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From w...@apache.org
Subject [02/14] arrow git commit: [C++] Remove Plasma source tree for 0.5.0 release pending IP Clearance
Date Sun, 23 Jul 2017 18:39:09 GMT
http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/arrow/blob/62ef2cd8/cpp/src/plasma/thirdparty/dlmalloc.c
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diff --git a/cpp/src/plasma/thirdparty/dlmalloc.c b/cpp/src/plasma/thirdparty/dlmalloc.c
deleted file mode 100644
index 84ccbd2..0000000
--- a/cpp/src/plasma/thirdparty/dlmalloc.c
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,6281 +0,0 @@
-/*
-  This is a version (aka dlmalloc) of malloc/free/realloc written by
-  Doug Lea and released to the public domain, as explained at
-  http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ Send questions,
-  comments, complaints, performance data, etc to dl@cs.oswego.edu
-
-* Version 2.8.6 Wed Aug 29 06:57:58 2012  Doug Lea
-   Note: There may be an updated version of this malloc obtainable at
-           ftp://gee.cs.oswego.edu/pub/misc/malloc.c
-         Check before installing!
-
-* Quickstart
-
-  This library is all in one file to simplify the most common usage:
-  ftp it, compile it (-O3), and link it into another program. All of
-  the compile-time options default to reasonable values for use on
-  most platforms.  You might later want to step through various
-  compile-time and dynamic tuning options.
-
-  For convenience, an include file for code using this malloc is at:
-     ftp://gee.cs.oswego.edu/pub/misc/malloc-2.8.6.h
-  You don't really need this .h file unless you call functions not
-  defined in your system include files.  The .h file contains only the
-  excerpts from this file needed for using this malloc on ANSI C/C++
-  systems, so long as you haven't changed compile-time options about
-  naming and tuning parameters.  If you do, then you can create your
-  own malloc.h that does include all settings by cutting at the point
-  indicated below. Note that you may already by default be using a C
-  library containing a malloc that is based on some version of this
-  malloc (for example in linux). You might still want to use the one
-  in this file to customize settings or to avoid overheads associated
-  with library versions.
-
-* Vital statistics:
-
-  Supported pointer/size_t representation:       4 or 8 bytes
-       size_t MUST be an unsigned type of the same width as
-       pointers. (If you are using an ancient system that declares
-       size_t as a signed type, or need it to be a different width
-       than pointers, you can use a previous release of this malloc
-       (e.g. 2.7.2) supporting these.)
-
-  Alignment:                                     8 bytes (minimum)
-       This suffices for nearly all current machines and C compilers.
-       However, you can define MALLOC_ALIGNMENT to be wider than this
-       if necessary (up to 128bytes), at the expense of using more space.
-
-  Minimum overhead per allocated chunk:   4 or  8 bytes (if 4byte sizes)
-                                          8 or 16 bytes (if 8byte sizes)
-       Each malloced chunk has a hidden word of overhead holding size
-       and status information, and additional cross-check word
-       if FOOTERS is defined.
-
-  Minimum allocated size: 4-byte ptrs:  16 bytes    (including overhead)
-                          8-byte ptrs:  32 bytes    (including overhead)
-
-       Even a request for zero bytes (i.e., malloc(0)) returns a
-       pointer to something of the minimum allocatable size.
-       The maximum overhead wastage (i.e., number of extra bytes
-       allocated than were requested in malloc) is less than or equal
-       to the minimum size, except for requests >= mmap_threshold that
-       are serviced via mmap(), where the worst case wastage is about
-       32 bytes plus the remainder from a system page (the minimal
-       mmap unit); typically 4096 or 8192 bytes.
-
-  Security: static-safe; optionally more or less
-       The "security" of malloc refers to the ability of malicious
-       code to accentuate the effects of errors (for example, freeing
-       space that is not currently malloc'ed or overwriting past the
-       ends of chunks) in code that calls malloc.  This malloc
-       guarantees not to modify any memory locations below the base of
-       heap, i.e., static variables, even in the presence of usage
-       errors.  The routines additionally detect most improper frees
-       and reallocs.  All this holds as long as the static bookkeeping
-       for malloc itself is not corrupted by some other means.  This
-       is only one aspect of security -- these checks do not, and
-       cannot, detect all possible programming errors.
-
-       If FOOTERS is defined nonzero, then each allocated chunk
-       carries an additional check word to verify that it was malloced
-       from its space.  These check words are the same within each
-       execution of a program using malloc, but differ across
-       executions, so externally crafted fake chunks cannot be
-       freed. This improves security by rejecting frees/reallocs that
-       could corrupt heap memory, in addition to the checks preventing
-       writes to statics that are always on.  This may further improve
-       security at the expense of time and space overhead.  (Note that
-       FOOTERS may also be worth using with MSPACES.)
-
-       By default detected errors cause the program to abort (calling
-       "abort()"). You can override this to instead proceed past
-       errors by defining PROCEED_ON_ERROR.  In this case, a bad free
-       has no effect, and a malloc that encounters a bad address
-       caused by user overwrites will ignore the bad address by
-       dropping pointers and indices to all known memory. This may
-       be appropriate for programs that should continue if at all
-       possible in the face of programming errors, although they may
-       run out of memory because dropped memory is never reclaimed.
-
-       If you don't like either of these options, you can define
-       CORRUPTION_ERROR_ACTION and USAGE_ERROR_ACTION to do anything
-       else. And if if you are sure that your program using malloc has
-       no errors or vulnerabilities, you can define INSECURE to 1,
-       which might (or might not) provide a small performance improvement.
-
-       It is also possible to limit the maximum total allocatable
-       space, using malloc_set_footprint_limit. This is not
-       designed as a security feature in itself (calls to set limits
-       are not screened or privileged), but may be useful as one
-       aspect of a secure implementation.
-
-  Thread-safety: NOT thread-safe unless USE_LOCKS defined non-zero
-       When USE_LOCKS is defined, each public call to malloc, free,
-       etc is surrounded with a lock. By default, this uses a plain
-       pthread mutex, win32 critical section, or a spin-lock if if
-       available for the platform and not disabled by setting
-       USE_SPIN_LOCKS=0.  However, if USE_RECURSIVE_LOCKS is defined,
-       recursive versions are used instead (which are not required for
-       base functionality but may be needed in layered extensions).
-       Using a global lock is not especially fast, and can be a major
-       bottleneck.  It is designed only to provide minimal protection
-       in concurrent environments, and to provide a basis for
-       extensions.  If you are using malloc in a concurrent program,
-       consider instead using nedmalloc
-       (http://www.nedprod.com/programs/portable/nedmalloc/) or
-       ptmalloc (See http://www.malloc.de), which are derived from
-       versions of this malloc.
-
-  System requirements: Any combination of MORECORE and/or MMAP/MUNMAP
-       This malloc can use unix sbrk or any emulation (invoked using
-       the CALL_MORECORE macro) and/or mmap/munmap or any emulation
-       (invoked using CALL_MMAP/CALL_MUNMAP) to get and release system
-       memory.  On most unix systems, it tends to work best if both
-       MORECORE and MMAP are enabled.  On Win32, it uses emulations
-       based on VirtualAlloc. It also uses common C library functions
-       like memset.
-
-  Compliance: I believe it is compliant with the Single Unix Specification
-       (See http://www.unix.org). Also SVID/XPG, ANSI C, and probably
-       others as well.
-
-* Overview of algorithms
-
-  This is not the fastest, most space-conserving, most portable, or
-  most tunable malloc ever written. However it is among the fastest
-  while also being among the most space-conserving, portable and
-  tunable.  Consistent balance across these factors results in a good
-  general-purpose allocator for malloc-intensive programs.
-
-  In most ways, this malloc is a best-fit allocator. Generally, it
-  chooses the best-fitting existing chunk for a request, with ties
-  broken in approximately least-recently-used order. (This strategy
-  normally maintains low fragmentation.) However, for requests less
-  than 256bytes, it deviates from best-fit when there is not an
-  exactly fitting available chunk by preferring to use space adjacent
-  to that used for the previous small request, as well as by breaking
-  ties in approximately most-recently-used order. (These enhance
-  locality of series of small allocations.)  And for very large requests
-  (>= 256Kb by default), it relies on system memory mapping
-  facilities, if supported.  (This helps avoid carrying around and
-  possibly fragmenting memory used only for large chunks.)
-
-  All operations (except malloc_stats and mallinfo) have execution
-  times that are bounded by a constant factor of the number of bits in
-  a size_t, not counting any clearing in calloc or copying in realloc,
-  or actions surrounding MORECORE and MMAP that have times
-  proportional to the number of non-contiguous regions returned by
-  system allocation routines, which is often just 1. In real-time
-  applications, you can optionally suppress segment traversals using
-  NO_SEGMENT_TRAVERSAL, which assures bounded execution even when
-  system allocators return non-contiguous spaces, at the typical
-  expense of carrying around more memory and increased fragmentation.
-
-  The implementation is not very modular and seriously overuses
-  macros. Perhaps someday all C compilers will do as good a job
-  inlining modular code as can now be done by brute-force expansion,
-  but now, enough of them seem not to.
-
-  Some compilers issue a lot of warnings about code that is
-  dead/unreachable only on some platforms, and also about intentional
-  uses of negation on unsigned types. All known cases of each can be
-  ignored.
-
-  For a longer but out of date high-level description, see
-     http://gee.cs.oswego.edu/dl/html/malloc.html
-
-* MSPACES
-  If MSPACES is defined, then in addition to malloc, free, etc.,
-  this file also defines mspace_malloc, mspace_free, etc. These
-  are versions of malloc routines that take an "mspace" argument
-  obtained using create_mspace, to control all internal bookkeeping.
-  If ONLY_MSPACES is defined, only these versions are compiled.
-  So if you would like to use this allocator for only some allocations,
-  and your system malloc for others, you can compile with
-  ONLY_MSPACES and then do something like...
-    static mspace mymspace = create_mspace(0,0); // for example
-    #define mymalloc(bytes)  mspace_malloc(mymspace, bytes)
-
-  (Note: If you only need one instance of an mspace, you can instead
-  use "USE_DL_PREFIX" to relabel the global malloc.)
-
-  You can similarly create thread-local allocators by storing
-  mspaces as thread-locals. For example:
-    static __thread mspace tlms = 0;
-    void*  tlmalloc(size_t bytes) {
-      if (tlms == 0) tlms = create_mspace(0, 0);
-      return mspace_malloc(tlms, bytes);
-    }
-    void  tlfree(void* mem) { mspace_free(tlms, mem); }
-
-  Unless FOOTERS is defined, each mspace is completely independent.
-  You cannot allocate from one and free to another (although
-  conformance is only weakly checked, so usage errors are not always
-  caught). If FOOTERS is defined, then each chunk carries around a tag
-  indicating its originating mspace, and frees are directed to their
-  originating spaces. Normally, this requires use of locks.
-
- -------------------------  Compile-time options ---------------------------
-
-Be careful in setting #define values for numerical constants of type
-size_t. On some systems, literal values are not automatically extended
-to size_t precision unless they are explicitly casted. You can also
-use the symbolic values MAX_SIZE_T, SIZE_T_ONE, etc below.
-
-WIN32                    default: defined if _WIN32 defined
-  Defining WIN32 sets up defaults for MS environment and compilers.
-  Otherwise defaults are for unix. Beware that there seem to be some
-  cases where this malloc might not be a pure drop-in replacement for
-  Win32 malloc: Random-looking failures from Win32 GDI API's (eg;
-  SetDIBits()) may be due to bugs in some video driver implementations
-  when pixel buffers are malloc()ed, and the region spans more than
-  one VirtualAlloc()ed region. Because dlmalloc uses a small (64Kb)
-  default granularity, pixel buffers may straddle virtual allocation
-  regions more often than when using the Microsoft allocator.  You can
-  avoid this by using VirtualAlloc() and VirtualFree() for all pixel
-  buffers rather than using malloc().  If this is not possible,
-  recompile this malloc with a larger DEFAULT_GRANULARITY. Note:
-  in cases where MSC and gcc (cygwin) are known to differ on WIN32,
-  conditions use _MSC_VER to distinguish them.
-
-DLMALLOC_EXPORT       default: extern
-  Defines how public APIs are declared. If you want to export via a
-  Windows DLL, you might define this as
-    #define DLMALLOC_EXPORT extern  __declspec(dllexport)
-  If you want a POSIX ELF shared object, you might use
-    #define DLMALLOC_EXPORT extern __attribute__((visibility("default")))
-
-MALLOC_ALIGNMENT         default: (size_t)(2 * sizeof(void *))
-  Controls the minimum alignment for malloc'ed chunks.  It must be a
-  power of two and at least 8, even on machines for which smaller
-  alignments would suffice. It may be defined as larger than this
-  though. Note however that code and data structures are optimized for
-  the case of 8-byte alignment.
-
-MSPACES                  default: 0 (false)
-  If true, compile in support for independent allocation spaces.
-  This is only supported if HAVE_MMAP is true.
-
-ONLY_MSPACES             default: 0 (false)
-  If true, only compile in mspace versions, not regular versions.
-
-USE_LOCKS                default: 0 (false)
-  Causes each call to each public routine to be surrounded with
-  pthread or WIN32 mutex lock/unlock. (If set true, this can be
-  overridden on a per-mspace basis for mspace versions.) If set to a
-  non-zero value other than 1, locks are used, but their
-  implementation is left out, so lock functions must be supplied manually,
-  as described below.
-
-USE_SPIN_LOCKS           default: 1 iff USE_LOCKS and spin locks available
-  If true, uses custom spin locks for locking. This is currently
-  supported only gcc >= 4.1, older gccs on x86 platforms, and recent
-  MS compilers.  Otherwise, posix locks or win32 critical sections are
-  used.
-
-USE_RECURSIVE_LOCKS      default: not defined
-  If defined nonzero, uses recursive (aka reentrant) locks, otherwise
-  uses plain mutexes. This is not required for malloc proper, but may
-  be needed for layered allocators such as nedmalloc.
-
-LOCK_AT_FORK            default: not defined
-  If defined nonzero, performs pthread_atfork upon initialization
-  to initialize child lock while holding parent lock. The implementation
-  assumes that pthread locks (not custom locks) are being used. In other
-  cases, you may need to customize the implementation.
-
-FOOTERS                  default: 0
-  If true, provide extra checking and dispatching by placing
-  information in the footers of allocated chunks. This adds
-  space and time overhead.
-
-INSECURE                 default: 0
-  If true, omit checks for usage errors and heap space overwrites.
-
-USE_DL_PREFIX            default: NOT defined
-  Causes compiler to prefix all public routines with the string 'dl'.
-  This can be useful when you only want to use this malloc in one part
-  of a program, using your regular system malloc elsewhere.
-
-MALLOC_INSPECT_ALL       default: NOT defined
-  If defined, compiles malloc_inspect_all and mspace_inspect_all, that
-  perform traversal of all heap space.  Unless access to these
-  functions is otherwise restricted, you probably do not want to
-  include them in secure implementations.
-
-ABORT                    default: defined as abort()
-  Defines how to abort on failed checks.  On most systems, a failed
-  check cannot die with an "assert" or even print an informative
-  message, because the underlying print routines in turn call malloc,
-  which will fail again.  Generally, the best policy is to simply call
-  abort(). It's not very useful to do more than this because many
-  errors due to overwriting will show up as address faults (null, odd
-  addresses etc) rather than malloc-triggered checks, so will also
-  abort.  Also, most compilers know that abort() does not return, so
-  can better optimize code conditionally calling it.
-
-PROCEED_ON_ERROR           default: defined as 0 (false)
-  Controls whether detected bad addresses cause them to bypassed
-  rather than aborting. If set, detected bad arguments to free and
-  realloc are ignored. And all bookkeeping information is zeroed out
-  upon a detected overwrite of freed heap space, thus losing the
-  ability to ever return it from malloc again, but enabling the
-  application to proceed. If PROCEED_ON_ERROR is defined, the
-  static variable malloc_corruption_error_count is compiled in
-  and can be examined to see if errors have occurred. This option
-  generates slower code than the default abort policy.
-
-DEBUG                    default: NOT defined
-  The DEBUG setting is mainly intended for people trying to modify
-  this code or diagnose problems when porting to new platforms.
-  However, it may also be able to better isolate user errors than just
-  using runtime checks.  The assertions in the check routines spell
-  out in more detail the assumptions and invariants underlying the
-  algorithms.  The checking is fairly extensive, and will slow down
-  execution noticeably. Calling malloc_stats or mallinfo with DEBUG
-  set will attempt to check every non-mmapped allocated and free chunk
-  in the course of computing the summaries.
-
-ABORT_ON_ASSERT_FAILURE   default: defined as 1 (true)
-  Debugging assertion failures can be nearly impossible if your
-  version of the assert macro causes malloc to be called, which will
-  lead to a cascade of further failures, blowing the runtime stack.
-  ABORT_ON_ASSERT_FAILURE cause assertions failures to call abort(),
-  which will usually make debugging easier.
-
-MALLOC_FAILURE_ACTION     default: sets errno to ENOMEM, or no-op on win32
-  The action to take before "return 0" when malloc fails to be able to
-  return memory because there is none available.
-
-HAVE_MORECORE             default: 1 (true) unless win32 or ONLY_MSPACES
-  True if this system supports sbrk or an emulation of it.
-
-MORECORE                  default: sbrk
-  The name of the sbrk-style system routine to call to obtain more
-  memory.  See below for guidance on writing custom MORECORE
-  functions. The type of the argument to sbrk/MORECORE varies across
-  systems.  It cannot be size_t, because it supports negative
-  arguments, so it is normally the signed type of the same width as
-  size_t (sometimes declared as "intptr_t").  It doesn't much matter
-  though. Internally, we only call it with arguments less than half
-  the max value of a size_t, which should work across all reasonable
-  possibilities, although sometimes generating compiler warnings.
-
-MORECORE_CONTIGUOUS       default: 1 (true) if HAVE_MORECORE
-  If true, take advantage of fact that consecutive calls to MORECORE
-  with positive arguments always return contiguous increasing
-  addresses.  This is true of unix sbrk. It does not hurt too much to
-  set it true anyway, since malloc copes with non-contiguities.
-  Setting it false when definitely non-contiguous saves time
-  and possibly wasted space it would take to discover this though.
-
-MORECORE_CANNOT_TRIM      default: NOT defined
-  True if MORECORE cannot release space back to the system when given
-  negative arguments. This is generally necessary only if you are
-  using a hand-crafted MORECORE function that cannot handle negative
-  arguments.
-
-NO_SEGMENT_TRAVERSAL       default: 0
-  If non-zero, suppresses traversals of memory segments
-  returned by either MORECORE or CALL_MMAP. This disables
-  merging of segments that are contiguous, and selectively
-  releasing them to the OS if unused, but bounds execution times.
-
-HAVE_MMAP                 default: 1 (true)
-  True if this system supports mmap or an emulation of it.  If so, and
-  HAVE_MORECORE is not true, MMAP is used for all system
-  allocation. If set and HAVE_MORECORE is true as well, MMAP is
-  primarily used to directly allocate very large blocks. It is also
-  used as a backup strategy in cases where MORECORE fails to provide
-  space from system. Note: A single call to MUNMAP is assumed to be
-  able to unmap memory that may have be allocated using multiple calls
-  to MMAP, so long as they are adjacent.
-
-HAVE_MREMAP               default: 1 on linux, else 0
-  If true realloc() uses mremap() to re-allocate large blocks and
-  extend or shrink allocation spaces.
-
-MMAP_CLEARS               default: 1 except on WINCE.
-  True if mmap clears memory so calloc doesn't need to. This is true
-  for standard unix mmap using /dev/zero and on WIN32 except for WINCE.
-
-USE_BUILTIN_FFS            default: 0 (i.e., not used)
-  Causes malloc to use the builtin ffs() function to compute indices.
-  Some compilers may recognize and intrinsify ffs to be faster than the
-  supplied C version. Also, the case of x86 using gcc is special-cased
-  to an asm instruction, so is already as fast as it can be, and so
-  this setting has no effect. Similarly for Win32 under recent MS compilers.
-  (On most x86s, the asm version is only slightly faster than the C version.)
-
-malloc_getpagesize         default: derive from system includes, or 4096.
-  The system page size. To the extent possible, this malloc manages
-  memory from the system in page-size units.  This may be (and
-  usually is) a function rather than a constant. This is ignored
-  if WIN32, where page size is determined using getSystemInfo during
-  initialization.
-
-USE_DEV_RANDOM             default: 0 (i.e., not used)
-  Causes malloc to use /dev/random to initialize secure magic seed for
-  stamping footers. Otherwise, the current time is used.
-
-NO_MALLINFO                default: 0
-  If defined, don't compile "mallinfo". This can be a simple way
-  of dealing with mismatches between system declarations and
-  those in this file.
-
-MALLINFO_FIELD_TYPE        default: size_t
-  The type of the fields in the mallinfo struct. This was originally
-  defined as "int" in SVID etc, but is more usefully defined as
-  size_t. The value is used only if  HAVE_USR_INCLUDE_MALLOC_H is not set
-
-NO_MALLOC_STATS            default: 0
-  If defined, don't compile "malloc_stats". This avoids calls to
-  fprintf and bringing in stdio dependencies you might not want.
-
-REALLOC_ZERO_BYTES_FREES    default: not defined
-  This should be set if a call to realloc with zero bytes should
-  be the same as a call to free. Some people think it should. Otherwise,
-  since this malloc returns a unique pointer for malloc(0), so does
-  realloc(p, 0).
-
-LACKS_UNISTD_H, LACKS_FCNTL_H, LACKS_SYS_PARAM_H, LACKS_SYS_MMAN_H
-LACKS_STRINGS_H, LACKS_STRING_H, LACKS_SYS_TYPES_H,  LACKS_ERRNO_H
-LACKS_STDLIB_H LACKS_SCHED_H LACKS_TIME_H  default: NOT defined unless on WIN32
-  Define these if your system does not have these header files.
-  You might need to manually insert some of the declarations they provide.
-
-DEFAULT_GRANULARITY        default: page size if MORECORE_CONTIGUOUS,
-                                system_info.dwAllocationGranularity in WIN32,
-                                otherwise 64K.
-      Also settable using mallopt(M_GRANULARITY, x)
-  The unit for allocating and deallocating memory from the system.  On
-  most systems with contiguous MORECORE, there is no reason to
-  make this more than a page. However, systems with MMAP tend to
-  either require or encourage larger granularities.  You can increase
-  this value to prevent system allocation functions to be called so
-  often, especially if they are slow.  The value must be at least one
-  page and must be a power of two.  Setting to 0 causes initialization
-  to either page size or win32 region size.  (Note: In previous
-  versions of malloc, the equivalent of this option was called
-  "TOP_PAD")
-
-DEFAULT_TRIM_THRESHOLD    default: 2MB
-      Also settable using mallopt(M_TRIM_THRESHOLD, x)
-  The maximum amount of unused top-most memory to keep before
-  releasing via malloc_trim in free().  Automatic trimming is mainly
-  useful in long-lived programs using contiguous MORECORE.  Because
-  trimming via sbrk can be slow on some systems, and can sometimes be
-  wasteful (in cases where programs immediately afterward allocate
-  more large chunks) the value should be high enough so that your
-  overall system performance would improve by releasing this much
-  memory.  As a rough guide, you might set to a value close to the
-  average size of a process (program) running on your system.
-  Releasing this much memory would allow such a process to run in
-  memory.  Generally, it is worth tuning trim thresholds when a
-  program undergoes phases where several large chunks are allocated
-  and released in ways that can reuse each other's storage, perhaps
-  mixed with phases where there are no such chunks at all. The trim
-  value must be greater than page size to have any useful effect.  To
-  disable trimming completely, you can set to MAX_SIZE_T. Note that the trick
-  some people use of mallocing a huge space and then freeing it at
-  program startup, in an attempt to reserve system memory, doesn't
-  have the intended effect under automatic trimming, since that memory
-  will immediately be returned to the system.
-
-DEFAULT_MMAP_THRESHOLD       default: 256K
-      Also settable using mallopt(M_MMAP_THRESHOLD, x)
-  The request size threshold for using MMAP to directly service a
-  request. Requests of at least this size that cannot be allocated
-  using already-existing space will be serviced via mmap.  (If enough
-  normal freed space already exists it is used instead.)  Using mmap
-  segregates relatively large chunks of memory so that they can be
-  individually obtained and released from the host system. A request
-  serviced through mmap is never reused by any other request (at least
-  not directly; the system may just so happen to remap successive
-  requests to the same locations).  Segregating space in this way has
-  the benefits that: Mmapped space can always be individually released
-  back to the system, which helps keep the system level memory demands
-  of a long-lived program low.  Also, mapped memory doesn't become
-  `locked' between other chunks, as can happen with normally allocated
-  chunks, which means that even trimming via malloc_trim would not
-  release them.  However, it has the disadvantage that the space
-  cannot be reclaimed, consolidated, and then used to service later
-  requests, as happens with normal chunks.  The advantages of mmap
-  nearly always outweigh disadvantages for "large" chunks, but the
-  value of "large" may vary across systems.  The default is an
-  empirically derived value that works well in most systems. You can
-  disable mmap by setting to MAX_SIZE_T.
-
-MAX_RELEASE_CHECK_RATE   default: 4095 unless not HAVE_MMAP
-  The number of consolidated frees between checks to release
-  unused segments when freeing. When using non-contiguous segments,
-  especially with multiple mspaces, checking only for topmost space
-  doesn't always suffice to trigger trimming. To compensate for this,
-  free() will, with a period of MAX_RELEASE_CHECK_RATE (or the
-  current number of segments, if greater) try to release unused
-  segments to the OS when freeing chunks that result in
-  consolidation. The best value for this parameter is a compromise
-  between slowing down frees with relatively costly checks that
-  rarely trigger versus holding on to unused memory. To effectively
-  disable, set to MAX_SIZE_T. This may lead to a very slight speed
-  improvement at the expense of carrying around more memory.
-*/
-
-/* Version identifier to allow people to support multiple versions */
-#ifndef DLMALLOC_VERSION
-#define DLMALLOC_VERSION 20806
-#endif /* DLMALLOC_VERSION */
-
-#ifndef DLMALLOC_EXPORT
-#define DLMALLOC_EXPORT extern
-#endif
-
-#ifndef WIN32
-#ifdef _WIN32
-#define WIN32 1
-#endif  /* _WIN32 */
-#ifdef _WIN32_WCE
-#define LACKS_FCNTL_H
-#define WIN32 1
-#endif /* _WIN32_WCE */
-#endif  /* WIN32 */
-#ifdef WIN32
-#define WIN32_LEAN_AND_MEAN
-#include <windows.h>
-#include <tchar.h>
-#define HAVE_MMAP 1
-#define HAVE_MORECORE 0
-#define LACKS_UNISTD_H
-#define LACKS_SYS_PARAM_H
-#define LACKS_SYS_MMAN_H
-#define LACKS_STRING_H
-#define LACKS_STRINGS_H
-#define LACKS_SYS_TYPES_H
-#define LACKS_ERRNO_H
-#define LACKS_SCHED_H
-#ifndef MALLOC_FAILURE_ACTION
-#define MALLOC_FAILURE_ACTION
-#endif /* MALLOC_FAILURE_ACTION */
-#ifndef MMAP_CLEARS
-#ifdef _WIN32_WCE /* WINCE reportedly does not clear */
-#define MMAP_CLEARS 0
-#else
-#define MMAP_CLEARS 1
-#endif /* _WIN32_WCE */
-#endif /*MMAP_CLEARS */
-#endif  /* WIN32 */
-
-#if defined(DARWIN) || defined(_DARWIN)
-/* Mac OSX docs advise not to use sbrk; it seems better to use mmap */
-#ifndef HAVE_MORECORE
-#define HAVE_MORECORE 0
-#define HAVE_MMAP 1
-/* OSX allocators provide 16 byte alignment */
-#ifndef MALLOC_ALIGNMENT
-#define MALLOC_ALIGNMENT ((size_t)16U)
-#endif
-#endif  /* HAVE_MORECORE */
-#endif  /* DARWIN */
-
-#ifndef LACKS_SYS_TYPES_H
-#include <sys/types.h>  /* For size_t */
-#endif  /* LACKS_SYS_TYPES_H */
-
-/* The maximum possible size_t value has all bits set */
-#define MAX_SIZE_T           (~(size_t)0)
-
-#ifndef USE_LOCKS /* ensure true if spin or recursive locks set */
-#define USE_LOCKS  ((defined(USE_SPIN_LOCKS) && USE_SPIN_LOCKS != 0) || \
-                    (defined(USE_RECURSIVE_LOCKS) && USE_RECURSIVE_LOCKS != 0))
-#endif /* USE_LOCKS */
-
-#if USE_LOCKS /* Spin locks for gcc >= 4.1, older gcc on x86, MSC >= 1310 */
-#if ((defined(__GNUC__) &&                                              \
-      ((__GNUC__ > 4 || (__GNUC__ == 4 && __GNUC_MINOR__ >= 1)) ||      \
-       defined(__i386__) || defined(__x86_64__))) ||                    \
-     (defined(_MSC_VER) && _MSC_VER>=1310))
-#ifndef USE_SPIN_LOCKS
-#define USE_SPIN_LOCKS 1
-#endif /* USE_SPIN_LOCKS */
-#elif USE_SPIN_LOCKS
-#error "USE_SPIN_LOCKS defined without implementation"
-#endif /* ... locks available... */
-#elif !defined(USE_SPIN_LOCKS)
-#define USE_SPIN_LOCKS 0
-#endif /* USE_LOCKS */
-
-#ifndef ONLY_MSPACES
-#define ONLY_MSPACES 0
-#endif  /* ONLY_MSPACES */
-#ifndef MSPACES
-#if ONLY_MSPACES
-#define MSPACES 1
-#else   /* ONLY_MSPACES */
-#define MSPACES 0
-#endif  /* ONLY_MSPACES */
-#endif  /* MSPACES */
-#ifndef MALLOC_ALIGNMENT
-#define MALLOC_ALIGNMENT ((size_t)(2 * sizeof(void *)))
-#endif  /* MALLOC_ALIGNMENT */
-#ifndef FOOTERS
-#define FOOTERS 0
-#endif  /* FOOTERS */
-#ifndef ABORT
-#define ABORT  abort()
-#endif  /* ABORT */
-#ifndef ABORT_ON_ASSERT_FAILURE
-#define ABORT_ON_ASSERT_FAILURE 1
-#endif  /* ABORT_ON_ASSERT_FAILURE */
-#ifndef PROCEED_ON_ERROR
-#define PROCEED_ON_ERROR 0
-#endif  /* PROCEED_ON_ERROR */
-
-#ifndef INSECURE
-#define INSECURE 0
-#endif  /* INSECURE */
-#ifndef MALLOC_INSPECT_ALL
-#define MALLOC_INSPECT_ALL 0
-#endif  /* MALLOC_INSPECT_ALL */
-#ifndef HAVE_MMAP
-#define HAVE_MMAP 1
-#endif  /* HAVE_MMAP */
-#ifndef MMAP_CLEARS
-#define MMAP_CLEARS 1
-#endif  /* MMAP_CLEARS */
-#ifndef HAVE_MREMAP
-#ifdef linux
-#define HAVE_MREMAP 1
-#define _GNU_SOURCE /* Turns on mremap() definition */
-#else   /* linux */
-#define HAVE_MREMAP 0
-#endif  /* linux */
-#endif  /* HAVE_MREMAP */
-#ifndef MALLOC_FAILURE_ACTION
-#define MALLOC_FAILURE_ACTION  errno = ENOMEM;
-#endif  /* MALLOC_FAILURE_ACTION */
-#ifndef HAVE_MORECORE
-#if ONLY_MSPACES
-#define HAVE_MORECORE 0
-#else   /* ONLY_MSPACES */
-#define HAVE_MORECORE 1
-#endif  /* ONLY_MSPACES */
-#endif  /* HAVE_MORECORE */
-#if !HAVE_MORECORE
-#define MORECORE_CONTIGUOUS 0
-#else   /* !HAVE_MORECORE */
-#define MORECORE_DEFAULT sbrk
-#ifndef MORECORE_CONTIGUOUS
-#define MORECORE_CONTIGUOUS 1
-#endif  /* MORECORE_CONTIGUOUS */
-#endif  /* HAVE_MORECORE */
-#ifndef DEFAULT_GRANULARITY
-#if (MORECORE_CONTIGUOUS || defined(WIN32))
-#define DEFAULT_GRANULARITY (0)  /* 0 means to compute in init_mparams */
-#else   /* MORECORE_CONTIGUOUS */
-#define DEFAULT_GRANULARITY ((size_t)64U * (size_t)1024U)
-#endif  /* MORECORE_CONTIGUOUS */
-#endif  /* DEFAULT_GRANULARITY */
-#ifndef DEFAULT_TRIM_THRESHOLD
-#ifndef MORECORE_CANNOT_TRIM
-#define DEFAULT_TRIM_THRESHOLD ((size_t)2U * (size_t)1024U * (size_t)1024U)
-#else   /* MORECORE_CANNOT_TRIM */
-#define DEFAULT_TRIM_THRESHOLD MAX_SIZE_T
-#endif  /* MORECORE_CANNOT_TRIM */
-#endif  /* DEFAULT_TRIM_THRESHOLD */
-#ifndef DEFAULT_MMAP_THRESHOLD
-#if HAVE_MMAP
-#define DEFAULT_MMAP_THRESHOLD ((size_t)256U * (size_t)1024U)
-#else   /* HAVE_MMAP */
-#define DEFAULT_MMAP_THRESHOLD MAX_SIZE_T
-#endif  /* HAVE_MMAP */
-#endif  /* DEFAULT_MMAP_THRESHOLD */
-#ifndef MAX_RELEASE_CHECK_RATE
-#if HAVE_MMAP
-#define MAX_RELEASE_CHECK_RATE 4095
-#else
-#define MAX_RELEASE_CHECK_RATE MAX_SIZE_T
-#endif /* HAVE_MMAP */
-#endif /* MAX_RELEASE_CHECK_RATE */
-#ifndef USE_BUILTIN_FFS
-#define USE_BUILTIN_FFS 0
-#endif  /* USE_BUILTIN_FFS */
-#ifndef USE_DEV_RANDOM
-#define USE_DEV_RANDOM 0
-#endif  /* USE_DEV_RANDOM */
-#ifndef NO_MALLINFO
-#define NO_MALLINFO 0
-#endif  /* NO_MALLINFO */
-#ifndef MALLINFO_FIELD_TYPE
-#define MALLINFO_FIELD_TYPE size_t
-#endif  /* MALLINFO_FIELD_TYPE */
-#ifndef NO_MALLOC_STATS
-#define NO_MALLOC_STATS 0
-#endif  /* NO_MALLOC_STATS */
-#ifndef NO_SEGMENT_TRAVERSAL
-#define NO_SEGMENT_TRAVERSAL 0
-#endif /* NO_SEGMENT_TRAVERSAL */
-
-/*
-  mallopt tuning options.  SVID/XPG defines four standard parameter
-  numbers for mallopt, normally defined in malloc.h.  None of these
-  are used in this malloc, so setting them has no effect. But this
-  malloc does support the following options.
-*/
-
-#define M_TRIM_THRESHOLD     (-1)
-#define M_GRANULARITY        (-2)
-#define M_MMAP_THRESHOLD     (-3)
-
-/* ------------------------ Mallinfo declarations ------------------------ */
-
-#if !NO_MALLINFO
-/*
-  This version of malloc supports the standard SVID/XPG mallinfo
-  routine that returns a struct containing usage properties and
-  statistics. It should work on any system that has a
-  /usr/include/malloc.h defining struct mallinfo.  The main
-  declaration needed is the mallinfo struct that is returned (by-copy)
-  by mallinfo().  The malloinfo struct contains a bunch of fields that
-  are not even meaningful in this version of malloc.  These fields are
-  are instead filled by mallinfo() with other numbers that might be of
-  interest.
-
-  HAVE_USR_INCLUDE_MALLOC_H should be set if you have a
-  /usr/include/malloc.h file that includes a declaration of struct
-  mallinfo.  If so, it is included; else a compliant version is
-  declared below.  These must be precisely the same for mallinfo() to
-  work.  The original SVID version of this struct, defined on most
-  systems with mallinfo, declares all fields as ints. But some others
-  define as unsigned long. If your system defines the fields using a
-  type of different width than listed here, you MUST #include your
-  system version and #define HAVE_USR_INCLUDE_MALLOC_H.
-*/
-
-/* #define HAVE_USR_INCLUDE_MALLOC_H */
-
-#ifdef HAVE_USR_INCLUDE_MALLOC_H
-#include "/usr/include/malloc.h"
-#else /* HAVE_USR_INCLUDE_MALLOC_H */
-#ifndef STRUCT_MALLINFO_DECLARED
-/* HP-UX (and others?) redefines mallinfo unless _STRUCT_MALLINFO is defined */
-#define _STRUCT_MALLINFO
-#define STRUCT_MALLINFO_DECLARED 1
-struct mallinfo {
-  MALLINFO_FIELD_TYPE arena;    /* non-mmapped space allocated from system */
-  MALLINFO_FIELD_TYPE ordblks;  /* number of free chunks */
-  MALLINFO_FIELD_TYPE smblks;   /* always 0 */
-  MALLINFO_FIELD_TYPE hblks;    /* always 0 */
-  MALLINFO_FIELD_TYPE hblkhd;   /* space in mmapped regions */
-  MALLINFO_FIELD_TYPE usmblks;  /* maximum total allocated space */
-  MALLINFO_FIELD_TYPE fsmblks;  /* always 0 */
-  MALLINFO_FIELD_TYPE uordblks; /* total allocated space */
-  MALLINFO_FIELD_TYPE fordblks; /* total free space */
-  MALLINFO_FIELD_TYPE keepcost; /* releasable (via malloc_trim) space */
-};
-#endif /* STRUCT_MALLINFO_DECLARED */
-#endif /* HAVE_USR_INCLUDE_MALLOC_H */
-#endif /* NO_MALLINFO */
-
-/*
-  Try to persuade compilers to inline. The most critical functions for
-  inlining are defined as macros, so these aren't used for them.
-*/
-
-#ifndef FORCEINLINE
-  #if defined(__GNUC__)
-#define FORCEINLINE __inline __attribute__ ((always_inline))
-  #elif defined(_MSC_VER)
-    #define FORCEINLINE __forceinline
-  #endif
-#endif
-#ifndef NOINLINE
-  #if defined(__GNUC__)
-    #define NOINLINE __attribute__ ((noinline))
-  #elif defined(_MSC_VER)
-    #define NOINLINE __declspec(noinline)
-  #else
-    #define NOINLINE
-  #endif
-#endif
-
-#ifdef __cplusplus
-extern "C" {
-#ifndef FORCEINLINE
- #define FORCEINLINE inline
-#endif
-#endif /* __cplusplus */
-#ifndef FORCEINLINE
- #define FORCEINLINE
-#endif
-
-#if !ONLY_MSPACES
-
-/* ------------------- Declarations of public routines ------------------- */
-
-#ifndef USE_DL_PREFIX
-#define dlcalloc               calloc
-#define dlfree                 free
-#define dlmalloc               malloc
-#define dlmemalign             memalign
-#define dlposix_memalign       posix_memalign
-#define dlrealloc              realloc
-#define dlrealloc_in_place     realloc_in_place
-#define dlvalloc               valloc
-#define dlpvalloc              pvalloc
-#define dlmallinfo             mallinfo
-#define dlmallopt              mallopt
-#define dlmalloc_trim          malloc_trim
-#define dlmalloc_stats         malloc_stats
-#define dlmalloc_usable_size   malloc_usable_size
-#define dlmalloc_footprint     malloc_footprint
-#define dlmalloc_max_footprint malloc_max_footprint
-#define dlmalloc_footprint_limit malloc_footprint_limit
-#define dlmalloc_set_footprint_limit malloc_set_footprint_limit
-#define dlmalloc_inspect_all   malloc_inspect_all
-#define dlindependent_calloc   independent_calloc
-#define dlindependent_comalloc independent_comalloc
-#define dlbulk_free            bulk_free
-#endif /* USE_DL_PREFIX */
-
-/*
-  malloc(size_t n)
-  Returns a pointer to a newly allocated chunk of at least n bytes, or
-  null if no space is available, in which case errno is set to ENOMEM
-  on ANSI C systems.
-
-  If n is zero, malloc returns a minimum-sized chunk. (The minimum
-  size is 16 bytes on most 32bit systems, and 32 bytes on 64bit
-  systems.)  Note that size_t is an unsigned type, so calls with
-  arguments that would be negative if signed are interpreted as
-  requests for huge amounts of space, which will often fail. The
-  maximum supported value of n differs across systems, but is in all
-  cases less than the maximum representable value of a size_t.
-*/
-DLMALLOC_EXPORT void* dlmalloc(size_t);
-
-/*
-  free(void* p)
-  Releases the chunk of memory pointed to by p, that had been previously
-  allocated using malloc or a related routine such as realloc.
-  It has no effect if p is null. If p was not malloced or already
-  freed, free(p) will by default cause the current program to abort.
-*/
-DLMALLOC_EXPORT void  dlfree(void*);
-
-/*
-  calloc(size_t n_elements, size_t element_size);
-  Returns a pointer to n_elements * element_size bytes, with all locations
-  set to zero.
-*/
-DLMALLOC_EXPORT void* dlcalloc(size_t, size_t);
-
-/*
-  realloc(void* p, size_t n)
-  Returns a pointer to a chunk of size n that contains the same data
-  as does chunk p up to the minimum of (n, p's size) bytes, or null
-  if no space is available.
-
-  The returned pointer may or may not be the same as p. The algorithm
-  prefers extending p in most cases when possible, otherwise it
-  employs the equivalent of a malloc-copy-free sequence.
-
-  If p is null, realloc is equivalent to malloc.
-
-  If space is not available, realloc returns null, errno is set (if on
-  ANSI) and p is NOT freed.
-
-  if n is for fewer bytes than already held by p, the newly unused
-  space is lopped off and freed if possible.  realloc with a size
-  argument of zero (re)allocates a minimum-sized chunk.
-
-  The old unix realloc convention of allowing the last-free'd chunk
-  to be used as an argument to realloc is not supported.
-*/
-DLMALLOC_EXPORT void* dlrealloc(void*, size_t);
-
-/*
-  realloc_in_place(void* p, size_t n)
-  Resizes the space allocated for p to size n, only if this can be
-  done without moving p (i.e., only if there is adjacent space
-  available if n is greater than p's current allocated size, or n is
-  less than or equal to p's size). This may be used instead of plain
-  realloc if an alternative allocation strategy is needed upon failure
-  to expand space; for example, reallocation of a buffer that must be
-  memory-aligned or cleared. You can use realloc_in_place to trigger
-  these alternatives only when needed.
-
-  Returns p if successful; otherwise null.
-*/
-DLMALLOC_EXPORT void* dlrealloc_in_place(void*, size_t);
-
-/*
-  memalign(size_t alignment, size_t n);
-  Returns a pointer to a newly allocated chunk of n bytes, aligned
-  in accord with the alignment argument.
-
-  The alignment argument should be a power of two. If the argument is
-  not a power of two, the nearest greater power is used.
-  8-byte alignment is guaranteed by normal malloc calls, so don't
-  bother calling memalign with an argument of 8 or less.
-
-  Overreliance on memalign is a sure way to fragment space.
-*/
-DLMALLOC_EXPORT void* dlmemalign(size_t, size_t);
-
-/*
-  int posix_memalign(void** pp, size_t alignment, size_t n);
-  Allocates a chunk of n bytes, aligned in accord with the alignment
-  argument. Differs from memalign only in that it (1) assigns the
-  allocated memory to *pp rather than returning it, (2) fails and
-  returns EINVAL if the alignment is not a power of two (3) fails and
-  returns ENOMEM if memory cannot be allocated.
-*/
-DLMALLOC_EXPORT int dlposix_memalign(void**, size_t, size_t);
-
-/*
-  valloc(size_t n);
-  Equivalent to memalign(pagesize, n), where pagesize is the page
-  size of the system. If the pagesize is unknown, 4096 is used.
-*/
-DLMALLOC_EXPORT void* dlvalloc(size_t);
-
-/*
-  mallopt(int parameter_number, int parameter_value)
-  Sets tunable parameters The format is to provide a
-  (parameter-number, parameter-value) pair.  mallopt then sets the
-  corresponding parameter to the argument value if it can (i.e., so
-  long as the value is meaningful), and returns 1 if successful else
-  0.  To workaround the fact that mallopt is specified to use int,
-  not size_t parameters, the value -1 is specially treated as the
-  maximum unsigned size_t value.
-
-  SVID/XPG/ANSI defines four standard param numbers for mallopt,
-  normally defined in malloc.h.  None of these are use in this malloc,
-  so setting them has no effect. But this malloc also supports other
-  options in mallopt. See below for details.  Briefly, supported
-  parameters are as follows (listed defaults are for "typical"
-  configurations).
-
-  Symbol            param #  default    allowed param values
-  M_TRIM_THRESHOLD     -1   2*1024*1024   any   (-1 disables)
-  M_GRANULARITY        -2     page size   any power of 2 >= page size
-  M_MMAP_THRESHOLD     -3      256*1024   any   (or 0 if no MMAP support)
-*/
-DLMALLOC_EXPORT int dlmallopt(int, int);
-
-/*
-  malloc_footprint();
-  Returns the number of bytes obtained from the system.  The total
-  number of bytes allocated by malloc, realloc etc., is less than this
-  value. Unlike mallinfo, this function returns only a precomputed
-  result, so can be called frequently to monitor memory consumption.
-  Even if locks are otherwise defined, this function does not use them,
-  so results might not be up to date.
-*/
-DLMALLOC_EXPORT size_t dlmalloc_footprint(void);
-
-/*
-  malloc_max_footprint();
-  Returns the maximum number of bytes obtained from the system. This
-  value will be greater than current footprint if deallocated space
-  has been reclaimed by the system. The peak number of bytes allocated
-  by malloc, realloc etc., is less than this value. Unlike mallinfo,
-  this function returns only a precomputed result, so can be called
-  frequently to monitor memory consumption.  Even if locks are
-  otherwise defined, this function does not use them, so results might
-  not be up to date.
-*/
-DLMALLOC_EXPORT size_t dlmalloc_max_footprint(void);
-
-/*
-  malloc_footprint_limit();
-  Returns the number of bytes that the heap is allowed to obtain from
-  the system, returning the last value returned by
-  malloc_set_footprint_limit, or the maximum size_t value if
-  never set. The returned value reflects a permission. There is no
-  guarantee that this number of bytes can actually be obtained from
-  the system.
-*/
-DLMALLOC_EXPORT size_t dlmalloc_footprint_limit();
-
-/*
-  malloc_set_footprint_limit();
-  Sets the maximum number of bytes to obtain from the system, causing
-  failure returns from malloc and related functions upon attempts to
-  exceed this value. The argument value may be subject to page
-  rounding to an enforceable limit; this actual value is returned.
-  Using an argument of the maximum possible size_t effectively
-  disables checks. If the argument is less than or equal to the
-  current malloc_footprint, then all future allocations that require
-  additional system memory will fail. However, invocation cannot
-  retroactively deallocate existing used memory.
-*/
-DLMALLOC_EXPORT size_t dlmalloc_set_footprint_limit(size_t bytes);
-
-#if MALLOC_INSPECT_ALL
-/*
-  malloc_inspect_all(void(*handler)(void *start,
-                                    void *end,
-                                    size_t used_bytes,
-                                    void* callback_arg),
-                      void* arg);
-  Traverses the heap and calls the given handler for each managed
-  region, skipping all bytes that are (or may be) used for bookkeeping
-  purposes.  Traversal does not include include chunks that have been
-  directly memory mapped. Each reported region begins at the start
-  address, and continues up to but not including the end address.  The
-  first used_bytes of the region contain allocated data. If
-  used_bytes is zero, the region is unallocated. The handler is
-  invoked with the given callback argument. If locks are defined, they
-  are held during the entire traversal. It is a bad idea to invoke
-  other malloc functions from within the handler.
-
-  For example, to count the number of in-use chunks with size greater
-  than 1000, you could write:
-  static int count = 0;
-  void count_chunks(void* start, void* end, size_t used, void* arg) {
-    if (used >= 1000) ++count;
-  }
-  then:
-    malloc_inspect_all(count_chunks, NULL);
-
-  malloc_inspect_all is compiled only if MALLOC_INSPECT_ALL is defined.
-*/
-DLMALLOC_EXPORT void dlmalloc_inspect_all(void(*handler)(void*, void *, size_t, void*),
-                           void* arg);
-
-#endif /* MALLOC_INSPECT_ALL */
-
-#if !NO_MALLINFO
-/*
-  mallinfo()
-  Returns (by copy) a struct containing various summary statistics:
-
-  arena:     current total non-mmapped bytes allocated from system
-  ordblks:   the number of free chunks
-  smblks:    always zero.
-  hblks:     current number of mmapped regions
-  hblkhd:    total bytes held in mmapped regions
-  usmblks:   the maximum total allocated space. This will be greater
-                than current total if trimming has occurred.
-  fsmblks:   always zero
-  uordblks:  current total allocated space (normal or mmapped)
-  fordblks:  total free space
-  keepcost:  the maximum number of bytes that could ideally be released
-               back to system via malloc_trim. ("ideally" means that
-               it ignores page restrictions etc.)
-
-  Because these fields are ints, but internal bookkeeping may
-  be kept as longs, the reported values may wrap around zero and
-  thus be inaccurate.
-*/
-DLMALLOC_EXPORT struct mallinfo dlmallinfo(void);
-#endif /* NO_MALLINFO */
-
-/*
-  independent_calloc(size_t n_elements, size_t element_size, void* chunks[]);
-
-  independent_calloc is similar to calloc, but instead of returning a
-  single cleared space, it returns an array of pointers to n_elements
-  independent elements that can hold contents of size elem_size, each
-  of which starts out cleared, and can be independently freed,
-  realloc'ed etc. The elements are guaranteed to be adjacently
-  allocated (this is not guaranteed to occur with multiple callocs or
-  mallocs), which may also improve cache locality in some
-  applications.
-
-  The "chunks" argument is optional (i.e., may be null, which is
-  probably the most typical usage). If it is null, the returned array
-  is itself dynamically allocated and should also be freed when it is
-  no longer needed. Otherwise, the chunks array must be of at least
-  n_elements in length. It is filled in with the pointers to the
-  chunks.
-
-  In either case, independent_calloc returns this pointer array, or
-  null if the allocation failed.  If n_elements is zero and "chunks"
-  is null, it returns a chunk representing an array with zero elements
-  (which should be freed if not wanted).
-
-  Each element must be freed when it is no longer needed. This can be
-  done all at once using bulk_free.
-
-  independent_calloc simplifies and speeds up implementations of many
-  kinds of pools.  It may also be useful when constructing large data
-  structures that initially have a fixed number of fixed-sized nodes,
-  but the number is not known at compile time, and some of the nodes
-  may later need to be freed. For example:
-
-  struct Node { int item; struct Node* next; };
-
-  struct Node* build_list() {
-    struct Node** pool;
-    int n = read_number_of_nodes_needed();
-    if (n <= 0) return 0;
-    pool = (struct Node**)(independent_calloc(n, sizeof(struct Node), 0);
-    if (pool == 0) die();
-    // organize into a linked list...
-    struct Node* first = pool[0];
-    for (i = 0; i < n-1; ++i)
-      pool[i]->next = pool[i+1];
-    free(pool);     // Can now free the array (or not, if it is needed later)
-    return first;
-  }
-*/
-DLMALLOC_EXPORT void** dlindependent_calloc(size_t, size_t, void**);
-
-/*
-  independent_comalloc(size_t n_elements, size_t sizes[], void* chunks[]);
-
-  independent_comalloc allocates, all at once, a set of n_elements
-  chunks with sizes indicated in the "sizes" array.    It returns
-  an array of pointers to these elements, each of which can be
-  independently freed, realloc'ed etc. The elements are guaranteed to
-  be adjacently allocated (this is not guaranteed to occur with
-  multiple callocs or mallocs), which may also improve cache locality
-  in some applications.
-
-  The "chunks" argument is optional (i.e., may be null). If it is null
-  the returned array is itself dynamically allocated and should also
-  be freed when it is no longer needed. Otherwise, the chunks array
-  must be of at least n_elements in length. It is filled in with the
-  pointers to the chunks.
-
-  In either case, independent_comalloc returns this pointer array, or
-  null if the allocation failed.  If n_elements is zero and chunks is
-  null, it returns a chunk representing an array with zero elements
-  (which should be freed if not wanted).
-
-  Each element must be freed when it is no longer needed. This can be
-  done all at once using bulk_free.
-
-  independent_comallac differs from independent_calloc in that each
-  element may have a different size, and also that it does not
-  automatically clear elements.
-
-  independent_comalloc can be used to speed up allocation in cases
-  where several structs or objects must always be allocated at the
-  same time.  For example:
-
-  struct Head { ... }
-  struct Foot { ... }
-
-  void send_message(char* msg) {
-    int msglen = strlen(msg);
-    size_t sizes[3] = { sizeof(struct Head), msglen, sizeof(struct Foot) };
-    void* chunks[3];
-    if (independent_comalloc(3, sizes, chunks) == 0)
-      die();
-    struct Head* head = (struct Head*)(chunks[0]);
-    char*        body = (char*)(chunks[1]);
-    struct Foot* foot = (struct Foot*)(chunks[2]);
-    // ...
-  }
-
-  In general though, independent_comalloc is worth using only for
-  larger values of n_elements. For small values, you probably won't
-  detect enough difference from series of malloc calls to bother.
-
-  Overuse of independent_comalloc can increase overall memory usage,
-  since it cannot reuse existing noncontiguous small chunks that
-  might be available for some of the elements.
-*/
-DLMALLOC_EXPORT void** dlindependent_comalloc(size_t, size_t*, void**);
-
-/*
-  bulk_free(void* array[], size_t n_elements)
-  Frees and clears (sets to null) each non-null pointer in the given
-  array.  This is likely to be faster than freeing them one-by-one.
-  If footers are used, pointers that have been allocated in different
-  mspaces are not freed or cleared, and the count of all such pointers
-  is returned.  For large arrays of pointers with poor locality, it
-  may be worthwhile to sort this array before calling bulk_free.
-*/
-DLMALLOC_EXPORT size_t  dlbulk_free(void**, size_t n_elements);
-
-/*
-  pvalloc(size_t n);
-  Equivalent to valloc(minimum-page-that-holds(n)), that is,
-  round up n to nearest pagesize.
- */
-DLMALLOC_EXPORT void*  dlpvalloc(size_t);
-
-/*
-  malloc_trim(size_t pad);
-
-  If possible, gives memory back to the system (via negative arguments
-  to sbrk) if there is unused memory at the `high' end of the malloc
-  pool or in unused MMAP segments. You can call this after freeing
-  large blocks of memory to potentially reduce the system-level memory
-  requirements of a program. However, it cannot guarantee to reduce
-  memory. Under some allocation patterns, some large free blocks of
-  memory will be locked between two used chunks, so they cannot be
-  given back to the system.
-
-  The `pad' argument to malloc_trim represents the amount of free
-  trailing space to leave untrimmed. If this argument is zero, only
-  the minimum amount of memory to maintain internal data structures
-  will be left. Non-zero arguments can be supplied to maintain enough
-  trailing space to service future expected allocations without having
-  to re-obtain memory from the system.
-
-  Malloc_trim returns 1 if it actually released any memory, else 0.
-*/
-DLMALLOC_EXPORT int  dlmalloc_trim(size_t);
-
-/*
-  malloc_stats();
-  Prints on stderr the amount of space obtained from the system (both
-  via sbrk and mmap), the maximum amount (which may be more than
-  current if malloc_trim and/or munmap got called), and the current
-  number of bytes allocated via malloc (or realloc, etc) but not yet
-  freed. Note that this is the number of bytes allocated, not the
-  number requested. It will be larger than the number requested
-  because of alignment and bookkeeping overhead. Because it includes
-  alignment wastage as being in use, this figure may be greater than
-  zero even when no user-level chunks are allocated.
-
-  The reported current and maximum system memory can be inaccurate if
-  a program makes other calls to system memory allocation functions
-  (normally sbrk) outside of malloc.
-
-  malloc_stats prints only the most commonly interesting statistics.
-  More information can be obtained by calling mallinfo.
-*/
-DLMALLOC_EXPORT void  dlmalloc_stats(void);
-
-/*
-  malloc_usable_size(void* p);
-
-  Returns the number of bytes you can actually use in
-  an allocated chunk, which may be more than you requested (although
-  often not) due to alignment and minimum size constraints.
-  You can use this many bytes without worrying about
-  overwriting other allocated objects. This is not a particularly great
-  programming practice. malloc_usable_size can be more useful in
-  debugging and assertions, for example:
-
-  p = malloc(n);
-  assert(malloc_usable_size(p) >= 256);
-*/
-size_t dlmalloc_usable_size(void*);
-
-#endif /* ONLY_MSPACES */
-
-#if MSPACES
-
-/*
-  mspace is an opaque type representing an independent
-  region of space that supports mspace_malloc, etc.
-*/
-typedef void* mspace;
-
-/*
-  create_mspace creates and returns a new independent space with the
-  given initial capacity, or, if 0, the default granularity size.  It
-  returns null if there is no system memory available to create the
-  space.  If argument locked is non-zero, the space uses a separate
-  lock to control access. The capacity of the space will grow
-  dynamically as needed to service mspace_malloc requests.  You can
-  control the sizes of incremental increases of this space by
-  compiling with a different DEFAULT_GRANULARITY or dynamically
-  setting with mallopt(M_GRANULARITY, value).
-*/
-DLMALLOC_EXPORT mspace create_mspace(size_t capacity, int locked);
-
-/*
-  destroy_mspace destroys the given space, and attempts to return all
-  of its memory back to the system, returning the total number of
-  bytes freed. After destruction, the results of access to all memory
-  used by the space become undefined.
-*/
-DLMALLOC_EXPORT size_t destroy_mspace(mspace msp);
-
-/*
-  create_mspace_with_base uses the memory supplied as the initial base
-  of a new mspace. Part (less than 128*sizeof(size_t) bytes) of this
-  space is used for bookkeeping, so the capacity must be at least this
-  large. (Otherwise 0 is returned.) When this initial space is
-  exhausted, additional memory will be obtained from the system.
-  Destroying this space will deallocate all additionally allocated
-  space (if possible) but not the initial base.
-*/
-DLMALLOC_EXPORT mspace create_mspace_with_base(void* base, size_t capacity, int locked);
-
-/*
-  mspace_track_large_chunks controls whether requests for large chunks
-  are allocated in their own untracked mmapped regions, separate from
-  others in this mspace. By default large chunks are not tracked,
-  which reduces fragmentation. However, such chunks are not
-  necessarily released to the system upon destroy_mspace.  Enabling
-  tracking by setting to true may increase fragmentation, but avoids
-  leakage when relying on destroy_mspace to release all memory
-  allocated using this space.  The function returns the previous
-  setting.
-*/
-DLMALLOC_EXPORT int mspace_track_large_chunks(mspace msp, int enable);
-
-
-/*
-  mspace_malloc behaves as malloc, but operates within
-  the given space.
-*/
-DLMALLOC_EXPORT void* mspace_malloc(mspace msp, size_t bytes);
-
-/*
-  mspace_free behaves as free, but operates within
-  the given space.
-
-  If compiled with FOOTERS==1, mspace_free is not actually needed.
-  free may be called instead of mspace_free because freed chunks from
-  any space are handled by their originating spaces.
-*/
-DLMALLOC_EXPORT void mspace_free(mspace msp, void* mem);
-
-/*
-  mspace_realloc behaves as realloc, but operates within
-  the given space.
-
-  If compiled with FOOTERS==1, mspace_realloc is not actually
-  needed.  realloc may be called instead of mspace_realloc because
-  realloced chunks from any space are handled by their originating
-  spaces.
-*/
-DLMALLOC_EXPORT void* mspace_realloc(mspace msp, void* mem, size_t newsize);
-
-/*
-  mspace_calloc behaves as calloc, but operates within
-  the given space.
-*/
-DLMALLOC_EXPORT void* mspace_calloc(mspace msp, size_t n_elements, size_t elem_size);
-
-/*
-  mspace_memalign behaves as memalign, but operates within
-  the given space.
-*/
-DLMALLOC_EXPORT void* mspace_memalign(mspace msp, size_t alignment, size_t bytes);
-
-/*
-  mspace_independent_calloc behaves as independent_calloc, but
-  operates within the given space.
-*/
-DLMALLOC_EXPORT void** mspace_independent_calloc(mspace msp, size_t n_elements,
-                                 size_t elem_size, void* chunks[]);
-
-/*
-  mspace_independent_comalloc behaves as independent_comalloc, but
-  operates within the given space.
-*/
-DLMALLOC_EXPORT void** mspace_independent_comalloc(mspace msp, size_t n_elements,
-                                   size_t sizes[], void* chunks[]);
-
-/*
-  mspace_footprint() returns the number of bytes obtained from the
-  system for this space.
-*/
-DLMALLOC_EXPORT size_t mspace_footprint(mspace msp);
-
-/*
-  mspace_max_footprint() returns the peak number of bytes obtained from the
-  system for this space.
-*/
-DLMALLOC_EXPORT size_t mspace_max_footprint(mspace msp);
-
-
-#if !NO_MALLINFO
-/*
-  mspace_mallinfo behaves as mallinfo, but reports properties of
-  the given space.
-*/
-DLMALLOC_EXPORT struct mallinfo mspace_mallinfo(mspace msp);
-#endif /* NO_MALLINFO */
-
-/*
-  malloc_usable_size(void* p) behaves the same as malloc_usable_size;
-*/
-DLMALLOC_EXPORT size_t mspace_usable_size(const void* mem);
-
-/*
-  mspace_malloc_stats behaves as malloc_stats, but reports
-  properties of the given space.
-*/
-DLMALLOC_EXPORT void mspace_malloc_stats(mspace msp);
-
-/*
-  mspace_trim behaves as malloc_trim, but
-  operates within the given space.
-*/
-DLMALLOC_EXPORT int mspace_trim(mspace msp, size_t pad);
-
-/*
-  An alias for mallopt.
-*/
-DLMALLOC_EXPORT int mspace_mallopt(int, int);
-
-#endif /* MSPACES */
-
-#ifdef __cplusplus
-}  /* end of extern "C" */
-#endif /* __cplusplus */
-
-/*
-  ========================================================================
-  To make a fully customizable malloc.h header file, cut everything
-  above this line, put into file malloc.h, edit to suit, and #include it
-  on the next line, as well as in programs that use this malloc.
-  ========================================================================
-*/
-
-/* #include "malloc.h" */
-
-/*------------------------------ internal #includes ---------------------- */
-
-#ifdef _MSC_VER
-#pragma warning( disable : 4146 ) /* no "unsigned" warnings */
-#endif /* _MSC_VER */
-#if !NO_MALLOC_STATS
-#include <stdio.h>       /* for printing in malloc_stats */
-#endif /* NO_MALLOC_STATS */
-#ifndef LACKS_ERRNO_H
-#include <errno.h>       /* for MALLOC_FAILURE_ACTION */
-#endif /* LACKS_ERRNO_H */
-#ifdef DEBUG
-#if ABORT_ON_ASSERT_FAILURE
-#undef assert
-#define assert(x) if(!(x)) ABORT
-#else /* ABORT_ON_ASSERT_FAILURE */
-#include <assert.h>
-#endif /* ABORT_ON_ASSERT_FAILURE */
-#else  /* DEBUG */
-#ifndef assert
-#define assert(x)
-#endif
-#define DEBUG 0
-#endif /* DEBUG */
-#if !defined(WIN32) && !defined(LACKS_TIME_H)
-#include <time.h>        /* for magic initialization */
-#endif /* WIN32 */
-#ifndef LACKS_STDLIB_H
-#include <stdlib.h>      /* for abort() */
-#endif /* LACKS_STDLIB_H */
-#ifndef LACKS_STRING_H
-#include <string.h>      /* for memset etc */
-#endif  /* LACKS_STRING_H */
-#if USE_BUILTIN_FFS
-#ifndef LACKS_STRINGS_H
-#include <strings.h>     /* for ffs */
-#endif /* LACKS_STRINGS_H */
-#endif /* USE_BUILTIN_FFS */
-#if HAVE_MMAP
-#ifndef LACKS_SYS_MMAN_H
-/* On some versions of linux, mremap decl in mman.h needs __USE_GNU set */
-#if (defined(linux) && !defined(__USE_GNU))
-#define __USE_GNU 1
-#include <sys/mman.h>    /* for mmap */
-#undef __USE_GNU
-#else
-#include <sys/mman.h>    /* for mmap */
-#endif /* linux */
-#endif /* LACKS_SYS_MMAN_H */
-#ifndef LACKS_FCNTL_H
-#include <fcntl.h>
-#endif /* LACKS_FCNTL_H */
-#endif /* HAVE_MMAP */
-#ifndef LACKS_UNISTD_H
-#include <unistd.h>     /* for sbrk, sysconf */
-#else /* LACKS_UNISTD_H */
-#if !defined(__FreeBSD__) && !defined(__OpenBSD__) && !defined(__NetBSD__)
-extern void*     sbrk(ptrdiff_t);
-#endif /* FreeBSD etc */
-#endif /* LACKS_UNISTD_H */
-
-/* Declarations for locking */
-#if USE_LOCKS
-#ifndef WIN32
-#if defined (__SVR4) && defined (__sun)  /* solaris */
-#include <thread.h>
-#elif !defined(LACKS_SCHED_H)
-#include <sched.h>
-#endif /* solaris or LACKS_SCHED_H */
-#if (defined(USE_RECURSIVE_LOCKS) && USE_RECURSIVE_LOCKS != 0) || !USE_SPIN_LOCKS
-#include <pthread.h>
-#endif /* USE_RECURSIVE_LOCKS ... */
-#elif defined(_MSC_VER)
-#ifndef _M_AMD64
-/* These are already defined on AMD64 builds */
-#ifdef __cplusplus
-extern "C" {
-#endif /* __cplusplus */
-LONG __cdecl _InterlockedCompareExchange(LONG volatile *Dest, LONG Exchange, LONG Comp);
-LONG __cdecl _InterlockedExchange(LONG volatile *Target, LONG Value);
-#ifdef __cplusplus
-}
-#endif /* __cplusplus */
-#endif /* _M_AMD64 */
-#pragma intrinsic (_InterlockedCompareExchange)
-#pragma intrinsic (_InterlockedExchange)
-#define interlockedcompareexchange _InterlockedCompareExchange
-#define interlockedexchange _InterlockedExchange
-#elif defined(WIN32) && defined(__GNUC__)
-#define interlockedcompareexchange(a, b, c) __sync_val_compare_and_swap(a, c, b)
-#define interlockedexchange __sync_lock_test_and_set
-#endif /* Win32 */
-#else /* USE_LOCKS */
-#endif /* USE_LOCKS */
-
-#ifndef LOCK_AT_FORK
-#define LOCK_AT_FORK 0
-#endif
-
-/* Declarations for bit scanning on win32 */
-#if defined(_MSC_VER) && _MSC_VER>=1300
-#ifndef BitScanForward /* Try to avoid pulling in WinNT.h */
-#ifdef __cplusplus
-extern "C" {
-#endif /* __cplusplus */
-unsigned char _BitScanForward(unsigned long *index, unsigned long mask);
-unsigned char _BitScanReverse(unsigned long *index, unsigned long mask);
-#ifdef __cplusplus
-}
-#endif /* __cplusplus */
-
-#define BitScanForward _BitScanForward
-#define BitScanReverse _BitScanReverse
-#pragma intrinsic(_BitScanForward)
-#pragma intrinsic(_BitScanReverse)
-#endif /* BitScanForward */
-#endif /* defined(_MSC_VER) && _MSC_VER>=1300 */
-
-#ifndef WIN32
-#ifndef malloc_getpagesize
-#  ifdef _SC_PAGESIZE         /* some SVR4 systems omit an underscore */
-#    ifndef _SC_PAGE_SIZE
-#      define _SC_PAGE_SIZE _SC_PAGESIZE
-#    endif
-#  endif
-#  ifdef _SC_PAGE_SIZE
-#    define malloc_getpagesize sysconf(_SC_PAGE_SIZE)
-#  else
-#    if defined(BSD) || defined(DGUX) || defined(HAVE_GETPAGESIZE)
-       extern size_t getpagesize();
-#      define malloc_getpagesize getpagesize()
-#    else
-#      ifdef WIN32 /* use supplied emulation of getpagesize */
-#        define malloc_getpagesize getpagesize()
-#      else
-#        ifndef LACKS_SYS_PARAM_H
-#          include <sys/param.h>
-#        endif
-#        ifdef EXEC_PAGESIZE
-#          define malloc_getpagesize EXEC_PAGESIZE
-#        else
-#          ifdef NBPG
-#            ifndef CLSIZE
-#              define malloc_getpagesize NBPG
-#            else
-#              define malloc_getpagesize (NBPG * CLSIZE)
-#            endif
-#          else
-#            ifdef NBPC
-#              define malloc_getpagesize NBPC
-#            else
-#              ifdef PAGESIZE
-#                define malloc_getpagesize PAGESIZE
-#              else /* just guess */
-#                define malloc_getpagesize ((size_t)4096U)
-#              endif
-#            endif
-#          endif
-#        endif
-#      endif
-#    endif
-#  endif
-#endif
-#endif
-
-/* ------------------- size_t and alignment properties -------------------- */
-
-/* The byte and bit size of a size_t */
-#define SIZE_T_SIZE         (sizeof(size_t))
-#define SIZE_T_BITSIZE      (sizeof(size_t) << 3)
-
-/* Some constants coerced to size_t */
-/* Annoying but necessary to avoid errors on some platforms */
-#define SIZE_T_ZERO         ((size_t)0)
-#define SIZE_T_ONE          ((size_t)1)
-#define SIZE_T_TWO          ((size_t)2)
-#define SIZE_T_FOUR         ((size_t)4)
-#define TWO_SIZE_T_SIZES    (SIZE_T_SIZE<<1)
-#define FOUR_SIZE_T_SIZES   (SIZE_T_SIZE<<2)
-#define SIX_SIZE_T_SIZES    (FOUR_SIZE_T_SIZES+TWO_SIZE_T_SIZES)
-#define HALF_MAX_SIZE_T     (MAX_SIZE_T / 2U)
-
-/* The bit mask value corresponding to MALLOC_ALIGNMENT */
-#define CHUNK_ALIGN_MASK    (MALLOC_ALIGNMENT - SIZE_T_ONE)
-
-/* True if address a has acceptable alignment */
-#define is_aligned(A)       (((size_t)((A)) & (CHUNK_ALIGN_MASK)) == 0)
-
-/* the number of bytes to offset an address to align it */
-#define align_offset(A)\
- ((((size_t)(A) & CHUNK_ALIGN_MASK) == 0)? 0 :\
-  ((MALLOC_ALIGNMENT - ((size_t)(A) & CHUNK_ALIGN_MASK)) & CHUNK_ALIGN_MASK))
-
-/* -------------------------- MMAP preliminaries ------------------------- */
-
-/*
-   If HAVE_MORECORE or HAVE_MMAP are false, we just define calls and
-   checks to fail so compiler optimizer can delete code rather than
-   using so many "#if"s.
-*/
-
-
-/* MORECORE and MMAP must return MFAIL on failure */
-#define MFAIL                ((void*)(MAX_SIZE_T))
-#define CMFAIL               ((char*)(MFAIL)) /* defined for convenience */
-
-#if HAVE_MMAP
-
-#ifndef WIN32
-#define MUNMAP_DEFAULT(a, s)  munmap((a), (s))
-#define MMAP_PROT            (PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE)
-#if !defined(MAP_ANONYMOUS) && defined(MAP_ANON)
-#define MAP_ANONYMOUS        MAP_ANON
-#endif /* MAP_ANON */
-#ifdef MAP_ANONYMOUS
-#define MMAP_FLAGS           (MAP_PRIVATE|MAP_ANONYMOUS)
-#define MMAP_DEFAULT(s)       mmap(0, (s), MMAP_PROT, MMAP_FLAGS, -1, 0)
-#else /* MAP_ANONYMOUS */
-/*
-   Nearly all versions of mmap support MAP_ANONYMOUS, so the following
-   is unlikely to be needed, but is supplied just in case.
-*/
-#define MMAP_FLAGS           (MAP_PRIVATE)
-static int dev_zero_fd = -1; /* Cached file descriptor for /dev/zero. */
-#define MMAP_DEFAULT(s) ((dev_zero_fd < 0) ? \
-           (dev_zero_fd = open("/dev/zero", O_RDWR), \
-            mmap(0, (s), MMAP_PROT, MMAP_FLAGS, dev_zero_fd, 0)) : \
-            mmap(0, (s), MMAP_PROT, MMAP_FLAGS, dev_zero_fd, 0))
-#endif /* MAP_ANONYMOUS */
-
-#define DIRECT_MMAP_DEFAULT(s) MMAP_DEFAULT(s)
-
-#else /* WIN32 */
-
-/* Win32 MMAP via VirtualAlloc */
-static FORCEINLINE void* win32mmap(size_t size) {
-  void* ptr = VirtualAlloc(0, size, MEM_RESERVE|MEM_COMMIT, PAGE_READWRITE);
-  return (ptr != 0)? ptr: MFAIL;
-}
-
-/* For direct MMAP, use MEM_TOP_DOWN to minimize interference */
-static FORCEINLINE void* win32direct_mmap(size_t size) {
-  void* ptr = VirtualAlloc(0, size, MEM_RESERVE|MEM_COMMIT|MEM_TOP_DOWN,
-                           PAGE_READWRITE);
-  return (ptr != 0)? ptr: MFAIL;
-}
-
-/* This function supports releasing coalesed segments */
-static FORCEINLINE int win32munmap(void* ptr, size_t size) {
-  MEMORY_BASIC_INFORMATION minfo;
-  char* cptr = (char*)ptr;
-  while (size) {
-    if (VirtualQuery(cptr, &minfo, sizeof(minfo)) == 0)
-      return -1;
-    if (minfo.BaseAddress != cptr || minfo.AllocationBase != cptr ||
-        minfo.State != MEM_COMMIT || minfo.RegionSize > size)
-      return -1;
-    if (VirtualFree(cptr, 0, MEM_RELEASE) == 0)
-      return -1;
-    cptr += minfo.RegionSize;
-    size -= minfo.RegionSize;
-  }
-  return 0;
-}
-
-#define MMAP_DEFAULT(s)             win32mmap(s)
-#define MUNMAP_DEFAULT(a, s)        win32munmap((a), (s))
-#define DIRECT_MMAP_DEFAULT(s)      win32direct_mmap(s)
-#endif /* WIN32 */
-#endif /* HAVE_MMAP */
-
-#if HAVE_MREMAP
-#ifndef WIN32
-#define MREMAP_DEFAULT(addr, osz, nsz, mv) mremap((addr), (osz), (nsz), (mv))
-#endif /* WIN32 */
-#endif /* HAVE_MREMAP */
-
-/**
- * Define CALL_MORECORE
- */
-#if HAVE_MORECORE
-    #ifdef MORECORE
-        #define CALL_MORECORE(S)    MORECORE(S)
-    #else  /* MORECORE */
-        #define CALL_MORECORE(S)    MORECORE_DEFAULT(S)
-    #endif /* MORECORE */
-#else  /* HAVE_MORECORE */
-    #define CALL_MORECORE(S)        MFAIL
-#endif /* HAVE_MORECORE */
-
-/**
- * Define CALL_MMAP/CALL_MUNMAP/CALL_DIRECT_MMAP
- */
-#if HAVE_MMAP
-    #define USE_MMAP_BIT            (SIZE_T_ONE)
-
-    #ifdef MMAP
-        #define CALL_MMAP(s)        MMAP(s)
-    #else /* MMAP */
-        #define CALL_MMAP(s)        MMAP_DEFAULT(s)
-    #endif /* MMAP */
-    #ifdef MUNMAP
-        #define CALL_MUNMAP(a, s)   MUNMAP((a), (s))
-    #else /* MUNMAP */
-        #define CALL_MUNMAP(a, s)   MUNMAP_DEFAULT((a), (s))
-    #endif /* MUNMAP */
-    #ifdef DIRECT_MMAP
-        #define CALL_DIRECT_MMAP(s) DIRECT_MMAP(s)
-    #else /* DIRECT_MMAP */
-        #define CALL_DIRECT_MMAP(s) DIRECT_MMAP_DEFAULT(s)
-    #endif /* DIRECT_MMAP */
-#else  /* HAVE_MMAP */
-    #define USE_MMAP_BIT            (SIZE_T_ZERO)
-
-    #define MMAP(s)                 MFAIL
-    #define MUNMAP(a, s)            (-1)
-    #define DIRECT_MMAP(s)          MFAIL
-    #define CALL_DIRECT_MMAP(s)     DIRECT_MMAP(s)
-    #define CALL_MMAP(s)            MMAP(s)
-    #define CALL_MUNMAP(a, s)       MUNMAP((a), (s))
-#endif /* HAVE_MMAP */
-
-/**
- * Define CALL_MREMAP
- */
-#if HAVE_MMAP && HAVE_MREMAP
-    #ifdef MREMAP
-        #define CALL_MREMAP(addr, osz, nsz, mv) MREMAP((addr), (osz), (nsz), (mv))
-    #else /* MREMAP */
-        #define CALL_MREMAP(addr, osz, nsz, mv) MREMAP_DEFAULT((addr), (osz), (nsz), (mv))
-    #endif /* MREMAP */
-#else  /* HAVE_MMAP && HAVE_MREMAP */
-    #define CALL_MREMAP(addr, osz, nsz, mv)     MFAIL
-#endif /* HAVE_MMAP && HAVE_MREMAP */
-
-/* mstate bit set if continguous morecore disabled or failed */
-#define USE_NONCONTIGUOUS_BIT (4U)
-
-/* segment bit set in create_mspace_with_base */
-#define EXTERN_BIT            (8U)
-
-
-/* --------------------------- Lock preliminaries ------------------------ */
-
-/*
-  When locks are defined, there is one global lock, plus
-  one per-mspace lock.
-
-  The global lock_ensures that mparams.magic and other unique
-  mparams values are initialized only once. It also protects
-  sequences of calls to MORECORE.  In many cases sys_alloc requires
-  two calls, that should not be interleaved with calls by other
-  threads.  This does not protect against direct calls to MORECORE
-  by other threads not using this lock, so there is still code to
-  cope the best we can on interference.
-
-  Per-mspace locks surround calls to malloc, free, etc.
-  By default, locks are simple non-reentrant mutexes.
-
-  Because lock-protected regions generally have bounded times, it is
-  OK to use the supplied simple spinlocks. Spinlocks are likely to
-  improve performance for lightly contended applications, but worsen
-  performance under heavy contention.
-
-  If USE_LOCKS is > 1, the definitions of lock routines here are
-  bypassed, in which case you will need to define the type MLOCK_T,
-  and at least INITIAL_LOCK, DESTROY_LOCK, ACQUIRE_LOCK, RELEASE_LOCK
-  and TRY_LOCK.  You must also declare a
-    static MLOCK_T malloc_global_mutex = { initialization values };.
-
-*/
-
-#if !USE_LOCKS
-#define USE_LOCK_BIT               (0U)
-#define INITIAL_LOCK(l)            (0)
-#define DESTROY_LOCK(l)            (0)
-#define ACQUIRE_MALLOC_GLOBAL_LOCK()
-#define RELEASE_MALLOC_GLOBAL_LOCK()
-
-#else
-#if USE_LOCKS > 1
-/* -----------------------  User-defined locks ------------------------ */
-/* Define your own lock implementation here */
-/* #define INITIAL_LOCK(lk)  ... */
-/* #define DESTROY_LOCK(lk)  ... */
-/* #define ACQUIRE_LOCK(lk)  ... */
-/* #define RELEASE_LOCK(lk)  ... */
-/* #define TRY_LOCK(lk) ... */
-/* static MLOCK_T malloc_global_mutex = ... */
-
-#elif USE_SPIN_LOCKS
-
-/* First, define CAS_LOCK and CLEAR_LOCK on ints */
-/* Note CAS_LOCK defined to return 0 on success */
-
-#if defined(__GNUC__)&& (__GNUC__ > 4 || (__GNUC__ == 4 && __GNUC_MINOR__ >= 1))
-#define CAS_LOCK(sl)     __sync_lock_test_and_set(sl, 1)
-#define CLEAR_LOCK(sl)   __sync_lock_release(sl)
-
-#elif (defined(__GNUC__) && (defined(__i386__) || defined(__x86_64__)))
-/* Custom spin locks for older gcc on x86 */
-static FORCEINLINE int x86_cas_lock(int *sl) {
-  int ret;
-  int val = 1;
-  int cmp = 0;
-  __asm__ __volatile__  ("lock; cmpxchgl %1, %2"
-                         : "=a" (ret)
-                         : "r" (val), "m" (*(sl)), "0"(cmp)
-                         : "memory", "cc");
-  return ret;
-}
-
-static FORCEINLINE void x86_clear_lock(int* sl) {
-  assert(*sl != 0);
-  int prev = 0;
-  int ret;
-  __asm__ __volatile__ ("lock; xchgl %0, %1"
-                        : "=r" (ret)
-                        : "m" (*(sl)), "0"(prev)
-                        : "memory");
-}
-
-#define CAS_LOCK(sl)     x86_cas_lock(sl)
-#define CLEAR_LOCK(sl)   x86_clear_lock(sl)
-
-#else /* Win32 MSC */
-#define CAS_LOCK(sl)     interlockedexchange(sl, (LONG)1)
-#define CLEAR_LOCK(sl)   interlockedexchange (sl, (LONG)0)
-
-#endif /* ... gcc spins locks ... */
-
-/* How to yield for a spin lock */
-#define SPINS_PER_YIELD       63
-#if defined(_MSC_VER)
-#define SLEEP_EX_DURATION     50 /* delay for yield/sleep */
-#define SPIN_LOCK_YIELD  SleepEx(SLEEP_EX_DURATION, FALSE)
-#elif defined (__SVR4) && defined (__sun) /* solaris */
-#define SPIN_LOCK_YIELD   thr_yield();
-#elif !defined(LACKS_SCHED_H)
-#define SPIN_LOCK_YIELD   sched_yield();
-#else
-#define SPIN_LOCK_YIELD
-#endif /* ... yield ... */
-
-#if !defined(USE_RECURSIVE_LOCKS) || USE_RECURSIVE_LOCKS == 0
-/* Plain spin locks use single word (embedded in malloc_states) */
-static int spin_acquire_lock(int *sl) {
-  int spins = 0;
-  while (*(volatile int *)sl != 0 || CAS_LOCK(sl)) {
-    if ((++spins & SPINS_PER_YIELD) == 0) {
-      SPIN_LOCK_YIELD;
-    }
-  }
-  return 0;
-}
-
-#define MLOCK_T               int
-#define TRY_LOCK(sl)          !CAS_LOCK(sl)
-#define RELEASE_LOCK(sl)      CLEAR_LOCK(sl)
-#define ACQUIRE_LOCK(sl)      (CAS_LOCK(sl)? spin_acquire_lock(sl) : 0)
-#define INITIAL_LOCK(sl)      (*sl = 0)
-#define DESTROY_LOCK(sl)      (0)
-static MLOCK_T malloc_global_mutex = 0;
-
-#else /* USE_RECURSIVE_LOCKS */
-/* types for lock owners */
-#ifdef WIN32
-#define THREAD_ID_T           DWORD
-#define CURRENT_THREAD        GetCurrentThreadId()
-#define EQ_OWNER(X,Y)         ((X) == (Y))
-#else
-/*
-  Note: the following assume that pthread_t is a type that can be
-  initialized to (casted) zero. If this is not the case, you will need to
-  somehow redefine these or not use spin locks.
-*/
-#define THREAD_ID_T           pthread_t
-#define CURRENT_THREAD        pthread_self()
-#define EQ_OWNER(X,Y)         pthread_equal(X, Y)
-#endif
-
-struct malloc_recursive_lock {
-  int sl;
-  unsigned int c;
-  THREAD_ID_T threadid;
-};
-
-#define MLOCK_T  struct malloc_recursive_lock
-static MLOCK_T malloc_global_mutex = { 0, 0, (THREAD_ID_T)0};
-
-static FORCEINLINE void recursive_release_lock(MLOCK_T *lk) {
-  assert(lk->sl != 0);
-  if (--lk->c == 0) {
-    CLEAR_LOCK(&lk->sl);
-  }
-}
-
-static FORCEINLINE int recursive_acquire_lock(MLOCK_T *lk) {
-  THREAD_ID_T mythreadid = CURRENT_THREAD;
-  int spins = 0;
-  for (;;) {
-    if (*((volatile int *)(&lk->sl)) == 0) {
-      if (!CAS_LOCK(&lk->sl)) {
-        lk->threadid = mythreadid;
-        lk->c = 1;
-        return 0;
-      }
-    }
-    else if (EQ_OWNER(lk->threadid, mythreadid)) {
-      ++lk->c;
-      return 0;
-    }
-    if ((++spins & SPINS_PER_YIELD) == 0) {
-      SPIN_LOCK_YIELD;
-    }
-  }
-}
-
-static FORCEINLINE int recursive_try_lock(MLOCK_T *lk) {
-  THREAD_ID_T mythreadid = CURRENT_THREAD;
-  if (*((volatile int *)(&lk->sl)) == 0) {
-    if (!CAS_LOCK(&lk->sl)) {
-      lk->threadid = mythreadid;
-      lk->c = 1;
-      return 1;
-    }
-  }
-  else if (EQ_OWNER(lk->threadid, mythreadid)) {
-    ++lk->c;
-    return 1;
-  }
-  return 0;
-}
-
-#define RELEASE_LOCK(lk)      recursive_release_lock(lk)
-#define TRY_LOCK(lk)          recursive_try_lock(lk)
-#define ACQUIRE_LOCK(lk)      recursive_acquire_lock(lk)
-#define INITIAL_LOCK(lk)      ((lk)->threadid = (THREAD_ID_T)0, (lk)->sl = 0, (lk)->c = 0)
-#define DESTROY_LOCK(lk)      (0)
-#endif /* USE_RECURSIVE_LOCKS */
-
-#elif defined(WIN32) /* Win32 critical sections */
-#define MLOCK_T               CRITICAL_SECTION
-#define ACQUIRE_LOCK(lk)      (EnterCriticalSection(lk), 0)
-#define RELEASE_LOCK(lk)      LeaveCriticalSection(lk)
-#define TRY_LOCK(lk)          TryEnterCriticalSection(lk)
-#define INITIAL_LOCK(lk)      (!InitializeCriticalSectionAndSpinCount((lk), 0x80000000|4000))
-#define DESTROY_LOCK(lk)      (DeleteCriticalSection(lk), 0)
-#define NEED_GLOBAL_LOCK_INIT
-
-static MLOCK_T malloc_global_mutex;
-static volatile LONG malloc_global_mutex_status;
-
-/* Use spin loop to initialize global lock */
-static void init_malloc_global_mutex() {
-  for (;;) {
-    long stat = malloc_global_mutex_status;
-    if (stat > 0)
-      return;
-    /* transition to < 0 while initializing, then to > 0) */
-    if (stat == 0 &&
-        interlockedcompareexchange(&malloc_global_mutex_status, (LONG)-1, (LONG)0) == 0) {
-      InitializeCriticalSection(&malloc_global_mutex);
-      interlockedexchange(&malloc_global_mutex_status, (LONG)1);
-      return;
-    }
-    SleepEx(0, FALSE);
-  }
-}
-
-#else /* pthreads-based locks */
-#define MLOCK_T               pthread_mutex_t
-#define ACQUIRE_LOCK(lk)      pthread_mutex_lock(lk)
-#define RELEASE_LOCK(lk)      pthread_mutex_unlock(lk)
-#define TRY_LOCK(lk)          (!pthread_mutex_trylock(lk))
-#define INITIAL_LOCK(lk)      pthread_init_lock(lk)
-#define DESTROY_LOCK(lk)      pthread_mutex_destroy(lk)
-
-#if defined(USE_RECURSIVE_LOCKS) && USE_RECURSIVE_LOCKS != 0 && defined(linux) && !defined(PTHREAD_MUTEX_RECURSIVE)
-/* Cope with old-style linux recursive lock initialization by adding */
-/* skipped internal declaration from pthread.h */
-extern int pthread_mutexattr_setkind_np __P ((pthread_mutexattr_t *__attr,
-                                              int __kind));
-#define PTHREAD_MUTEX_RECURSIVE PTHREAD_MUTEX_RECURSIVE_NP
-#define pthread_mutexattr_settype(x,y) pthread_mutexattr_setkind_np(x,y)
-#endif /* USE_RECURSIVE_LOCKS ... */
-
-static MLOCK_T malloc_global_mutex = PTHREAD_MUTEX_INITIALIZER;
-
-static int pthread_init_lock (MLOCK_T *lk) {
-  pthread_mutexattr_t attr;
-  if (pthread_mutexattr_init(&attr)) return 1;
-#if defined(USE_RECURSIVE_LOCKS) && USE_RECURSIVE_LOCKS != 0
-  if (pthread_mutexattr_settype(&attr, PTHREAD_MUTEX_RECURSIVE)) return 1;
-#endif
-  if (pthread_mutex_init(lk, &attr)) return 1;
-  if (pthread_mutexattr_destroy(&attr)) return 1;
-  return 0;
-}
-
-#endif /* ... lock types ... */
-
-/* Common code for all lock types */
-#define USE_LOCK_BIT               (2U)
-
-#ifndef ACQUIRE_MALLOC_GLOBAL_LOCK
-#define ACQUIRE_MALLOC_GLOBAL_LOCK()  ACQUIRE_LOCK(&malloc_global_mutex);
-#endif
-
-#ifndef RELEASE_MALLOC_GLOBAL_LOCK
-#define RELEASE_MALLOC_GLOBAL_LOCK()  RELEASE_LOCK(&malloc_global_mutex);
-#endif
-
-#endif /* USE_LOCKS */
-
-/* -----------------------  Chunk representations ------------------------ */
-
-/*
-  (The following includes lightly edited explanations by Colin Plumb.)
-
-  The malloc_chunk declaration below is misleading (but accurate and
-  necessary).  It declares a "view" into memory allowing access to
-  necessary fields at known offsets from a given base.
-
-  Chunks of memory are maintained using a `boundary tag' method as
-  originally described by Knuth.  (See the paper by Paul Wilson
-  ftp://ftp.cs.utexas.edu/pub/garbage/allocsrv.ps for a survey of such
-  techniques.)  Sizes of free chunks are stored both in the front of
-  each chunk and at the end.  This makes consolidating fragmented
-  chunks into bigger chunks fast.  The head fields also hold bits
-  representing whether chunks are free or in use.
-
-  Here are some pictures to make it clearer.  They are "exploded" to
-  show that the state of a chunk can be thought of as extending from
-  the high 31 bits of the head field of its header through the
-  prev_foot and PINUSE_BIT bit of the following chunk header.
-
-  A chunk that's in use looks like:
-
-   chunk-> +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
-           | Size of previous chunk (if P = 0)                             |
-           +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
-         +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ |P|
-         | Size of this chunk                                         1| +-+
-   mem-> +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
-         |                                                               |
-         +-                                                             -+
-         |                                                               |
-         +-                                                             -+
-         |                                                               :
-         +-      size - sizeof(size_t) available payload bytes          -+
-         :                                                               |
- chunk-> +-                                                             -+
-         |                                                               |
-         +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
-       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ |1|
-       | Size of next chunk (may or may not be in use)               | +-+
- mem-> +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
-
-    And if it's free, it looks like this:
-
-   chunk-> +-                                                             -+
-           | User payload (must be in use, or we would have merged!)       |
-           +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
-         +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ |P|
-         | Size of this chunk                                         0| +-+
-   mem-> +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
-         | Next pointer                                                  |
-         +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
-         | Prev pointer                                                  |
-         +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
-         |                                                               :
-         +-      size - sizeof(struct chunk) unused bytes               -+
-         :                                                               |
- chunk-> +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
-         | Size of this chunk                                            |
-         +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
-       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ |0|
-       | Size of next chunk (must be in use, or we would have merged)| +-+
- mem-> +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
-       |                                                               :
-       +- User payload                                                -+
-       :                                                               |
-       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
-                                                                     |0|
-                                                                     +-+
-  Note that since we always merge adjacent free chunks, the chunks
-  adjacent to a free chunk must be in use.
-
-  Given a pointer to a chunk (which can be derived trivially from the
-  payload pointer) we can, in O(1) time, find out whether the adjacent
-  chunks are free, and if so, unlink them from the lists that they
-  are on and merge them with the current chunk.
-
-  Chunks always begin on even word boundaries, so the mem portion
-  (which is returned to the user) is also on an even word boundary, and
-  thus at least double-word aligned.
-
-  The P (PINUSE_BIT) bit, stored in the unused low-order bit of the
-  chunk size (which is always a multiple of two words), is an in-use
-  bit for the *previous* chunk.  If that bit is *clear*, then the
-  word before the current chunk size contains the previous chunk
-  size, and can be used to find the front of the previous chunk.
-  The very first chunk allocated always has this bit set, preventing
-  access to non-existent (or non-owned) memory. If pinuse is set for
-  any given chunk, then you CANNOT determine the size of the
-  previous chunk, and might even get a memory addressing fault when
-  trying to do so.
-
-  The C (CINUSE_BIT) bit, stored in the unused second-lowest bit of
-  the chunk size redundantly records whether the current chunk is
-  inuse (unless the chunk is mmapped). This redundancy enables usage
-  checks within free and realloc, and reduces indirection when freeing
-  and consolidating chunks.
-
-  Each freshly allocated chunk must have both cinuse and pinuse set.
-  That is, each allocated chunk borders either a previously allocated
-  and still in-use chunk, or the base of its memory arena. This is
-  ensured by making all alloc

<TRUNCATED>

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