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From dtab...@apache.org
Subject [03/13] asterixdb git commit: Fix open field CREATE INDEX syntax (AQL and SQLPP).
Date Fri, 26 Aug 2016 19:22:46 GMT
http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-join/word-jaccard-inline/word-jaccard-inline.3.ddl.aql
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-join/word-jaccard-inline/word-jaccard-inline.3.ddl.aql b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-join/word-jaccard-inline/word-jaccard-inline.3.ddl.aql
index c2f694d..b2e5bde 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-join/word-jaccard-inline/word-jaccard-inline.3.ddl.aql
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-join/word-jaccard-inline/word-jaccard-inline.3.ddl.aql
@@ -25,5 +25,5 @@
 
 use dataverse test;
 
-create index keyword_index on DBLPOpen(title:string) type keyword enforced;
+create index keyword_index on DBLPOpen(title:string?) type keyword enforced;
 

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-join/word-jaccard/word-jaccard.3.ddl.aql
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-join/word-jaccard/word-jaccard.3.ddl.aql b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-join/word-jaccard/word-jaccard.3.ddl.aql
index 2e20d37..0c030f9 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-join/word-jaccard/word-jaccard.3.ddl.aql
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-join/word-jaccard/word-jaccard.3.ddl.aql
@@ -24,5 +24,5 @@
 
 use dataverse test;
 
-create index keyword_index on DBLPOpen(title:string) type keyword enforced;
+create index keyword_index on DBLPOpen(title:string?) type keyword enforced;
 

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-leftouterjoin/probe-pidx-with-join-btree-sidx1/probe-pidx-with-join-btree-sidx1.1.ddl.aql
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-leftouterjoin/probe-pidx-with-join-btree-sidx1/probe-pidx-with-join-btree-sidx1.1.ddl.aql b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-leftouterjoin/probe-pidx-with-join-btree-sidx1/probe-pidx-with-join-btree-sidx1.1.ddl.aql
index 8d42545..611422c 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-leftouterjoin/probe-pidx-with-join-btree-sidx1/probe-pidx-with-join-btree-sidx1.1.ddl.aql
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-leftouterjoin/probe-pidx-with-join-btree-sidx1/probe-pidx-with-join-btree-sidx1.1.ddl.aql
@@ -52,4 +52,4 @@ primary key tweetid;
 create dataset TweetMessagesTmp(TweetMessageType)
 primary key tweetid;
 
-create index msgCountBIx on TweetMessages(countB: int64) type btree enforced;
+create index msgCountBIx on TweetMessages(countB: int64?) type btree enforced;

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-leftouterjoin/probe-pidx-with-join-btree-sidx2/probe-pidx-with-join-btree-sidx2.1.ddl.aql
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-leftouterjoin/probe-pidx-with-join-btree-sidx2/probe-pidx-with-join-btree-sidx2.1.ddl.aql b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-leftouterjoin/probe-pidx-with-join-btree-sidx2/probe-pidx-with-join-btree-sidx2.1.ddl.aql
index 8d42545..611422c 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-leftouterjoin/probe-pidx-with-join-btree-sidx2/probe-pidx-with-join-btree-sidx2.1.ddl.aql
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-leftouterjoin/probe-pidx-with-join-btree-sidx2/probe-pidx-with-join-btree-sidx2.1.ddl.aql
@@ -52,4 +52,4 @@ primary key tweetid;
 create dataset TweetMessagesTmp(TweetMessageType)
 primary key tweetid;
 
-create index msgCountBIx on TweetMessages(countB: int64) type btree enforced;
+create index msgCountBIx on TweetMessages(countB: int64?) type btree enforced;

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-leftouterjoin/probe-pidx-with-join-invidx-sidx2/probe-pidx-with-join-invidx-sidx2.1.ddl.aql
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-leftouterjoin/probe-pidx-with-join-invidx-sidx2/probe-pidx-with-join-invidx-sidx2.1.ddl.aql b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-leftouterjoin/probe-pidx-with-join-invidx-sidx2/probe-pidx-with-join-invidx-sidx2.1.ddl.aql
index e68d4d7..bf426bf 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-leftouterjoin/probe-pidx-with-join-invidx-sidx2/probe-pidx-with-join-invidx-sidx2.1.ddl.aql
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-leftouterjoin/probe-pidx-with-join-invidx-sidx2/probe-pidx-with-join-invidx-sidx2.1.ddl.aql
@@ -53,4 +53,4 @@ create dataset TweetMessagesTmp(TweetMessageType)
 primary key tweetid;
 
 
-create index msgNgramIx on TweetMessages(message-text: string) type ngram(3) enforced;
+create index msgNgramIx on TweetMessages(message-text: string?) type ngram(3) enforced;

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-leftouterjoin/probe-pidx-with-join-rtree-sidx1/probe-pidx-with-join-rtree-sidx1.1.ddl.aql
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-leftouterjoin/probe-pidx-with-join-rtree-sidx1/probe-pidx-with-join-rtree-sidx1.1.ddl.aql b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-leftouterjoin/probe-pidx-with-join-rtree-sidx1/probe-pidx-with-join-rtree-sidx1.1.ddl.aql
index 8ea607d..5185c06 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-leftouterjoin/probe-pidx-with-join-rtree-sidx1/probe-pidx-with-join-rtree-sidx1.1.ddl.aql
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-leftouterjoin/probe-pidx-with-join-rtree-sidx1/probe-pidx-with-join-rtree-sidx1.1.ddl.aql
@@ -53,4 +53,4 @@ create dataset TweetMessagesTmp(TweetMessageType)
 primary key tweetid;
 
 
-create index twmSndLocIx on TweetMessages(sender-location: point) type rtree enforced;
+create index twmSndLocIx on TweetMessages(sender-location: point?) type rtree enforced;

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-leftouterjoin/probe-pidx-with-join-rtree-sidx2/probe-pidx-with-join-rtree-sidx2.1.ddl.aql
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-leftouterjoin/probe-pidx-with-join-rtree-sidx2/probe-pidx-with-join-rtree-sidx2.1.ddl.aql b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-leftouterjoin/probe-pidx-with-join-rtree-sidx2/probe-pidx-with-join-rtree-sidx2.1.ddl.aql
index 8ea607d..5185c06 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-leftouterjoin/probe-pidx-with-join-rtree-sidx2/probe-pidx-with-join-rtree-sidx2.1.ddl.aql
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-leftouterjoin/probe-pidx-with-join-rtree-sidx2/probe-pidx-with-join-rtree-sidx2.1.ddl.aql
@@ -53,4 +53,4 @@ create dataset TweetMessagesTmp(TweetMessageType)
 primary key tweetid;
 
 
-create index twmSndLocIx on TweetMessages(sender-location: point) type rtree enforced;
+create index twmSndLocIx on TweetMessages(sender-location: point?) type rtree enforced;

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/btree-index-composite-key-mixed-intervals/btree-index-composite-key-mixed-intervals.1.ddl.aql
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/btree-index-composite-key-mixed-intervals/btree-index-composite-key-mixed-intervals.1.ddl.aql b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/btree-index-composite-key-mixed-intervals/btree-index-composite-key-mixed-intervals.1.ddl.aql
index 96c1bfe..54da86f 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/btree-index-composite-key-mixed-intervals/btree-index-composite-key-mixed-intervals.1.ddl.aql
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/btree-index-composite-key-mixed-intervals/btree-index-composite-key-mixed-intervals.1.ddl.aql
@@ -18,7 +18,7 @@
  */
 /*
  * Description     : Test that BTree enforced open index is used in query plan
- *                 : define the BTree enforced open index on a composite key (fname,lanme)
+ *                 : define the BTree enforced open index on a composite key (fname?,lanme?)
  *                 : predicate => where $l.fname > "Julio" and $l.lname > "Mattocks" and
  *                     $l.fname <= "Micco" and $l.lname < "Vangieson"
  * Expected Result : Success

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/btree-index-composite-key-mixed-intervals/btree-index-composite-key-mixed-intervals.2.update.aql
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/btree-index-composite-key-mixed-intervals/btree-index-composite-key-mixed-intervals.2.update.aql b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/btree-index-composite-key-mixed-intervals/btree-index-composite-key-mixed-intervals.2.update.aql
index 2330b61..09127b1 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/btree-index-composite-key-mixed-intervals/btree-index-composite-key-mixed-intervals.2.update.aql
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/btree-index-composite-key-mixed-intervals/btree-index-composite-key-mixed-intervals.2.update.aql
@@ -18,7 +18,7 @@
  */
 /*
  * Description     : Test that BTree enforced open index is used in query plan
- *                 : define the BTree enforced open index on a composite key (fname,lanme)
+ *                 : define the BTree enforced open index on a composite key (fname?,lanme?)
  *                 : predicate => where $l.fname > "Julio" and $l.lname > "Mattocks" and
  *                     $l.fname <= "Micco" and $l.lname < "Vangieson"
  * Expected Result : Success

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/btree-index-composite-key-mixed-intervals/btree-index-composite-key-mixed-intervals.3.ddl.aql
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/btree-index-composite-key-mixed-intervals/btree-index-composite-key-mixed-intervals.3.ddl.aql b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/btree-index-composite-key-mixed-intervals/btree-index-composite-key-mixed-intervals.3.ddl.aql
index 55c8cd7..64649c2 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/btree-index-composite-key-mixed-intervals/btree-index-composite-key-mixed-intervals.3.ddl.aql
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/btree-index-composite-key-mixed-intervals/btree-index-composite-key-mixed-intervals.3.ddl.aql
@@ -18,7 +18,7 @@
  */
 /*
  * Description     : Test that BTree enforced open index is used in query plan
- *                 : define the BTree enforced open index on a composite key (fname,lanme)
+ *                 : define the BTree enforced open index on a composite key (fname?,lanme?)
  *                 : predicate => where $l.fname > "Julio" and $l.lname > "Mattocks" and
  *                     $l.fname <= "Micco" and $l.lname < "Vangieson"
  * Expected Result : Success
@@ -28,4 +28,4 @@
 
 use dataverse test;
 
-create index idx_employee_f_l_name on employeeOpen(fname:string,lname:string) enforced;
+create index idx_employee_f_l_name on employeeOpen(fname:string?,lname:string?) enforced;

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/btree-index-composite-key-mixed-intervals/btree-index-composite-key-mixed-intervals.4.query.aql
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/btree-index-composite-key-mixed-intervals/btree-index-composite-key-mixed-intervals.4.query.aql b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/btree-index-composite-key-mixed-intervals/btree-index-composite-key-mixed-intervals.4.query.aql
index ac09b33..1ad615e 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/btree-index-composite-key-mixed-intervals/btree-index-composite-key-mixed-intervals.4.query.aql
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/btree-index-composite-key-mixed-intervals/btree-index-composite-key-mixed-intervals.4.query.aql
@@ -18,7 +18,7 @@
  */
 /*
  * Description     : Test that BTree enforced open index is used in query plan
- *                 : define the BTree enforced open index on a composite key (fname,lanme)
+ *                 : define the BTree enforced open index on a composite key (fname?,lanme?)
  *                 : predicate => where $l.fname > "Julio" and $l.lname > "Mattocks" and
  *                     $l.fname <= "Micco" and $l.lname < "Vangieson"
  * Expected Result : Success

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/btree-index-composite-key/btree-index-composite-key.2.update.aql
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/btree-index-composite-key/btree-index-composite-key.2.update.aql b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/btree-index-composite-key/btree-index-composite-key.2.update.aql
index ff70569..711837a 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/btree-index-composite-key/btree-index-composite-key.2.update.aql
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/btree-index-composite-key/btree-index-composite-key.2.update.aql
@@ -18,7 +18,7 @@
  */
 /*
  * Description     : Test that BTree enforced open index is used in query plan
- *                 : define the BTree enforced open index on a composite key (fname,lanme)
+ *                 : define the BTree enforced open index on a composite key (fname?,lanme?)
  *                 : predicate => where $l.fname="Julio" and $l.lname="Isa"
  * Expected Result : Success
  * Issue           : Issue 162

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/btree-index-composite-key/btree-index-composite-key.3.ddl.aql
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/btree-index-composite-key/btree-index-composite-key.3.ddl.aql b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/btree-index-composite-key/btree-index-composite-key.3.ddl.aql
index 291e6b5..593ad2e 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/btree-index-composite-key/btree-index-composite-key.3.ddl.aql
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/btree-index-composite-key/btree-index-composite-key.3.ddl.aql
@@ -18,7 +18,7 @@
  */
 /*
  * Description     : Test that BTree enforced open index is used in query plan
- *                 : define the BTree enforced open index on a composite key (fname,lanme)
+ *                 : define the BTree enforced open index on a composite key (fname?,lanme?)
  *                 : predicate => where $l.fname="Julio" and $l.lname="Isa"
  * Expected Result : Success
  * Issue           : Issue 162
@@ -29,4 +29,4 @@ use dataverse test;
 
 // create secondary index
 
-create index idx_employee_f_l_name on employeeOpen(fname:string,lname:string) enforced;
+create index idx_employee_f_l_name on employeeOpen(fname:string?,lname:string?) enforced;

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/btree-index-composite-key/btree-index-composite-key.4.query.aql
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/btree-index-composite-key/btree-index-composite-key.4.query.aql b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/btree-index-composite-key/btree-index-composite-key.4.query.aql
index bc26752..1c7ae06 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/btree-index-composite-key/btree-index-composite-key.4.query.aql
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/btree-index-composite-key/btree-index-composite-key.4.query.aql
@@ -18,7 +18,7 @@
  */
 /*
  * Description     : Test that BTree enforced open index is used in query plan
- *                 : define the BTree enforced open index on a composite key (fname,lanme)
+ *                 : define the BTree enforced open index on a composite key (fname?,lanme?)
  *                 : predicate => where $l.fname="Julio" and $l.lname="Isa"
  * Expected Result : Success
  * Issue           : Issue 162

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/btree-index-rewrite-multiple/btree-index-rewrite-multiple.3.ddl.aql
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/btree-index-rewrite-multiple/btree-index-rewrite-multiple.3.ddl.aql b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/btree-index-rewrite-multiple/btree-index-rewrite-multiple.3.ddl.aql
index 00d93e8..22e396f 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/btree-index-rewrite-multiple/btree-index-rewrite-multiple.3.ddl.aql
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/btree-index-rewrite-multiple/btree-index-rewrite-multiple.3.ddl.aql
@@ -21,4 +21,4 @@ use dataverse tpch;
 
 // create secondary index on OrdersOpen(o_custkey)
 
-create index idx_Orders_Custkey on OrdersOpen(o_custkey:int32) enforced;
+create index idx_Orders_Custkey on OrdersOpen(o_custkey:int32?) enforced;

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/inverted-index-ngram-contains/inverted-index-ngram-contains.3.ddl.aql
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/inverted-index-ngram-contains/inverted-index-ngram-contains.3.ddl.aql b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/inverted-index-ngram-contains/inverted-index-ngram-contains.3.ddl.aql
index f8257db..a450caf 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/inverted-index-ngram-contains/inverted-index-ngram-contains.3.ddl.aql
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/inverted-index-ngram-contains/inverted-index-ngram-contains.3.ddl.aql
@@ -21,4 +21,4 @@ use dataverse test;
 
 // create secondary index of type ngram on DBLPOpen(title)
 
-create index ngram_index on DBLPOpen(title:string) type ngram(3) enforced;
+create index ngram_index on DBLPOpen(title:string?) type ngram(3) enforced;

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/inverted-index-ngram-edit-distance-contains/inverted-index-ngram-edit-distance-contains.3.ddl.aql
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/inverted-index-ngram-edit-distance-contains/inverted-index-ngram-edit-distance-contains.3.ddl.aql b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/inverted-index-ngram-edit-distance-contains/inverted-index-ngram-edit-distance-contains.3.ddl.aql
index 878e11f..cc12561 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/inverted-index-ngram-edit-distance-contains/inverted-index-ngram-edit-distance-contains.3.ddl.aql
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/inverted-index-ngram-edit-distance-contains/inverted-index-ngram-edit-distance-contains.3.ddl.aql
@@ -18,4 +18,4 @@
  */
 use dataverse test;
 
-create index ngram_index on DBLP(title: string) type ngram(3) enforced;
+create index ngram_index on DBLP(title: string?) type ngram(3) enforced;

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/inverted-index-ngram-edit-distance-panic/inverted-index-ngram-edit-distance-panic.3.ddl.aql
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/inverted-index-ngram-edit-distance-panic/inverted-index-ngram-edit-distance-panic.3.ddl.aql b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/inverted-index-ngram-edit-distance-panic/inverted-index-ngram-edit-distance-panic.3.ddl.aql
index f506f55..9fcee83 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/inverted-index-ngram-edit-distance-panic/inverted-index-ngram-edit-distance-panic.3.ddl.aql
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/inverted-index-ngram-edit-distance-panic/inverted-index-ngram-edit-distance-panic.3.ddl.aql
@@ -19,4 +19,4 @@
 
 use dataverse test;
 
-create index ngram_index on DBLPOpen(authors:string) type ngram(3) enforced;
+create index ngram_index on DBLPOpen(authors:string?) type ngram(3) enforced;

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/inverted-index-ngram-edit-distance-word-tokens/inverted-index-ngram-edit-distance-word-tokens.3.ddl.aql
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/inverted-index-ngram-edit-distance-word-tokens/inverted-index-ngram-edit-distance-word-tokens.3.ddl.aql b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/inverted-index-ngram-edit-distance-word-tokens/inverted-index-ngram-edit-distance-word-tokens.3.ddl.aql
index e68a423..ae1f82e 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/inverted-index-ngram-edit-distance-word-tokens/inverted-index-ngram-edit-distance-word-tokens.3.ddl.aql
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/inverted-index-ngram-edit-distance-word-tokens/inverted-index-ngram-edit-distance-word-tokens.3.ddl.aql
@@ -18,4 +18,4 @@
  */
 use dataverse test;
 
-create index ngram_index on DBLP(title:string) type ngram(3) enforced;
+create index ngram_index on DBLP(title:string?) type ngram(3) enforced;

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/inverted-index-ngram-edit-distance/inverted-index-ngram-edit-distance.3.ddl.aql
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/inverted-index-ngram-edit-distance/inverted-index-ngram-edit-distance.3.ddl.aql b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/inverted-index-ngram-edit-distance/inverted-index-ngram-edit-distance.3.ddl.aql
index f506f55..9fcee83 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/inverted-index-ngram-edit-distance/inverted-index-ngram-edit-distance.3.ddl.aql
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/inverted-index-ngram-edit-distance/inverted-index-ngram-edit-distance.3.ddl.aql
@@ -19,4 +19,4 @@
 
 use dataverse test;
 
-create index ngram_index on DBLPOpen(authors:string) type ngram(3) enforced;
+create index ngram_index on DBLPOpen(authors:string?) type ngram(3) enforced;

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/inverted-index-ngram-jaccard/inverted-index-ngram-jaccard.3.ddl.aql
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/inverted-index-ngram-jaccard/inverted-index-ngram-jaccard.3.ddl.aql b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/inverted-index-ngram-jaccard/inverted-index-ngram-jaccard.3.ddl.aql
index a39d6f4..0a6b950 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/inverted-index-ngram-jaccard/inverted-index-ngram-jaccard.3.ddl.aql
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/inverted-index-ngram-jaccard/inverted-index-ngram-jaccard.3.ddl.aql
@@ -18,4 +18,4 @@
  */
 use dataverse test;
 
-create index ngram_index on DBLPOpen(title:string) type ngram(3) enforced;
+create index ngram_index on DBLPOpen(title:string?) type ngram(3) enforced;

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/inverted-index-word-contains/inverted-index-word-contains.3.ddl.aql
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/inverted-index-word-contains/inverted-index-word-contains.3.ddl.aql b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/inverted-index-word-contains/inverted-index-word-contains.3.ddl.aql
index 33c4fd5..ab072db 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/inverted-index-word-contains/inverted-index-word-contains.3.ddl.aql
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/inverted-index-word-contains/inverted-index-word-contains.3.ddl.aql
@@ -18,5 +18,5 @@
  */
 use dataverse test;
 
-create index keyword_index on DBLPOpen(title:string) type keyword enforced;
+create index keyword_index on DBLPOpen(title:string?) type keyword enforced;
 

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/inverted-index-word-jaccard/inverted-index-word-jaccard.3.ddl.aql
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/inverted-index-word-jaccard/inverted-index-word-jaccard.3.ddl.aql b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/inverted-index-word-jaccard/inverted-index-word-jaccard.3.ddl.aql
index 354d1a7..3e52583 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/inverted-index-word-jaccard/inverted-index-word-jaccard.3.ddl.aql
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/inverted-index-word-jaccard/inverted-index-word-jaccard.3.ddl.aql
@@ -18,4 +18,4 @@
  */
 use dataverse test;
 
-create index keyword_index on DBLPOpen(title:string) type keyword enforced;
+create index keyword_index on DBLPOpen(title:string?) type keyword enforced;

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/multi-index-composite-key/multi-index-composite-key.2.update.aql
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/multi-index-composite-key/multi-index-composite-key.2.update.aql b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/multi-index-composite-key/multi-index-composite-key.2.update.aql
index 50b2269..dde8420 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/multi-index-composite-key/multi-index-composite-key.2.update.aql
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/multi-index-composite-key/multi-index-composite-key.2.update.aql
@@ -18,7 +18,7 @@
  */
 /*
  * Description     : Test that BTree enforced open index is used in query plan
- *                 : define the BTree enforced open index on a composite key (fname,lanme)
+ *                 : define the BTree enforced open index on a composite key (fname?,lanme?)
  *                 : predicate => where $l.fname="Julio" and $l.lname="Isa"
  * Expected Result : Success
  * Issue           : Issue 162

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/multi-index-composite-key/multi-index-composite-key.3.ddl.aql
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/multi-index-composite-key/multi-index-composite-key.3.ddl.aql b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/multi-index-composite-key/multi-index-composite-key.3.ddl.aql
index 11b0baa..21ca681 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/multi-index-composite-key/multi-index-composite-key.3.ddl.aql
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/multi-index-composite-key/multi-index-composite-key.3.ddl.aql
@@ -18,7 +18,7 @@
  */
 /*
  * Description     : Test that BTree enforced open index is used in query plan
- *                 : define the BTree enforced open index on a composite key (fname,lanme)
+ *                 : define the BTree enforced open index on a composite key (fname?,lanme?)
  *                 : predicate => where $l.fname="Julio" and $l.lname="Isa"
  * Expected Result : Success
  * Issue           : Issue 162
@@ -29,5 +29,5 @@ use dataverse test;
 
 // create secondary index
 
-create index idx_employee_f_l_name on employeeOpen(fname,lname:string) enforced;
-create index idx_employee_l_f_name on employeeOpen(lname:string, fname) enforced;
+create index idx_employee_f_l_name on employeeOpen(fname, lname:string?) enforced;
+create index idx_employee_l_f_name on employeeOpen(lname:string?, fname) enforced;

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/multi-index-composite-key/multi-index-composite-key.4.query.aql
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/multi-index-composite-key/multi-index-composite-key.4.query.aql b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/multi-index-composite-key/multi-index-composite-key.4.query.aql
index b1f2adf..97aed9a 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/multi-index-composite-key/multi-index-composite-key.4.query.aql
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/multi-index-composite-key/multi-index-composite-key.4.query.aql
@@ -18,7 +18,7 @@
  */
 /*
  * Description     : Test that BTree enforced open index is used in query plan
- *                 : define the BTree enforced open index on a composite key (fname,lanme)
+ *                 : define the BTree enforced open index on a composite key (fname?,lanme?)
  *                 : predicate => where $l.fname="Julio" and $l.lname="Isa"
  * Expected Result : Success
  * Issue           : Issue 162

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/multi-index-composite-key/multi-index-composite-key.5.ddl.aql
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/multi-index-composite-key/multi-index-composite-key.5.ddl.aql b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/multi-index-composite-key/multi-index-composite-key.5.ddl.aql
index 4eaf8e8..21a679a 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/multi-index-composite-key/multi-index-composite-key.5.ddl.aql
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/multi-index-composite-key/multi-index-composite-key.5.ddl.aql
@@ -18,7 +18,7 @@
  */
 /*
  * Description     : Test that BTree enforced open index is used in query plan
- *                 : define the BTree enforced open index on a composite key (fname,lanme)
+ *                 : define the BTree enforced open index on a composite key (fname?,lanme?)
  *                 : predicate => where $l.fname="Julio" and $l.lname="Isa"
  * Expected Result : Success
  * Issue           : Issue 162

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/multi-index-composite-key/multi-index-composite-key.6.query.aql
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/multi-index-composite-key/multi-index-composite-key.6.query.aql b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/multi-index-composite-key/multi-index-composite-key.6.query.aql
index b1f2adf..97aed9a 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/multi-index-composite-key/multi-index-composite-key.6.query.aql
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/multi-index-composite-key/multi-index-composite-key.6.query.aql
@@ -18,7 +18,7 @@
  */
 /*
  * Description     : Test that BTree enforced open index is used in query plan
- *                 : define the BTree enforced open index on a composite key (fname,lanme)
+ *                 : define the BTree enforced open index on a composite key (fname?,lanme?)
  *                 : predicate => where $l.fname="Julio" and $l.lname="Isa"
  * Expected Result : Success
  * Issue           : Issue 162

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/multi-index/multi-index.3.ddl.aql
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/multi-index/multi-index.3.ddl.aql b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/multi-index/multi-index.3.ddl.aql
index 98338b2..e225368 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/multi-index/multi-index.3.ddl.aql
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/multi-index/multi-index.3.ddl.aql
@@ -19,6 +19,6 @@
 
 use dataverse test;
 
-create index ngram_index on DBLPOpen(title:string) type ngram(3) enforced;
-create index keyword_index on DBLPOpen(title:string) type keyword enforced;
-create index btree_index on DBLPOpen(title:string) enforced;
\ No newline at end of file
+create index ngram_index on DBLPOpen(title:string?) type ngram(3) enforced;
+create index keyword_index on DBLPOpen(title:string?) type keyword enforced;
+create index btree_index on DBLPOpen(title:string?) enforced;

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/orders-index-custkey-conjunctive/orders-index-custkey-conjunctive.3.ddl.aql
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/orders-index-custkey-conjunctive/orders-index-custkey-conjunctive.3.ddl.aql b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/orders-index-custkey-conjunctive/orders-index-custkey-conjunctive.3.ddl.aql
index fb86f8d..74947ab 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/orders-index-custkey-conjunctive/orders-index-custkey-conjunctive.3.ddl.aql
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/orders-index-custkey-conjunctive/orders-index-custkey-conjunctive.3.ddl.aql
@@ -18,4 +18,4 @@
  */
 use dataverse tpch;
 
-create index idx_Orders_Custkey on OrdersOpen(o_custkey:int32) enforced;
+create index idx_Orders_Custkey on OrdersOpen(o_custkey:int32?) enforced;

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/orders-index-custkey/orders-index-custkey.3.ddl.aql
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/orders-index-custkey/orders-index-custkey.3.ddl.aql b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/orders-index-custkey/orders-index-custkey.3.ddl.aql
index fb86f8d..74947ab 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/orders-index-custkey/orders-index-custkey.3.ddl.aql
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/orders-index-custkey/orders-index-custkey.3.ddl.aql
@@ -18,4 +18,4 @@
  */
 use dataverse tpch;
 
-create index idx_Orders_Custkey on OrdersOpen(o_custkey:int32) enforced;
+create index idx_Orders_Custkey on OrdersOpen(o_custkey:int32?) enforced;

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/range-search/range-search.3.ddl.aql
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/range-search/range-search.3.ddl.aql b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/range-search/range-search.3.ddl.aql
index b6e77a1..46f6625 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/range-search/range-search.3.ddl.aql
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/range-search/range-search.3.ddl.aql
@@ -18,4 +18,4 @@
  */
 use dataverse test;
 
-create index idx_LineItem_suppkey on LineItemOpen(l_suppkey:int32) enforced;
+create index idx_LineItem_suppkey on LineItemOpen(l_suppkey:int32?) enforced;

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/rtree-secondary-index/rtree-secondary-index.3.ddl.aql
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/rtree-secondary-index/rtree-secondary-index.3.ddl.aql b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/rtree-secondary-index/rtree-secondary-index.3.ddl.aql
index 940863c..21e8190 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/rtree-secondary-index/rtree-secondary-index.3.ddl.aql
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/open-index-enforced/index-selection/rtree-secondary-index/rtree-secondary-index.3.ddl.aql
@@ -18,4 +18,4 @@
  */
 use dataverse test;
 
-create index rtree_index_point on MyDataOpen(point: point) type rtree enforced;
+create index rtree_index_point on MyDataOpen(point: point?) type rtree enforced;

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/temp-dataset/drop-empty-secondary-indexes/drop-empty-secondary-indexes.1.ddl.aql
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/temp-dataset/drop-empty-secondary-indexes/drop-empty-secondary-indexes.1.ddl.aql b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/temp-dataset/drop-empty-secondary-indexes/drop-empty-secondary-indexes.1.ddl.aql
index 43ec9d2..3b6c965 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/temp-dataset/drop-empty-secondary-indexes/drop-empty-secondary-indexes.1.ddl.aql
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/temp-dataset/drop-empty-secondary-indexes/drop-empty-secondary-indexes.1.ddl.aql
@@ -48,17 +48,17 @@ create temporary dataset t1(TestType) primary key id;
 
 create index rtree_index_point on t1(locn) type rtree;
 
-create index rtree_index_point_open on t1(open_locn:point) type rtree enforced;
+create index rtree_index_point_open on t1(open_locn:point?) type rtree enforced;
 
 create index keyWD_indx on t1(name) type keyword;
 
-create index keyWD_indx_open on t1(nickname:string) type keyword enforced;
+create index keyWD_indx_open on t1(nickname:string?) type keyword enforced;
 
 create index secndIndx on t1(zip);
 
 create index nested on t1(person.name.first);
 
-create index secndIndx_open on t1(address:string) enforced;
+create index secndIndx_open on t1(address:string?) enforced;
 
 drop index t1.rtree_index_point;
 

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/upsert/open-index/open-index.1.ddl.aql
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/upsert/open-index/open-index.1.ddl.aql b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/upsert/open-index/open-index.1.ddl.aql
index a1755ce..66ce1f8 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/upsert/open-index/open-index.1.ddl.aql
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries/upsert/open-index/open-index.1.ddl.aql
@@ -52,5 +52,5 @@ create dataset Orders(OrderType)
 create dataset OrdersOpen(OrderOpenType)
 primary key o_orderkey;
 
-create index idx_Orders_Custkey on OrdersOpen(o_custkey:int32) enforced;
+create index idx_Orders_Custkey on OrdersOpen(o_custkey:int32?) enforced;
 

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/drop-empty-secondary-indexes/drop-empty-secondary-indexes.1.ddl.sqlpp
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/drop-empty-secondary-indexes/drop-empty-secondary-indexes.1.ddl.sqlpp b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/drop-empty-secondary-indexes/drop-empty-secondary-indexes.1.ddl.sqlpp
index 820ddd2..91830f4 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/drop-empty-secondary-indexes/drop-empty-secondary-indexes.1.ddl.sqlpp
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/drop-empty-secondary-indexes/drop-empty-secondary-indexes.1.ddl.sqlpp
@@ -53,17 +53,17 @@ create  dataset t1(TestType) primary key id;
 
 create  index rtree_index_point  on t1 (locn) type rtree;
 
-create  index rtree_index_point_open  on t1 (open_locn:point) type rtree enforced;
+create  index rtree_index_point_open  on t1 (open_locn:point?) type rtree enforced;
 
 create  index keyWD_indx  on t1 (name) type keyword;
 
-create  index keyWD_indx_open  on t1 (nickname:string) type keyword enforced;
+create  index keyWD_indx_open  on t1 (nickname:string?) type keyword enforced;
 
 create  index secndIndx  on t1 (zip) type btree;
 
 create  index nested  on t1 (person.name.first) type btree;
 
-create  index secndIndx_open  on t1 (address:string) type btree enforced;
+create  index secndIndx_open  on t1 (address:string?) type btree enforced;
 
 drop index t1.rtree_index_point;
 drop index t1.rtree_index_point_open;

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/insert-and-scan-dataset-with-index-on-open-field/insert-and-scan-dataset-with-index-on-open-field.1.ddl.sqlpp
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/insert-and-scan-dataset-with-index-on-open-field/insert-and-scan-dataset-with-index-on-open-field.1.ddl.sqlpp b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/insert-and-scan-dataset-with-index-on-open-field/insert-and-scan-dataset-with-index-on-open-field.1.ddl.sqlpp
index a867fae..9e911e0 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/insert-and-scan-dataset-with-index-on-open-field/insert-and-scan-dataset-with-index-on-open-field.1.ddl.sqlpp
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/insert-and-scan-dataset-with-index-on-open-field/insert-and-scan-dataset-with-index-on-open-field.1.ddl.sqlpp
@@ -48,5 +48,5 @@ create  dataset test.employee(Emp) primary key id;
 
 create  dataset test.employeeClosed(EmpClosed) primary key id;
 
-create  index idx_employee_first_name  on test.employee (fname:string) type btree enforced;
+create  index idx_employee_first_name  on test.employee (fname:string?) type btree enforced;
 

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/load-with-index-open/load-with-index-open.1.ddl.sqlpp
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/load-with-index-open/load-with-index-open.1.ddl.sqlpp b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/load-with-index-open/load-with-index-open.1.ddl.sqlpp
index ca3bef1..8df3377 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/load-with-index-open/load-with-index-open.1.ddl.sqlpp
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/load-with-index-open/load-with-index-open.1.ddl.sqlpp
@@ -66,5 +66,5 @@ create  dataset LineItemOpen(LineItemTypeOpen) primary key l_orderkey,l_linenumb
 
 create  dataset LineItem(LineItemType) primary key l_orderkey,l_linenumber;
 
-create  index idx_partkey_open  on LineItemOpen (l_partkey:int64) type btree enforced;
+create  index idx_partkey_open  on LineItemOpen (l_partkey:int64?) type btree enforced;
 

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/load-with-ngram-index-open/load-with-ngram-index-open.1.ddl.sqlpp
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/load-with-ngram-index-open/load-with-ngram-index-open.1.ddl.sqlpp b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/load-with-ngram-index-open/load-with-ngram-index-open.1.ddl.sqlpp
index 9d60cc6..8c6fd92 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/load-with-ngram-index-open/load-with-ngram-index-open.1.ddl.sqlpp
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/load-with-ngram-index-open/load-with-ngram-index-open.1.ddl.sqlpp
@@ -44,5 +44,5 @@ create  dataset DBLP(DBLPType) primary key id;
 
 create  dataset DBLPOpen(DBLPTypeOpen) primary key id;
 
-create  index ngram_index_open  on DBLPOpen (title:string) type ngram (3) enforced;
+create  index ngram_index_open  on DBLPOpen (title:string?) type ngram (3) enforced;
 

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/load-with-rtree-index-open/load-with-rtree-index-open.1.ddl.sqlpp
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/load-with-rtree-index-open/load-with-rtree-index-open.1.ddl.sqlpp b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/load-with-rtree-index-open/load-with-rtree-index-open.1.ddl.sqlpp
index 45506ef..876926e 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/load-with-rtree-index-open/load-with-rtree-index-open.1.ddl.sqlpp
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/load-with-rtree-index-open/load-with-rtree-index-open.1.ddl.sqlpp
@@ -52,5 +52,5 @@ create  dataset MyData(MyRecord) primary key id;
 
 create  dataset MyDataOpen(MyRecordOpen) primary key id;
 
-create  index rtree_index_point  on MyDataOpen (point:point) type rtree enforced;
+create  index rtree_index_point  on MyDataOpen (point:point?) type rtree enforced;
 

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/load-with-word-index-open/load-with-word-index-open.1.ddl.sqlpp
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/load-with-word-index-open/load-with-word-index-open.1.ddl.sqlpp b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/load-with-word-index-open/load-with-word-index-open.1.ddl.sqlpp
index fadb63d..04ba426 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/load-with-word-index-open/load-with-word-index-open.1.ddl.sqlpp
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/load-with-word-index-open/load-with-word-index-open.1.ddl.sqlpp
@@ -44,5 +44,5 @@ create  dataset DBLP(DBLPType) primary key id;
 
 create  dataset DBLPOpen(DBLPTypeOpen) primary key id;
 
-create  index keyword_index  on DBLPOpen (title:string) type keyword enforced;
+create  index keyword_index  on DBLPOpen (title:string?) type keyword enforced;
 

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/scan-delete-btree-secondary-index-open/scan-delete-btree-secondary-index-open.3.ddl.sqlpp
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/scan-delete-btree-secondary-index-open/scan-delete-btree-secondary-index-open.3.ddl.sqlpp b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/scan-delete-btree-secondary-index-open/scan-delete-btree-secondary-index-open.3.ddl.sqlpp
index 7f3e371..8d5f3ea 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/scan-delete-btree-secondary-index-open/scan-delete-btree-secondary-index-open.3.ddl.sqlpp
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/scan-delete-btree-secondary-index-open/scan-delete-btree-secondary-index-open.3.ddl.sqlpp
@@ -20,5 +20,5 @@
 use test;
 
 
-create  index age_index  on CustomersOpen (age:int32) type btree enforced;
+create  index age_index  on CustomersOpen (age:int32?) type btree enforced;
 

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/scan-delete-inverted-index-ngram-secondary-index-open/scan-delete-inverted-index-ngram-secondary-index-open.3.ddl.sqlpp
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/scan-delete-inverted-index-ngram-secondary-index-open/scan-delete-inverted-index-ngram-secondary-index-open.3.ddl.sqlpp b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/scan-delete-inverted-index-ngram-secondary-index-open/scan-delete-inverted-index-ngram-secondary-index-open.3.ddl.sqlpp
index c708608..8f7f02d 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/scan-delete-inverted-index-ngram-secondary-index-open/scan-delete-inverted-index-ngram-secondary-index-open.3.ddl.sqlpp
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/scan-delete-inverted-index-ngram-secondary-index-open/scan-delete-inverted-index-ngram-secondary-index-open.3.ddl.sqlpp
@@ -26,5 +26,5 @@
 use test;
 
 
-create  index ngram_index  on DBLPOpen (title:string) type ngram (3) enforced;
+create  index ngram_index  on DBLPOpen (title:string?) type ngram (3) enforced;
 

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/scan-delete-inverted-index-word-secondary-index-open/scan-delete-inverted-index-word-secondary-index-open.3.ddl.sqlpp
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/scan-delete-inverted-index-word-secondary-index-open/scan-delete-inverted-index-word-secondary-index-open.3.ddl.sqlpp b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/scan-delete-inverted-index-word-secondary-index-open/scan-delete-inverted-index-word-secondary-index-open.3.ddl.sqlpp
index e8d46d8..44611e4 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/scan-delete-inverted-index-word-secondary-index-open/scan-delete-inverted-index-word-secondary-index-open.3.ddl.sqlpp
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/scan-delete-inverted-index-word-secondary-index-open/scan-delete-inverted-index-word-secondary-index-open.3.ddl.sqlpp
@@ -26,5 +26,5 @@
 use test;
 
 
-create  index keyword_index  on DBLPOpen (title:string) type keyword enforced;
+create  index keyword_index  on DBLPOpen (title:string?) type keyword enforced;
 

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/scan-delete-rtree-secondary-index-open/scan-delete-rtree-secondary-index-open.3.ddl.sqlpp
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/scan-delete-rtree-secondary-index-open/scan-delete-rtree-secondary-index-open.3.ddl.sqlpp b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/scan-delete-rtree-secondary-index-open/scan-delete-rtree-secondary-index-open.3.ddl.sqlpp
index 13d1312..d60a493 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/scan-delete-rtree-secondary-index-open/scan-delete-rtree-secondary-index-open.3.ddl.sqlpp
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/scan-delete-rtree-secondary-index-open/scan-delete-rtree-secondary-index-open.3.ddl.sqlpp
@@ -26,5 +26,5 @@
 use test;
 
 
-create  index rtree_index_point  on MyDataOpen (point:point) type rtree enforced;
+create  index rtree_index_point  on MyDataOpen (point:point?) type rtree enforced;
 

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/scan-insert-btree-secondary-index-open/scan-insert-btree-secondary-index-open.3.ddl.sqlpp
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/scan-insert-btree-secondary-index-open/scan-insert-btree-secondary-index-open.3.ddl.sqlpp b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/scan-insert-btree-secondary-index-open/scan-insert-btree-secondary-index-open.3.ddl.sqlpp
index 7f3e371..8d5f3ea 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/scan-insert-btree-secondary-index-open/scan-insert-btree-secondary-index-open.3.ddl.sqlpp
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/scan-insert-btree-secondary-index-open/scan-insert-btree-secondary-index-open.3.ddl.sqlpp
@@ -20,5 +20,5 @@
 use test;
 
 
-create  index age_index  on CustomersOpen (age:int32) type btree enforced;
+create  index age_index  on CustomersOpen (age:int32?) type btree enforced;
 

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/scan-insert-inverted-index-ngram-secondary-index-open/scan-insert-inverted-index-ngram-secondary-index-open.3.ddl.sqlpp
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/scan-insert-inverted-index-ngram-secondary-index-open/scan-insert-inverted-index-ngram-secondary-index-open.3.ddl.sqlpp b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/scan-insert-inverted-index-ngram-secondary-index-open/scan-insert-inverted-index-ngram-secondary-index-open.3.ddl.sqlpp
index 9a87a57..766fb58 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/scan-insert-inverted-index-ngram-secondary-index-open/scan-insert-inverted-index-ngram-secondary-index-open.3.ddl.sqlpp
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/scan-insert-inverted-index-ngram-secondary-index-open/scan-insert-inverted-index-ngram-secondary-index-open.3.ddl.sqlpp
@@ -28,5 +28,5 @@ use test;
 
 create  index ngram_index  on DBLP (title) type ngram (3);
 
-create  index ngram_index1  on DBLPOpen (title:string) type ngram (3) enforced;
+create  index ngram_index1  on DBLPOpen (title:string?) type ngram (3) enforced;
 

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/scan-insert-inverted-index-word-secondary-index-open/scan-insert-inverted-index-word-secondary-index-open.3.ddl.sqlpp
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/scan-insert-inverted-index-word-secondary-index-open/scan-insert-inverted-index-word-secondary-index-open.3.ddl.sqlpp b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/scan-insert-inverted-index-word-secondary-index-open/scan-insert-inverted-index-word-secondary-index-open.3.ddl.sqlpp
index 8ce9d0f..6d1bbef 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/scan-insert-inverted-index-word-secondary-index-open/scan-insert-inverted-index-word-secondary-index-open.3.ddl.sqlpp
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/scan-insert-inverted-index-word-secondary-index-open/scan-insert-inverted-index-word-secondary-index-open.3.ddl.sqlpp
@@ -28,5 +28,5 @@ use test;
 
 create  index keyword_index  on DBLP (title) type keyword;
 
-create  index keyword_index1  on DBLPOpen (title:string) type keyword enforced;
+create  index keyword_index1  on DBLPOpen (title:string?) type keyword enforced;
 

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/scan-insert-rtree-secondary-index-open/scan-insert-rtree-secondary-index-open.3.ddl.sqlpp
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/scan-insert-rtree-secondary-index-open/scan-insert-rtree-secondary-index-open.3.ddl.sqlpp b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/scan-insert-rtree-secondary-index-open/scan-insert-rtree-secondary-index-open.3.ddl.sqlpp
index 077cf51..c990215 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/scan-insert-rtree-secondary-index-open/scan-insert-rtree-secondary-index-open.3.ddl.sqlpp
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/dml/scan-insert-rtree-secondary-index-open/scan-insert-rtree-secondary-index-open.3.ddl.sqlpp
@@ -28,5 +28,5 @@ use test;
 
 create  index rtree_index_point_0  on MyData (point) type rtree;
 
-create  index rtree_index_point  on MyOpenData (point:point) type rtree enforced;
+create  index rtree_index_point  on MyOpenData (point:point?) type rtree enforced;
 

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q01/q01.1.ddl.sqlpp
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q01/q01.1.ddl.sqlpp b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q01/q01.1.ddl.sqlpp
index f78afef..04af998 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q01/q01.1.ddl.sqlpp
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q01/q01.1.ddl.sqlpp
@@ -46,6 +46,6 @@ create  dataset FacebookUsers(FacebookUserType) primary key id;
 create  dataset FacebookMessages(FacebookMessageType) primary key `message-id`;
 create  dataset TwitterUsers(TwitterUserType) primary key `screen-name`;
 create  dataset TweetMessages(TweetMessageType) primary key tweetid hints (`CARDINALITY`=`100`);
-create  index fbUserSinceIdx  on FacebookUsers (`user-since`:datetime) type btree enforced;
-create  index fbAuthorIdx  on FacebookMessages (`author-id`:int64) type btree enforced;
+create  index fbUserSinceIdx  on FacebookUsers (`user-since`:datetime?) type btree enforced;
+create  index fbAuthorIdx  on FacebookMessages (`author-id`:int64?) type btree enforced;
 

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q02/q02.1.ddl.sqlpp
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q02/q02.1.ddl.sqlpp b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q02/q02.1.ddl.sqlpp
index f78afef..04af998 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q02/q02.1.ddl.sqlpp
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q02/q02.1.ddl.sqlpp
@@ -46,6 +46,6 @@ create  dataset FacebookUsers(FacebookUserType) primary key id;
 create  dataset FacebookMessages(FacebookMessageType) primary key `message-id`;
 create  dataset TwitterUsers(TwitterUserType) primary key `screen-name`;
 create  dataset TweetMessages(TweetMessageType) primary key tweetid hints (`CARDINALITY`=`100`);
-create  index fbUserSinceIdx  on FacebookUsers (`user-since`:datetime) type btree enforced;
-create  index fbAuthorIdx  on FacebookMessages (`author-id`:int64) type btree enforced;
+create  index fbUserSinceIdx  on FacebookUsers (`user-since`:datetime?) type btree enforced;
+create  index fbAuthorIdx  on FacebookMessages (`author-id`:int64?) type btree enforced;
 

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q03/q03.1.ddl.sqlpp
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q03/q03.1.ddl.sqlpp b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q03/q03.1.ddl.sqlpp
index f78afef..04af998 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q03/q03.1.ddl.sqlpp
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q03/q03.1.ddl.sqlpp
@@ -46,6 +46,6 @@ create  dataset FacebookUsers(FacebookUserType) primary key id;
 create  dataset FacebookMessages(FacebookMessageType) primary key `message-id`;
 create  dataset TwitterUsers(TwitterUserType) primary key `screen-name`;
 create  dataset TweetMessages(TweetMessageType) primary key tweetid hints (`CARDINALITY`=`100`);
-create  index fbUserSinceIdx  on FacebookUsers (`user-since`:datetime) type btree enforced;
-create  index fbAuthorIdx  on FacebookMessages (`author-id`:int64) type btree enforced;
+create  index fbUserSinceIdx  on FacebookUsers (`user-since`:datetime?) type btree enforced;
+create  index fbAuthorIdx  on FacebookMessages (`author-id`:int64?) type btree enforced;
 

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q04/q04.1.ddl.sqlpp
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q04/q04.1.ddl.sqlpp b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q04/q04.1.ddl.sqlpp
index f78afef..04af998 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q04/q04.1.ddl.sqlpp
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q04/q04.1.ddl.sqlpp
@@ -46,6 +46,6 @@ create  dataset FacebookUsers(FacebookUserType) primary key id;
 create  dataset FacebookMessages(FacebookMessageType) primary key `message-id`;
 create  dataset TwitterUsers(TwitterUserType) primary key `screen-name`;
 create  dataset TweetMessages(TweetMessageType) primary key tweetid hints (`CARDINALITY`=`100`);
-create  index fbUserSinceIdx  on FacebookUsers (`user-since`:datetime) type btree enforced;
-create  index fbAuthorIdx  on FacebookMessages (`author-id`:int64) type btree enforced;
+create  index fbUserSinceIdx  on FacebookUsers (`user-since`:datetime?) type btree enforced;
+create  index fbAuthorIdx  on FacebookMessages (`author-id`:int64?) type btree enforced;
 

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q05_error/q05_error.1.ddl.sqlpp
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q05_error/q05_error.1.ddl.sqlpp b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q05_error/q05_error.1.ddl.sqlpp
index f78afef..04af998 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q05_error/q05_error.1.ddl.sqlpp
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q05_error/q05_error.1.ddl.sqlpp
@@ -46,6 +46,6 @@ create  dataset FacebookUsers(FacebookUserType) primary key id;
 create  dataset FacebookMessages(FacebookMessageType) primary key `message-id`;
 create  dataset TwitterUsers(TwitterUserType) primary key `screen-name`;
 create  dataset TweetMessages(TweetMessageType) primary key tweetid hints (`CARDINALITY`=`100`);
-create  index fbUserSinceIdx  on FacebookUsers (`user-since`:datetime) type btree enforced;
-create  index fbAuthorIdx  on FacebookMessages (`author-id`:int64) type btree enforced;
+create  index fbUserSinceIdx  on FacebookUsers (`user-since`:datetime?) type btree enforced;
+create  index fbAuthorIdx  on FacebookMessages (`author-id`:int64?) type btree enforced;
 

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q06_error/q06_error.1.ddl.sqlpp
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q06_error/q06_error.1.ddl.sqlpp b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q06_error/q06_error.1.ddl.sqlpp
index f78afef..04af998 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q06_error/q06_error.1.ddl.sqlpp
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q06_error/q06_error.1.ddl.sqlpp
@@ -46,6 +46,6 @@ create  dataset FacebookUsers(FacebookUserType) primary key id;
 create  dataset FacebookMessages(FacebookMessageType) primary key `message-id`;
 create  dataset TwitterUsers(TwitterUserType) primary key `screen-name`;
 create  dataset TweetMessages(TweetMessageType) primary key tweetid hints (`CARDINALITY`=`100`);
-create  index fbUserSinceIdx  on FacebookUsers (`user-since`:datetime) type btree enforced;
-create  index fbAuthorIdx  on FacebookMessages (`author-id`:int64) type btree enforced;
+create  index fbUserSinceIdx  on FacebookUsers (`user-since`:datetime?) type btree enforced;
+create  index fbAuthorIdx  on FacebookMessages (`author-id`:int64?) type btree enforced;
 

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q07_error/q07_error.1.ddl.sqlpp
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q07_error/q07_error.1.ddl.sqlpp b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q07_error/q07_error.1.ddl.sqlpp
index f78afef..04af998 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q07_error/q07_error.1.ddl.sqlpp
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q07_error/q07_error.1.ddl.sqlpp
@@ -46,6 +46,6 @@ create  dataset FacebookUsers(FacebookUserType) primary key id;
 create  dataset FacebookMessages(FacebookMessageType) primary key `message-id`;
 create  dataset TwitterUsers(TwitterUserType) primary key `screen-name`;
 create  dataset TweetMessages(TweetMessageType) primary key tweetid hints (`CARDINALITY`=`100`);
-create  index fbUserSinceIdx  on FacebookUsers (`user-since`:datetime) type btree enforced;
-create  index fbAuthorIdx  on FacebookMessages (`author-id`:int64) type btree enforced;
+create  index fbUserSinceIdx  on FacebookUsers (`user-since`:datetime?) type btree enforced;
+create  index fbAuthorIdx  on FacebookMessages (`author-id`:int64?) type btree enforced;
 

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q08/q08.1.ddl.sqlpp
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q08/q08.1.ddl.sqlpp b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q08/q08.1.ddl.sqlpp
index f78afef..04af998 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q08/q08.1.ddl.sqlpp
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q08/q08.1.ddl.sqlpp
@@ -46,6 +46,6 @@ create  dataset FacebookUsers(FacebookUserType) primary key id;
 create  dataset FacebookMessages(FacebookMessageType) primary key `message-id`;
 create  dataset TwitterUsers(TwitterUserType) primary key `screen-name`;
 create  dataset TweetMessages(TweetMessageType) primary key tweetid hints (`CARDINALITY`=`100`);
-create  index fbUserSinceIdx  on FacebookUsers (`user-since`:datetime) type btree enforced;
-create  index fbAuthorIdx  on FacebookMessages (`author-id`:int64) type btree enforced;
+create  index fbUserSinceIdx  on FacebookUsers (`user-since`:datetime?) type btree enforced;
+create  index fbAuthorIdx  on FacebookMessages (`author-id`:int64?) type btree enforced;
 

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q09/q09.1.ddl.sqlpp
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q09/q09.1.ddl.sqlpp b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q09/q09.1.ddl.sqlpp
index f78afef..04af998 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q09/q09.1.ddl.sqlpp
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q09/q09.1.ddl.sqlpp
@@ -46,6 +46,6 @@ create  dataset FacebookUsers(FacebookUserType) primary key id;
 create  dataset FacebookMessages(FacebookMessageType) primary key `message-id`;
 create  dataset TwitterUsers(TwitterUserType) primary key `screen-name`;
 create  dataset TweetMessages(TweetMessageType) primary key tweetid hints (`CARDINALITY`=`100`);
-create  index fbUserSinceIdx  on FacebookUsers (`user-since`:datetime) type btree enforced;
-create  index fbAuthorIdx  on FacebookMessages (`author-id`:int64) type btree enforced;
+create  index fbUserSinceIdx  on FacebookUsers (`user-since`:datetime?) type btree enforced;
+create  index fbAuthorIdx  on FacebookMessages (`author-id`:int64?) type btree enforced;
 

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q10/q10.1.ddl.sqlpp
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q10/q10.1.ddl.sqlpp b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q10/q10.1.ddl.sqlpp
index f78afef..04af998 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q10/q10.1.ddl.sqlpp
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/global-aggregate/q10/q10.1.ddl.sqlpp
@@ -46,6 +46,6 @@ create  dataset FacebookUsers(FacebookUserType) primary key id;
 create  dataset FacebookMessages(FacebookMessageType) primary key `message-id`;
 create  dataset TwitterUsers(TwitterUserType) primary key `screen-name`;
 create  dataset TweetMessages(TweetMessageType) primary key tweetid hints (`CARDINALITY`=`100`);
-create  index fbUserSinceIdx  on FacebookUsers (`user-since`:datetime) type btree enforced;
-create  index fbAuthorIdx  on FacebookMessages (`author-id`:int64) type btree enforced;
+create  index fbUserSinceIdx  on FacebookUsers (`user-since`:datetime?) type btree enforced;
+create  index fbAuthorIdx  on FacebookMessages (`author-id`:int64?) type btree enforced;
 

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/nested-open-index/external-indexing/adm-format/adm-format.1.ddl.sqlpp
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/nested-open-index/external-indexing/adm-format/adm-format.1.ddl.sqlpp b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/nested-open-index/external-indexing/adm-format/adm-format.1.ddl.sqlpp
index 32325c9..1546363 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/nested-open-index/external-indexing/adm-format/adm-format.1.ddl.sqlpp
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/nested-open-index/external-indexing/adm-format/adm-format.1.ddl.sqlpp
@@ -48,5 +48,5 @@ create type test.MyRecord as
 
 create external  dataset MyData(MyRecord) using `hdfs`((`hdfs`=`hdfs://127.0.0.1:31888`),(`path`=`/asterix/spatialDataNested.json`),(`input-format`=`text-input-format`),(`format`=`adm`));
 
-create  index idx  on MyData (nested.id:int32) type btree enforced;
+create  index idx  on MyData (nested.id:int32?) type btree enforced;
 

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/nested-open-index/external-indexing/leftouterjoin-rtree/leftouterjoin-rtree.1.ddl.sqlpp
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/nested-open-index/external-indexing/leftouterjoin-rtree/leftouterjoin-rtree.1.ddl.sqlpp b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/nested-open-index/external-indexing/leftouterjoin-rtree/leftouterjoin-rtree.1.ddl.sqlpp
index a7d11e1..b5d7ed1 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/nested-open-index/external-indexing/leftouterjoin-rtree/leftouterjoin-rtree.1.ddl.sqlpp
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/nested-open-index/external-indexing/leftouterjoin-rtree/leftouterjoin-rtree.1.ddl.sqlpp
@@ -54,11 +54,11 @@ create type test.TweetMessageType as
 
 create external  dataset TweetMessages(TweetMessageType) using `hdfs`((`hdfs`=`hdfs://127.0.0.1:31888`),(`path`=`/asterix/tw_for_indexleftouterjoin_nested.adm`),(`input-format`=`text-input-format`),(`format`=`adm`));
 
-create  index IdIx  on TweetMessages (nested.tweetid:int64) type btree enforced;
+create  index IdIx  on TweetMessages (nested.tweetid:int64?) type btree enforced;
 
-create  index msgCountAIx  on TweetMessages (nested.countA:int64) type btree enforced;
+create  index msgCountAIx  on TweetMessages (nested.countA:int64?) type btree enforced;
 
-create  index msgCountBIx  on TweetMessages (nested.countB:int64) type btree enforced;
+create  index msgCountBIx  on TweetMessages (nested.countB:int64?) type btree enforced;
 
-create  index twmSndLocIx  on TweetMessages (nested.`sender-location`:point) type rtree enforced;
+create  index twmSndLocIx  on TweetMessages (nested.`sender-location`:point?) type rtree enforced;
 

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/nested-open-index/external-indexing/leftouterjoin/leftouterjoin.1.ddl.sqlpp
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/nested-open-index/external-indexing/leftouterjoin/leftouterjoin.1.ddl.sqlpp b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/nested-open-index/external-indexing/leftouterjoin/leftouterjoin.1.ddl.sqlpp
index 4b6c084..b663dd7 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/nested-open-index/external-indexing/leftouterjoin/leftouterjoin.1.ddl.sqlpp
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/nested-open-index/external-indexing/leftouterjoin/leftouterjoin.1.ddl.sqlpp
@@ -55,9 +55,9 @@ create type test.TweetMessageType as
 
 create external  dataset TweetMessages(TweetMessageType) using `hdfs`((`hdfs`=`hdfs://127.0.0.1:31888`),(`path`=`/asterix/tw_for_indexleftouterjoin_nested.adm`),(`input-format`=`text-input-format`),(`format`=`adm`));
 
-create  index IdIx  on TweetMessages (nested.tweetid:int64) type btree enforced;
+create  index IdIx  on TweetMessages (nested.tweetid:int64?) type btree enforced;
 
-create  index msgCountAIx  on TweetMessages (nested.countA:int64) type btree enforced;
+create  index msgCountAIx  on TweetMessages (nested.countA:int64?) type btree enforced;
 
-create  index msgCountBIx  on TweetMessages (nested.countB:int64) type btree enforced;
+create  index msgCountBIx  on TweetMessages (nested.countB:int64?) type btree enforced;
 

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/nested-open-index/external-indexing/rtree-index/rtree-index.1.ddl.sqlpp
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/nested-open-index/external-indexing/rtree-index/rtree-index.1.ddl.sqlpp b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/nested-open-index/external-indexing/rtree-index/rtree-index.1.ddl.sqlpp
index 05f7b18..260bf63 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/nested-open-index/external-indexing/rtree-index/rtree-index.1.ddl.sqlpp
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/nested-open-index/external-indexing/rtree-index/rtree-index.1.ddl.sqlpp
@@ -42,5 +42,5 @@ create type test.MyRecord as
 
 create external  dataset MyData(MyRecord) using `hdfs`((`hdfs`=`hdfs://127.0.0.1:31888`),(`path`=`/asterix/spatialDataNested.json`),(`input-format`=`text-input-format`),(`format`=`adm`));
 
-create  index rtree_index_point  on MyData (nested.point:point) type rtree enforced;
+create  index rtree_index_point  on MyData (nested.point:point?) type rtree enforced;
 

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/asterixdb/blob/af8e19df/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/nested-open-index/highly-open-highly-nested/bottom-closed-top-closed/bottom-closed-top-closed.1.ddl.sqlpp
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/nested-open-index/highly-open-highly-nested/bottom-closed-top-closed/bottom-closed-top-closed.1.ddl.sqlpp b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/nested-open-index/highly-open-highly-nested/bottom-closed-top-closed/bottom-closed-top-closed.1.ddl.sqlpp
index ff18880..00ff41d 100644
--- a/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/nested-open-index/highly-open-highly-nested/bottom-closed-top-closed/bottom-closed-top-closed.1.ddl.sqlpp
+++ b/asterixdb/asterix-app/src/test/resources/runtimets/queries_sqlpp/nested-open-index/highly-open-highly-nested/bottom-closed-top-closed/bottom-closed-top-closed.1.ddl.sqlpp
@@ -111,17 +111,17 @@ create  index species  on Ss (Species) type btree;
 
 create  index genus  on GSs (lower.Species) type btree;
 
-create  index family  on FGSs (lower.lower.Species:string) type btree enforced;
+create  index family  on FGSs (lower.lower.Species:string?) type btree enforced;
 
-create  index orda  on OFGSs (lower.lower.lower.Species:string) type btree enforced;
+create  index orda  on OFGSs (lower.lower.lower.Species:string?) type btree enforced;
 
-create  index classy  on COFGSs (lower.lower.lower.lower.Species:string) type btree enforced;
+create  index classy  on COFGSs (lower.lower.lower.lower.Species:string?) type btree enforced;
 
-create  index phylum  on PCOFGSs (lower.lower.lower.lower.lower.Species:string) type btree enforced;
+create  index phylum  on PCOFGSs (lower.lower.lower.lower.lower.Species:string?) type btree enforced;
 
-create  index phylum  on KPCOFGSs (lower.lower.lower.lower.lower.lower.Species:string) type btree enforced;
+create  index phylum  on KPCOFGSs (lower.lower.lower.lower.lower.lower.Species:string?) type btree enforced;
 
-create  index class  on Classifications (fullClassification.lower.lower.lower.lower.lower.lower.Species:string) type btree enforced;
+create  index class  on Classifications (fullClassification.lower.lower.lower.lower.lower.lower.Species:string?) type btree enforced;
 
-create  index anim  on Animals (class.fullClassification.lower.lower.lower.lower.lower.lower.Species:string) type btree enforced;
+create  index anim  on Animals (class.fullClassification.lower.lower.lower.lower.lower.lower.Species:string?) type btree enforced;
 


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