our
+          previously-defined schema.  Once we have defined the relevant classes,
+          there is no need to use the schema directly in our programs.  We use the
+          avro-tools jar to generate code as follows:
+        </p>
+<pre class="code">
+java -jar /path/to/avro-tools-1.8.2
+.jar compile schema &lt;schema file&gt; &lt;destination&gt;
+        </pre>
+<p>
+          This will generate the appropriate source files in a package based on
+          the schema's namespace in the provided destination folder.  For
+          instance, to generate a <span class="codefrag">User</span> class in package
+          <span class="codefrag">example.avro</span> from the schema defined above, run
+        </p>
+<pre class="code">
+java -jar /path/to/avro-tools-1.8.2
+.jar compile schema user.avsc .
+        </pre>
+<p>
+          Note that if you using the Avro Maven plugin, there is no need to
+          manually invoke the schema compiler; the plugin automatically
+          performs code generation on any .avsc files present in the configured
+          source directory.
+        </p>
+<a name="Creating+Users"></a>
+<h3 class="h4">Creating Users</h3>
+<p>
+          Now that we've completed the code generation, let's create some
+          <span class="codefrag">User</span>s, serialize them to a data file on disk, and then
+          read back the file and deserialize the <span class="codefrag">User</span> objects.
+        </p>
+<p>
+          First let's create some <span class="codefrag">User</span>s and set their fields.
+        </p>
+<pre class="code">
+User user1 = new User();
+user1.setName("Alyssa");
+user1.setFavoriteNumber(256);
+// Leave favorite color null
+
+// Alternate constructor
+User user2 = new User("Ben", 7, "red");
+
+// Construct via builder
+User user3 = User.newBuilder()
+             .setName("Charlie")
+             .setFavoriteColor("blue")
+             .setFavoriteNumber(null)
+             .build();
+        </pre>
+<p>
+          As shown in this example, Avro objects can be created either by
+          invoking a constructor directly or by using a builder.  Unlike
+          constructors, builders will automatically set any default values
+          specified in the schema.  Additionally, builders validate the data as
+          it set, whereas objects constructed directly will not cause an error
+          until the object is serialized.  However, using constructors directly
+          generally offers better performance, as builders create a copy of the
+          datastructure before it is written.
+        </p>
+<p>
+          Note that we do not set <span class="codefrag">user1</span>'s favorite color. Since
+          that record is of type <span class="codefrag">["string", "null"]</span>, we can either
+          set it to a <span class="codefrag">string</span> or leave it <span class="codefrag">null</span>; it is
+          essentially optional.  Similarly, we set <span class="codefrag">user3</span>'s favorite
+          number to null (using a builder requires setting all fields, even if
+          they are null).
+        </p>
+<a name="Serializing"></a>
+<h3 class="h4">Serializing</h3>
+<p>
+        Now let's serialize our <span class="codefrag">User</span>s to disk.
+      </p>
+<pre class="code">
+// Serialize user1, user2 and user3 to disk
+DatumWriter&lt;User&gt; userDatumWriter = new SpecificDatumWriter&lt;User&gt;(User.class);
+DataFileWriter&lt;User&gt; dataFileWriter = new DataFileWriter&lt;User&gt;(userDatumWriter);
+dataFileWriter.create(user1.getSchema(), new File("users.avro"));
+dataFileWriter.append(user1);
+dataFileWriter.append(user2);
+dataFileWriter.append(user3);
+dataFileWriter.close();
+      </pre>
+<p>
+        We create a <span class="codefrag">DatumWriter</span>, which converts Java objects into
+        an in-memory serialized format.  The <span class="codefrag">SpecificDatumWriter</span>
+        class is used with generated classes and extracts the schema from the
+        specified generated type.
+      </p>
+<p>
+        Next we create a <span class="codefrag">DataFileWriter</span>, which writes the
+        serialized records, as well as the schema, to the file specified in the
+        <span class="codefrag">dataFileWriter.create</span> call.  We write our users to the file
+        via calls to the <span class="codefrag">dataFileWriter.append</span> method.  When we are
+        done writing, we close the data file.
+      </p>
+<a name="Deserializing"></a>
+<h3 class="h4">Deserializing</h3>
+<p>
+          Finally, let's deserialize the data file we just created.
+        </p>
+<pre class="code">
+// Deserialize Users from disk
+DatumReader&lt;User&gt; userDatumReader = new SpecificDatumReader&lt;User&gt;(User.class);
+DataFileReader&lt;User&gt; dataFileReader = new DataFileReader&lt;User&gt;(file, userDatumReader);
+User user = null;
+while (dataFileReader.hasNext()) {
+// Reuse user object by passing it to next(). This saves us from
+// allocating and garbage collecting many objects for files with
+// many items.
+user = dataFileReader.next(user);
+System.out.println(user);
+}
+        </pre>
+<p>
+          This snippet will output:
+        </p>
+<pre class="code">
+{"name": "Alyssa", "favorite_number": 256, "favorite_color": null}
+{"name": "Ben", "favorite_number": 7, "favorite_color": "red"}
+{"name": "Charlie", "favorite_number": null, "favorite_color": "blue"}
+        </pre>
+<p>
+          Deserializing is very similar to serializing.  We create a
+          <span class="codefrag">SpecificDatumReader</span>, analogous to the
+          <span class="codefrag">SpecificDatumWriter</span> we used in serialization, which
+          converts in-memory serialized items into instances of our generated
+          class, in this case <span class="codefrag">User</span>.  We pass the
+          <span class="codefrag">DatumReader</span> and the previously created <span class="codefrag">File</span>
+          to a <span class="codefrag">DataFileReader</span>, analogous to the
+          <span class="codefrag">DataFileWriter</span>, which reads the data file on disk.
+        </p>
+<p>
+          Next we use the <span class="codefrag">DataFileReader</span> to iterate through the
+          serialized <span class="codefrag">User</span>s and print the deserialized object to
+          stdout.  Note how we perform the iteration: we create a single
+          <span class="codefrag">User</span> object which we store the current deserialized user
+          in, and pass this record object to every call of
+          <span class="codefrag">dataFileReader.next</span>.  This is a performance optimization
+          that allows the <span class="codefrag">DataFileReader</span> to reuse the same
+          <span class="codefrag">User</span> object rather than allocating a new
+          <span class="codefrag">User</span> for every iteration, which can be very expensive in
+          terms of object allocation and garbage collection if we deserialize a
+          large data file.  While this technique is the standard way to iterate
+          through a data file, it's also possible to use <span class="codefrag">for (User user :
+          dataFileReader)</span> if performance is not a concern.
+        </p>
+<a name="Compiling+and+running+the+example+code"></a>
+<h3 class="h4">Compiling and running the example code</h3>
+<p>
+          This example code is included as a Maven project in the
+          <em>examples/java-example</em> directory in the Avro docs.  From this
+          directory, execute the following commands to build and run the
+          example:
+        </p>
+<pre class="code">
+$ mvn compile # includes code generation via Avro Maven plugin
+$ mvn -q exec:java -Dexec.mainClass=example.SpecificMain
+        </pre>
+</div>
+
+    
+<a name="Serializing+and+deserializing+without+code+generation"></a>
+<h2 class="h3">Serializing and deserializing without code generation</h2>
+<div class="section">
+<p>
+        Data in Avro is always stored with its corresponding schema, meaning we
+        can always read a serialized item regardless of whether we know the
+        schema ahead of time.  This allows us to perform serialization and
+        deserialization without code generation.
+      </p>
+<p>
+        Let's go over the same example as in the previous section, but without
+        using code generation: we'll create some users, serialize them to a data
+        file on disk, and then read back the file and deserialize the users
+        objects.
+      </p>
+<a name="Creating+users"></a>
+<h3 class="h4">Creating users</h3>
+<p>
+          First, we use a <span class="codefrag">Parser</span> to read our schema definition and
+          create a <span class="codefrag">Schema</span> object.
+        </p>
+<pre class="code">
+Schema schema = new Schema.Parser().parse(new File("user.avsc"));
+        </pre>
+<p>
+          Using this schema, let's create some users.
+        </p>
+<pre class="code">
+GenericRecord user1 = new GenericData.Record(schema);
+user1.put("name", "Alyssa");
+user1.put("favorite_number", 256);
+// Leave favorite color null
+
+GenericRecord user2 = new GenericData.Record(schema);
+user2.put("name", "Ben");
+user2.put("favorite_number", 7);
+user2.put("favorite_color", "red");
+        </pre>
+<p>
+          Since we're not using code generation, we use
+          <span class="codefrag">GenericRecord</span>s to represent users.
+          <span class="codefrag">GenericRecord</span> uses the schema to verify that we only
+          specify valid fields.  If we try to set a non-existent field (e.g.,
+          <span class="codefrag">user1.put("favorite_animal", "cat")</span>), we'll get an
+          <span class="codefrag">AvroRuntimeException</span> when we run the program.
+        </p>
+<p>
+          Note that we do not set <span class="codefrag">user1</span>'s favorite color.  Since
+          that record is of type <span class="codefrag">["string", "null"]</span>, we can either
+          set it to a <span class="codefrag">string</span> or leave it <span class="codefrag">null</span>; it is
+          essentially optional.
+        </p>
+<a name="Serializing-N101DE"></a>
+<h3 class="h4">Serializing</h3>
+<p>
+          Now that we've created our user objects, serializing and deserializing
+          them is almost identical to the example above which uses code
+          generation.  The main difference is that we use generic instead of
+          specific readers and writers.
+        </p>
+<p>
+          First we'll serialize our users to a data file on disk.
+        </p>
+<pre class="code">
+// Serialize user1 and user2 to disk
+File file = new File("users.avro");
+DatumWriter&lt;GenericRecord&gt; datumWriter = new GenericDatumWriter&lt;GenericRecord&gt;(schema);
+DataFileWriter&lt;GenericRecord&gt; dataFileWriter = new DataFileWriter&lt;GenericRecord&gt;(datumWriter);
+dataFileWriter.create(schema, file);
+dataFileWriter.append(user1);
+dataFileWriter.append(user2);
+dataFileWriter.close();
+        </pre>
+<p>
+          We create a <span class="codefrag">DatumWriter</span>, which converts Java objects into
+          an in-memory serialized format.  Since we are not using code
+          generation, we create a <span class="codefrag">GenericDatumWriter</span>.  It requires
+          the schema both to determine how to write the
+          <span class="codefrag">GenericRecord</span>s and to verify that all non-nullable fields
+          are present.
+        </p>
+<p>
+          As in the code generation example, we also create a
+          <span class="codefrag">DataFileWriter</span>, which writes the serialized records, as
+          well as the schema, to the file specified in the
+          <span class="codefrag">dataFileWriter.create</span> call.  We write our users to the
+          file via calls to the <span class="codefrag">dataFileWriter.append</span> method.  When
+          we are done writing, we close the data file.
+        </p>
+<a name="Deserializing-N10207"></a>
+<h3 class="h4">Deserializing</h3>
+<p>
+          Finally, we'll deserialize the data file we just created.
+        </p>
+<pre class="code">
+// Deserialize users from disk
+DatumReader&lt;GenericRecord&gt; datumReader = new GenericDatumReader&lt;GenericRecord&gt;(schema);
+DataFileReader&lt;GenericRecord&gt; dataFileReader = new DataFileReader&lt;GenericRecord&gt;(file, datumReader);
+GenericRecord user = null;
+while (dataFileReader.hasNext()) {
+// Reuse user object by passing it to next(). This saves us from
+// allocating and garbage collecting many objects for files with
+// many items.
+user = dataFileReader.next(user);
+System.out.println(user);
+        </pre>
+<p>This outputs:</p>
+<pre class="code">
+{"name": "Alyssa", "favorite_number": 256, "favorite_color": null}
+{"name": "Ben", "favorite_number": 7, "favorite_color": "red"}
+        </pre>
+<p>
+          Deserializing is very similar to serializing.  We create a
+          <span class="codefrag">GenericDatumReader</span>, analogous to the
+          <span class="codefrag">GenericDatumWriter</span> we used in serialization, which
+          converts in-memory serialized items into <span class="codefrag">GenericRecords</span>.
+          We pass the <span class="codefrag">DatumReader</span> and the previously created
+          <span class="codefrag">File</span> to a <span class="codefrag">DataFileReader</span>, analogous to the
+          <span class="codefrag">DataFileWriter</span>, which reads the data file on disk.
+        </p>
+<p>
+          Next, we use the <span class="codefrag">DataFileReader</span> to iterate through the
+          serialized users and print the deserialized object to stdout.  Note
+          how we perform the iteration: we create a single
+          <span class="codefrag">GenericRecord</span> object which we store the current
+          deserialized user in, and pass this record object to every call of
+          <span class="codefrag">dataFileReader.next</span>.  This is a performance optimization
+          that allows the <span class="codefrag">DataFileReader</span> to reuse the same record
+          object rather than allocating a new <span class="codefrag">GenericRecord</span> for
+          every iteration, which can be very expensive in terms of object
+          allocation and garbage collection if we deserialize a large data file.
+          While this technique is the standard way to iterate through a data
+          file, it's also possible to use <span class="codefrag">for (GenericRecord user :
+          dataFileReader)</span> if performance is not a concern.
+        </p>
+<a name="Compiling+and+running+the+example+code-N10249"></a>
+<h3 class="h4">Compiling and running the example code</h3>
+<p>
+          This example code is included as a Maven project in the
+          <em>examples/java-example</em> directory in the Avro docs.  From this
+          directory, execute the following commands to build and run the
+          example:
+        </p>
+<pre class="code">
+$ mvn compile
+$ mvn -q exec:java -Dexec.mainClass=example.GenericMain
+        </pre>
+</div>
+  
+</div>
+<!--+
+    |end content
+    +-->
+<div class="clearboth">&nbsp;</div>
+</div>
+<div id="footer">
+<!--+
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+<script type="text/javascript"><!--
+document.write("Last Published: " + document.lastModified);
+//  --></script>
+</div>
+<div class="copyright">
+        Copyright &copy;
+         2012 <a href="http://www.apache.org/licenses/">The Apache Software Foundation.</a>
+</div>
+<!--+
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+    +-->
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+        PDF</a>
+</div>
+<h1>Apache Avro&#153; 1.8.2
+ Getting Started (Python)</h1>
+<div id="front-matter">
+<div id="minitoc-area">
+<ul class="minitoc">
+<li>
+<a href="#download_install">Download</a>
+</li>
+<li>
+<a href="#Defining+a+schema">Defining a schema</a>
+</li>
+<li>
+<a href="#Serializing+and+deserializing+without+code+generation">Serializing and deserializing without code generation</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+</div>
+    
+<p>
+      This is a short guide for getting started with Apache Avro&#153; using
+      Python.  This guide only covers using Avro for data serialization; see
+      Patrick Hunt's <a href="https://github.com/phunt/avro-rpc-quickstart">Avro
+      RPC Quick Start</a> for a good introduction to using Avro for RPC.
+    </p>
+
+    
+<a name="download_install"></a>
+<h2 class="h3">Download</h2>
+<div class="section">
+<p>
+        Avro implementations for C, C++, C#, Java, PHP, Python, and Ruby can be
+        downloaded from the <a href="http://avro.apache.org/releases.html">Apache Avro&#153;
+        Releases</a> page.  This guide uses Avro 1.8.2
+, the latest
+        version at the time of writing.  Download and unzip
+        <em>avro-1.8.2
+.tar.gz</em>, and install via <span class="codefrag">python
+        setup.py</span> (this will probably require root privileges).  Ensure
+        that you can <span class="codefrag">import avro</span> from a Python prompt.
+      </p>
+<pre class="code">
+$ tar xvf avro-1.8.2
+.tar.gz
+$ cd avro-1.8.2
+
+$ sudo python setup.py install
+$ python
+&gt;&gt;&gt; import avro # should not raise ImportError
+      </pre>
+<p>
+        Alternatively, you may build the Avro Python library from source.  From
+        your the root Avro directory, run the commands
+      </p>
+<pre class="code">
+$ cd lang/py/
+$ ant
+$ sudo python setup.py install
+$ python
+&gt;&gt;&gt; import avro # should not raise ImportError
+      </pre>
+</div>
+
+    
+<a name="Defining+a+schema"></a>
+<h2 class="h3">Defining a schema</h2>
+<div class="section">
+<p>
+        Avro schemas are defined using JSON.  Schemas are composed of <a href="spec.html#schema_primitive">primitive types</a>
+        (<span class="codefrag">null</span>, <span class="codefrag">boolean</span>, <span class="codefrag">int</span>,
+        <span class="codefrag">long</span>, <span class="codefrag">float</span>, <span class="codefrag">double</span>,
+        <span class="codefrag">bytes</span>, and <span class="codefrag">string</span>) and <a href="spec.html#schema_complex">complex types</a> (<span class="codefrag">record</span>,
+        <span class="codefrag">enum</span>, <span class="codefrag">array</span>, <span class="codefrag">map</span>,
+        <span class="codefrag">union</span>, and <span class="codefrag">fixed</span>).  You can learn more about
+        Avro schemas and types from the specification, but for now let's start
+        with a simple schema example, <em>user.avsc</em>:
+      </p>
+<pre class="code">
+{"namespace": "example.avro",
+ "type": "record",
+ "name": "User",
+ "fields": [
+     {"name": "name", "type": "string"},
+     {"name": "favorite_number",  "type": ["int", "null"]},
+     {"name": "favorite_color", "type": ["string", "null"]}
+ ]
+}
+      </pre>
+<p>
+        This schema defines a record representing a hypothetical user.  (Note
+        that a schema file can only contain a single schema definition.)  At
+        minimum, a record definition must include its type (<span class="codefrag">"type":
+        "record"</span>), a name (<span class="codefrag">"name": "User"</span>), and fields, in
+        this case <span class="codefrag">name</span>, <span class="codefrag">favorite_number</span>, and
+        <span class="codefrag">favorite_color</span>.  We also define a namespace
+        (<span class="codefrag">"namespace": "example.avro"</span>), which together with the name
+        attribute defines the "full name" of the schema
+        (<span class="codefrag">example.avro.User</span> in this case).
+
+      </p>
+<p>
+        Fields are defined via an array of objects, each of which defines a name
+        and type (other attributes are optional, see the <a href="spec.html#schema_record">record specification</a> for more
+        details).  The type attribute of a field is another schema object, which
+        can be either a primitive or complex type.  For example, the
+        <span class="codefrag">name</span> field of our User schema is the primitive type
+        <span class="codefrag">string</span>, whereas the <span class="codefrag">favorite_number</span> and
+        <span class="codefrag">favorite_color</span> fields are both <span class="codefrag">union</span>s,
+        represented by JSON arrays.  <span class="codefrag">union</span>s are a complex type that
+        can be any of the types listed in the array; e.g.,
+        <span class="codefrag">favorite_number</span> can either be an <span class="codefrag">int</span> or
+        <span class="codefrag">null</span>, essentially making it an optional field.
+      </p>
+</div>
+
+    
+<a name="Serializing+and+deserializing+without+code+generation"></a>
+<h2 class="h3">Serializing and deserializing without code generation</h2>
+<div class="section">
+<p>
+        Data in Avro is always stored with its corresponding schema, meaning we
+        can always read a serialized item, regardless of whether we know the
+        schema ahead of time.  This allows us to perform serialization and
+        deserialization without code generation.  Note that the Avro Python
+        library does not support code generation.
+      </p>
+<p>
+        Try running the following code snippet, which serializes two users to a
+        data file on disk, and then reads back and deserializes the data file:
+      </p>
+<pre class="code">
+import avro.schema
+from avro.datafile import DataFileReader, DataFileWriter
+from avro.io import DatumReader, DatumWriter
+
+schema = avro.schema.parse(open("user.avsc", "rb").read())
+
+writer = DataFileWriter(open("users.avro", "wb"), DatumWriter(), schema)
+writer.append({"name": "Alyssa", "favorite_number": 256})
+writer.append({"name": "Ben", "favorite_number": 7, "favorite_color": "red"})
+writer.close()
+
+reader = DataFileReader(open("users.avro", "rb"), DatumReader())
+for user in reader:
+    print user
+reader.close()
+      </pre>
+<p>This outputs:</p>
+<pre class="code">
+{u'favorite_color': None, u'favorite_number': 256, u'name': u'Alyssa'}
+{u'favorite_color': u'red', u'favorite_number': 7, u'name': u'Ben'}
+      </pre>
+<p>
+        Do make sure that you open your files in binary mode (i.e. using the modes
+        <span class="codefrag">wb</span> or <span class="codefrag">rb</span> respectively). Otherwise you might
+        generate corrupt files due to
+        <a href="http://docs.python.org/library/functions.html#open">
+        automatic replacement</a> of newline characters with the
+        platform-specific representations.
+      </p>
+<p>
+        Let's take a closer look at what's going on here.
+      </p>
+<pre class="code">
+schema = avro.schema.parse(open("user.avsc", "rb").read())
+      </pre>
+<p>
+        
+<span class="codefrag">avro.schema.parse</span> takes a string containing a JSON schema
+        definition as input and outputs a <span class="codefrag">avro.schema.Schema</span> object
+        (specifically a subclass of <span class="codefrag">Schema</span>, in this case
+        <span class="codefrag">RecordSchema</span>).  We're passing in the contents of our
+        user.avsc schema file here.
+      </p>
+<pre class="code">
+writer = DataFileWriter(open("users.avro", "wb"), DatumWriter(), schema)
+      </pre>
+<p>
+        We create a <span class="codefrag">DataFileWriter</span>, which we'll use to write
+        serialized items to a data file on disk.  The
+        <span class="codefrag">DataFileWriter</span> constructor takes three arguments:
+      </p>
+<ul>
+          
+<li>The file we'll serialize to</li>
+          
+<li>A <span class="codefrag">DatumWriter</span>, which is responsible for actually
+          serializing the items to Avro's binary format
+          (<span class="codefrag">DatumWriter</span>s can be used separately from
+          <span class="codefrag">DataFileWriter</span>s, e.g., to perform IPC with Avro
+          <strong>TODO: is this true??</strong>).</li>
+          
+<li>The schema we're using.  The <span class="codefrag">DataFileWriter</span> needs the
+          schema both to write the schema to the data file, and to verify that
+          the items we write are valid items and write the appropriate
+          fields.</li>
+        
+</ul>
+<pre class="code">
+writer.append({"name": "Alyssa", "favorite_number": 256})
+writer.append({"name": "Ben", "favorite_number": 7, "favorite_color": "red"})
+        </pre>
+<p>
+          We use <span class="codefrag">DataFileWriter.append</span> to add items to our data
+          file.  Avro records are represented as Python <span class="codefrag">dict</span>s.
+          Since the field <span class="codefrag">favorite_color</span> has type <span class="codefrag">["int",
+          "null"]</span>, we are not required to specify this field, as shown in
+          the first append.  Were we to omit the required <span class="codefrag">name</span>
+          field, an exception would be raised.  Any extra entries not
+          corresponding to a field are present in the <span class="codefrag">dict</span> are
+          ignored.
+        </p>
+<pre class="code">
+reader = DataFileReader(open("users.avro", "rb"), DatumReader())
+        </pre>
+<p>
+          We open the file again, this time for reading back from disk.  We use
+          a <span class="codefrag">DataFileReader</span> and <span class="codefrag">DatumReader</span> analagous
+          to the <span class="codefrag">DataFileWriter</span> and <span class="codefrag">DatumWriter</span> above.
+        </p>
+<pre class="code">
+for user in reader:
+    print user
+        </pre>
+<p>
+          The <span class="codefrag">DataFileReader</span> is an iterator that returns
+          <span class="codefrag">dict</span>s corresponding to the serialized items.
+        </p>
+</div>
+  
+</div>
+<!--+
+    |end content
+    +-->
+<div class="clearboth">&nbsp;</div>
+</div>
+<div id="footer">
+<!--+
+    |start bottomstrip
+    +-->
+<div class="lastmodified">
+<script type="text/javascript"><!--
+document.write("Last Published: " + document.lastModified);
+//  --></script>
+</div>
+<div class="copyright">
+        Copyright &copy;
+         2012 <a href="http://www.apache.org/licenses/">The Apache Software Foundation.</a>
+</div>
+<!--+
+    |end bottomstrip
+    +-->
+</div>
+</body>
+</html>

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