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From oleew...@apache.org
Subject [24/51] [partial] ambari git commit: AMBARI-15679. Initial commit for LogSearch module (oleewre)
Date Mon, 11 Apr 2016 16:14:38 GMT
http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/ambari/blob/39c85bb8/ambari-logsearch/ambari-logsearch-portal/src/main/webapp/libs/bower/backbone.marionette/js/backbone.marionette.js
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/ambari-logsearch/ambari-logsearch-portal/src/main/webapp/libs/bower/backbone.marionette/js/backbone.marionette.js b/ambari-logsearch/ambari-logsearch-portal/src/main/webapp/libs/bower/backbone.marionette/js/backbone.marionette.js
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..b79ab8b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/ambari-logsearch/ambari-logsearch-portal/src/main/webapp/libs/bower/backbone.marionette/js/backbone.marionette.js
@@ -0,0 +1,2473 @@
+// MarionetteJS (Backbone.Marionette)
+// ----------------------------------
+// v1.8.8
+//
+// Copyright (c)2014 Derick Bailey, Muted Solutions, LLC.
+// Distributed under MIT license
+//
+// http://marionettejs.com
+
+(function (root, factory) {
+  if (typeof exports === 'object') {
+
+    var underscore = require('underscore');
+    var backbone = require('backbone');
+    var wreqr = require('backbone.wreqr');
+    var babysitter = require('backbone.babysitter');
+
+    module.exports = factory(underscore, backbone, wreqr, babysitter);
+
+  } else if (typeof define === 'function' && define.amd) {
+
+    define(['underscore', 'backbone', 'backbone.wreqr', 'backbone.babysitter'], factory);
+
+  }
+}(this, function (_, Backbone) {
+
+  var Marionette = (function(global, Backbone, _){
+    "use strict";
+  
+    // Define and export the Marionette namespace
+    var Marionette = {};
+    Backbone.Marionette = Marionette;
+  
+    // Get the DOM manipulator for later use
+    Marionette.$ = Backbone.$;
+  
+  // Helpers
+  // -------
+  
+  // For slicing `arguments` in functions
+  var slice = Array.prototype.slice;
+  
+  function throwError(message, name) {
+    var error = new Error(message);
+    error.name = name || 'Error';
+    throw error;
+  }
+  
+  // Marionette.extend
+  // -----------------
+  
+  // Borrow the Backbone `extend` method so we can use it as needed
+  Marionette.extend = Backbone.Model.extend;
+  
+  // Marionette.getOption
+  // --------------------
+  
+  // Retrieve an object, function or other value from a target
+  // object or its `options`, with `options` taking precedence.
+  Marionette.getOption = function(target, optionName){
+    if (!target || !optionName){ return; }
+    var value;
+  
+    if (target.options && (optionName in target.options) && (target.options[optionName] !== undefined)){
+      value = target.options[optionName];
+    } else {
+      value = target[optionName];
+    }
+  
+    return value;
+  };
+  
+  // Marionette.normalizeMethods
+  // ----------------------
+  
+  // Pass in a mapping of events => functions or function names
+  // and return a mapping of events => functions
+  Marionette.normalizeMethods = function(hash) {
+    var normalizedHash = {}, method;
+    _.each(hash, function(fn, name) {
+      method = fn;
+      if (!_.isFunction(method)) {
+        method = this[method];
+      }
+      if (!method) {
+        return;
+      }
+      normalizedHash[name] = method;
+    }, this);
+    return normalizedHash;
+  };
+  
+  
+  // allows for the use of the @ui. syntax within
+  // a given key for triggers and events
+  // swaps the @ui with the associated selector
+  Marionette.normalizeUIKeys = function(hash, ui) {
+    if (typeof(hash) === "undefined") {
+      return;
+    }
+  
+    _.each(_.keys(hash), function(v) {
+      var pattern = /@ui.[a-zA-Z_$0-9]*/g;
+      if (v.match(pattern)) {
+        hash[v.replace(pattern, function(r) {
+          return ui[r.slice(4)];
+        })] = hash[v];
+        delete hash[v];
+      }
+    });
+  
+    return hash;
+  };
+  
+  // Mix in methods from Underscore, for iteration, and other
+  // collection related features.
+  // Borrowing this code from Backbone.Collection:
+  // http://backbonejs.org/docs/backbone.html#section-106
+  Marionette.actAsCollection = function(object, listProperty) {
+    var methods = ['forEach', 'each', 'map', 'find', 'detect', 'filter',
+      'select', 'reject', 'every', 'all', 'some', 'any', 'include',
+      'contains', 'invoke', 'toArray', 'first', 'initial', 'rest',
+      'last', 'without', 'isEmpty', 'pluck'];
+  
+    _.each(methods, function(method) {
+      object[method] = function() {
+        var list = _.values(_.result(this, listProperty));
+        var args = [list].concat(_.toArray(arguments));
+        return _[method].apply(_, args);
+      };
+    });
+  };
+  
+  // Trigger an event and/or a corresponding method name. Examples:
+  //
+  // `this.triggerMethod("foo")` will trigger the "foo" event and
+  // call the "onFoo" method.
+  //
+  // `this.triggerMethod("foo:bar")` will trigger the "foo:bar" event and
+  // call the "onFooBar" method.
+  Marionette.triggerMethod = (function(){
+  
+    // split the event name on the ":"
+    var splitter = /(^|:)(\w)/gi;
+  
+    // take the event section ("section1:section2:section3")
+    // and turn it in to uppercase name
+    function getEventName(match, prefix, eventName) {
+      return eventName.toUpperCase();
+    }
+  
+    // actual triggerMethod implementation
+    var triggerMethod = function(event) {
+      // get the method name from the event name
+      var methodName = 'on' + event.replace(splitter, getEventName);
+      var method = this[methodName];
+  
+      // trigger the event, if a trigger method exists
+      if(_.isFunction(this.trigger)) {
+        this.trigger.apply(this, arguments);
+      }
+  
+      // call the onMethodName if it exists
+      if (_.isFunction(method)) {
+        // pass all arguments, except the event name
+        return method.apply(this, _.tail(arguments));
+      }
+    };
+  
+    return triggerMethod;
+  })();
+  
+  // DOMRefresh
+  // ----------
+  //
+  // Monitor a view's state, and after it has been rendered and shown
+  // in the DOM, trigger a "dom:refresh" event every time it is
+  // re-rendered.
+  
+  Marionette.MonitorDOMRefresh = (function(documentElement){
+    // track when the view has been shown in the DOM,
+    // using a Marionette.Region (or by other means of triggering "show")
+    function handleShow(view){
+      view._isShown = true;
+      triggerDOMRefresh(view);
+    }
+  
+    // track when the view has been rendered
+    function handleRender(view){
+      view._isRendered = true;
+      triggerDOMRefresh(view);
+    }
+  
+    // Trigger the "dom:refresh" event and corresponding "onDomRefresh" method
+    function triggerDOMRefresh(view){
+      if (view._isShown && view._isRendered && isInDOM(view)){
+        if (_.isFunction(view.triggerMethod)){
+          view.triggerMethod("dom:refresh");
+        }
+      }
+    }
+  
+    function isInDOM(view) {
+      return documentElement.contains(view.el);
+    }
+  
+    // Export public API
+    return function(view){
+      view.listenTo(view, "show", function(){
+        handleShow(view);
+      });
+  
+      view.listenTo(view, "render", function(){
+        handleRender(view);
+      });
+    };
+  })(document.documentElement);
+  
+  
+  // Marionette.bindEntityEvents & unbindEntityEvents
+  // ---------------------------
+  //
+  // These methods are used to bind/unbind a backbone "entity" (collection/model)
+  // to methods on a target object.
+  //
+  // The first parameter, `target`, must have a `listenTo` method from the
+  // EventBinder object.
+  //
+  // The second parameter is the entity (Backbone.Model or Backbone.Collection)
+  // to bind the events from.
+  //
+  // The third parameter is a hash of { "event:name": "eventHandler" }
+  // configuration. Multiple handlers can be separated by a space. A
+  // function can be supplied instead of a string handler name.
+  
+  (function(Marionette){
+    "use strict";
+  
+    // Bind the event to handlers specified as a string of
+    // handler names on the target object
+    function bindFromStrings(target, entity, evt, methods){
+      var methodNames = methods.split(/\s+/);
+  
+      _.each(methodNames, function(methodName) {
+  
+        var method = target[methodName];
+        if(!method) {
+          throwError("Method '"+ methodName +"' was configured as an event handler, but does not exist.");
+        }
+  
+        target.listenTo(entity, evt, method);
+      });
+    }
+  
+    // Bind the event to a supplied callback function
+    function bindToFunction(target, entity, evt, method){
+        target.listenTo(entity, evt, method);
+    }
+  
+    // Bind the event to handlers specified as a string of
+    // handler names on the target object
+    function unbindFromStrings(target, entity, evt, methods){
+      var methodNames = methods.split(/\s+/);
+  
+      _.each(methodNames, function(methodName) {
+        var method = target[methodName];
+        target.stopListening(entity, evt, method);
+      });
+    }
+  
+    // Bind the event to a supplied callback function
+    function unbindToFunction(target, entity, evt, method){
+        target.stopListening(entity, evt, method);
+    }
+  
+  
+    // generic looping function
+    function iterateEvents(target, entity, bindings, functionCallback, stringCallback){
+      if (!entity || !bindings) { return; }
+  
+      // allow the bindings to be a function
+      if (_.isFunction(bindings)){
+        bindings = bindings.call(target);
+      }
+  
+      // iterate the bindings and bind them
+      _.each(bindings, function(methods, evt){
+  
+        // allow for a function as the handler,
+        // or a list of event names as a string
+        if (_.isFunction(methods)){
+          functionCallback(target, entity, evt, methods);
+        } else {
+          stringCallback(target, entity, evt, methods);
+        }
+  
+      });
+    }
+  
+    // Export Public API
+    Marionette.bindEntityEvents = function(target, entity, bindings){
+      iterateEvents(target, entity, bindings, bindToFunction, bindFromStrings);
+    };
+  
+    Marionette.unbindEntityEvents = function(target, entity, bindings){
+      iterateEvents(target, entity, bindings, unbindToFunction, unbindFromStrings);
+    };
+  
+  })(Marionette);
+  
+  
+  // Callbacks
+  // ---------
+  
+  // A simple way of managing a collection of callbacks
+  // and executing them at a later point in time, using jQuery's
+  // `Deferred` object.
+  Marionette.Callbacks = function(){
+    this._deferred = Marionette.$.Deferred();
+    this._callbacks = [];
+  };
+  
+  _.extend(Marionette.Callbacks.prototype, {
+  
+    // Add a callback to be executed. Callbacks added here are
+    // guaranteed to execute, even if they are added after the
+    // `run` method is called.
+    add: function(callback, contextOverride){
+      this._callbacks.push({cb: callback, ctx: contextOverride});
+  
+      this._deferred.done(function(context, options){
+        if (contextOverride){ context = contextOverride; }
+        callback.call(context, options);
+      });
+    },
+  
+    // Run all registered callbacks with the context specified.
+    // Additional callbacks can be added after this has been run
+    // and they will still be executed.
+    run: function(options, context){
+      this._deferred.resolve(context, options);
+    },
+  
+    // Resets the list of callbacks to be run, allowing the same list
+    // to be run multiple times - whenever the `run` method is called.
+    reset: function(){
+      var callbacks = this._callbacks;
+      this._deferred = Marionette.$.Deferred();
+      this._callbacks = [];
+  
+      _.each(callbacks, function(cb){
+        this.add(cb.cb, cb.ctx);
+      }, this);
+    }
+  });
+  
+  // Marionette Controller
+  // ---------------------
+  //
+  // A multi-purpose object to use as a controller for
+  // modules and routers, and as a mediator for workflow
+  // and coordination of other objects, views, and more.
+  Marionette.Controller = function(options){
+    this.triggerMethod = Marionette.triggerMethod;
+    this.options = options || {};
+  
+    if (_.isFunction(this.initialize)){
+      this.initialize(this.options);
+    }
+  };
+  
+  Marionette.Controller.extend = Marionette.extend;
+  
+  // Controller Methods
+  // --------------
+  
+  // Ensure it can trigger events with Backbone.Events
+  _.extend(Marionette.Controller.prototype, Backbone.Events, {
+    close: function(){
+      this.stopListening();
+      var args = Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments);
+      this.triggerMethod.apply(this, ["close"].concat(args));
+      this.off();
+    }
+  });
+  
+  // Region
+  // ------
+  //
+  // Manage the visual regions of your composite application. See
+  // http://lostechies.com/derickbailey/2011/12/12/composite-js-apps-regions-and-region-managers/
+  
+  Marionette.Region = function(options){
+    this.options = options || {};
+    this.el = Marionette.getOption(this, "el");
+  
+    if (!this.el){
+      throwError("An 'el' must be specified for a region.", "NoElError");
+    }
+  
+    if (this.initialize){
+      var args = Array.prototype.slice.apply(arguments);
+      this.initialize.apply(this, args);
+    }
+  };
+  
+  
+  // Region Type methods
+  // -------------------
+  
+  _.extend(Marionette.Region, {
+  
+    // Build an instance of a region by passing in a configuration object
+    // and a default region type to use if none is specified in the config.
+    //
+    // The config object should either be a string as a jQuery DOM selector,
+    // a Region type directly, or an object literal that specifies both
+    // a selector and regionType:
+    //
+    // ```js
+    // {
+    //   selector: "#foo",
+    //   regionType: MyCustomRegion
+    // }
+    // ```
+    //
+    buildRegion: function(regionConfig, defaultRegionType){
+      var regionIsString = _.isString(regionConfig);
+      var regionSelectorIsString = _.isString(regionConfig.selector);
+      var regionTypeIsUndefined = _.isUndefined(regionConfig.regionType);
+      var regionIsType = _.isFunction(regionConfig);
+  
+      if (!regionIsType && !regionIsString && !regionSelectorIsString) {
+        throwError("Region must be specified as a Region type, a selector string or an object with selector property");
+      }
+  
+      var selector, RegionType;
+  
+      // get the selector for the region
+  
+      if (regionIsString) {
+        selector = regionConfig;
+      }
+  
+      if (regionConfig.selector) {
+        selector = regionConfig.selector;
+        delete regionConfig.selector;
+      }
+  
+      // get the type for the region
+  
+      if (regionIsType){
+        RegionType = regionConfig;
+      }
+  
+      if (!regionIsType && regionTypeIsUndefined) {
+        RegionType = defaultRegionType;
+      }
+  
+      if (regionConfig.regionType) {
+        RegionType = regionConfig.regionType;
+        delete regionConfig.regionType;
+      }
+  
+      if (regionIsString || regionIsType) {
+        regionConfig = {};
+      }
+  
+      regionConfig.el = selector;
+  
+      // build the region instance
+      var region = new RegionType(regionConfig);
+  
+      // override the `getEl` function if we have a parentEl
+      // this must be overridden to ensure the selector is found
+      // on the first use of the region. if we try to assign the
+      // region's `el` to `parentEl.find(selector)` in the object
+      // literal to build the region, the element will not be
+      // guaranteed to be in the DOM already, and will cause problems
+      if (regionConfig.parentEl){
+        region.getEl = function(selector) {
+          var parentEl = regionConfig.parentEl;
+          if (_.isFunction(parentEl)){
+            parentEl = parentEl();
+          }
+          return parentEl.find(selector);
+        };
+      }
+  
+      return region;
+    }
+  
+  });
+  
+  // Region Instance Methods
+  // -----------------------
+  
+  _.extend(Marionette.Region.prototype, Backbone.Events, {
+  
+    // Displays a backbone view instance inside of the region.
+    // Handles calling the `render` method for you. Reads content
+    // directly from the `el` attribute. Also calls an optional
+    // `onShow` and `close` method on your view, just after showing
+    // or just before closing the view, respectively.
+    // The `preventClose` option can be used to prevent a view from being destroyed on show.
+    show: function(view, options){
+      this.ensureEl();
+  
+      var showOptions = options || {};
+      var isViewClosed = view.isClosed || _.isUndefined(view.$el);
+      var isDifferentView = view !== this.currentView;
+      var preventClose =  !!showOptions.preventClose;
+  
+      // only close the view if we don't want to preventClose and the view is different
+      var _shouldCloseView = !preventClose && isDifferentView;
+  
+      if (_shouldCloseView) {
+        this.close();
+      }
+  
+      view.render();
+      Marionette.triggerMethod.call(this, "before:show", view);
+  
+      if (_.isFunction(view.triggerMethod)) {
+        view.triggerMethod("before:show");
+      } else {
+        Marionette.triggerMethod.call(view, "before:show");
+      }
+  
+      if (isDifferentView || isViewClosed) {
+        this.open(view);
+      }
+  
+      this.currentView = view;
+  
+      Marionette.triggerMethod.call(this, "show", view);
+  
+      if (_.isFunction(view.triggerMethod)) {
+        view.triggerMethod("show");
+      } else {
+        Marionette.triggerMethod.call(view, "show");
+      }
+  
+      return this;
+    },
+  
+    ensureEl: function(){
+      if (!this.$el || this.$el.length === 0){
+        this.$el = this.getEl(this.el);
+      }
+    },
+  
+    // Override this method to change how the region finds the
+    // DOM element that it manages. Return a jQuery selector object.
+    getEl: function(selector){
+      return Marionette.$(selector);
+    },
+  
+    // Override this method to change how the new view is
+    // appended to the `$el` that the region is managing
+    open: function(view){
+      this.$el.empty().append(view.el);
+    },
+  
+    // Close the current view, if there is one. If there is no
+    // current view, it does nothing and returns immediately.
+    close: function(){
+      var view = this.currentView;
+      if (!view || view.isClosed){ return; }
+  
+      // call 'close' or 'remove', depending on which is found
+      if (view.close) { view.close(); }
+      else if (view.remove) { view.remove(); }
+  
+      Marionette.triggerMethod.call(this, "close", view);
+  
+      delete this.currentView;
+    },
+  
+    // Attach an existing view to the region. This
+    // will not call `render` or `onShow` for the new view,
+    // and will not replace the current HTML for the `el`
+    // of the region.
+    attachView: function(view){
+      this.currentView = view;
+    },
+  
+    // Reset the region by closing any existing view and
+    // clearing out the cached `$el`. The next time a view
+    // is shown via this region, the region will re-query the
+    // DOM for the region's `el`.
+    reset: function(){
+      this.close();
+      delete this.$el;
+    }
+  });
+  
+  // Copy the `extend` function used by Backbone's classes
+  Marionette.Region.extend = Marionette.extend;
+  
+  // Marionette.RegionManager
+  // ------------------------
+  //
+  // Manage one or more related `Marionette.Region` objects.
+  Marionette.RegionManager = (function(Marionette){
+  
+    var RegionManager = Marionette.Controller.extend({
+      constructor: function(options){
+        this._regions = {};
+        Marionette.Controller.prototype.constructor.call(this, options);
+      },
+  
+      // Add multiple regions using an object literal, where
+      // each key becomes the region name, and each value is
+      // the region definition.
+      addRegions: function(regionDefinitions, defaults){
+        var regions = {};
+  
+        _.each(regionDefinitions, function(definition, name){
+          if (_.isString(definition)){
+            definition = { selector: definition };
+          }
+  
+          if (definition.selector){
+            definition = _.defaults({}, definition, defaults);
+          }
+  
+          var region = this.addRegion(name, definition);
+          regions[name] = region;
+        }, this);
+  
+        return regions;
+      },
+  
+      // Add an individual region to the region manager,
+      // and return the region instance
+      addRegion: function(name, definition){
+        var region;
+  
+        var isObject = _.isObject(definition);
+        var isString = _.isString(definition);
+        var hasSelector = !!definition.selector;
+  
+        if (isString || (isObject && hasSelector)){
+          region = Marionette.Region.buildRegion(definition, Marionette.Region);
+        } else if (_.isFunction(definition)){
+          region = Marionette.Region.buildRegion(definition, Marionette.Region);
+        } else {
+          region = definition;
+        }
+  
+        this._store(name, region);
+        this.triggerMethod("region:add", name, region);
+        return region;
+      },
+  
+      // Get a region by name
+      get: function(name){
+        return this._regions[name];
+      },
+  
+      // Remove a region by name
+      removeRegion: function(name){
+        var region = this._regions[name];
+        this._remove(name, region);
+      },
+  
+      // Close all regions in the region manager, and
+      // remove them
+      removeRegions: function(){
+        _.each(this._regions, function(region, name){
+          this._remove(name, region);
+        }, this);
+      },
+  
+      // Close all regions in the region manager, but
+      // leave them attached
+      closeRegions: function(){
+        _.each(this._regions, function(region, name){
+          region.close();
+        }, this);
+      },
+  
+      // Close all regions and shut down the region
+      // manager entirely
+      close: function(){
+        this.removeRegions();
+        Marionette.Controller.prototype.close.apply(this, arguments);
+      },
+  
+      // internal method to store regions
+      _store: function(name, region){
+        this._regions[name] = region;
+        this._setLength();
+      },
+  
+      // internal method to remove a region
+      _remove: function(name, region){
+        region.close();
+        region.stopListening();
+        delete this._regions[name];
+        this._setLength();
+        this.triggerMethod("region:remove", name, region);
+      },
+  
+      // set the number of regions current held
+      _setLength: function(){
+        this.length = _.size(this._regions);
+      }
+  
+    });
+  
+    Marionette.actAsCollection(RegionManager.prototype, '_regions');
+  
+    return RegionManager;
+  })(Marionette);
+  
+  
+  // Template Cache
+  // --------------
+  
+  // Manage templates stored in `<script>` blocks,
+  // caching them for faster access.
+  Marionette.TemplateCache = function(templateId){
+    this.templateId = templateId;
+  };
+  
+  // TemplateCache object-level methods. Manage the template
+  // caches from these method calls instead of creating
+  // your own TemplateCache instances
+  _.extend(Marionette.TemplateCache, {
+    templateCaches: {},
+  
+    // Get the specified template by id. Either
+    // retrieves the cached version, or loads it
+    // from the DOM.
+    get: function(templateId){
+      var cachedTemplate = this.templateCaches[templateId];
+  
+      if (!cachedTemplate){
+        cachedTemplate = new Marionette.TemplateCache(templateId);
+        this.templateCaches[templateId] = cachedTemplate;
+      }
+  
+      return cachedTemplate.load();
+    },
+  
+    // Clear templates from the cache. If no arguments
+    // are specified, clears all templates:
+    // `clear()`
+    //
+    // If arguments are specified, clears each of the
+    // specified templates from the cache:
+    // `clear("#t1", "#t2", "...")`
+    clear: function(){
+      var i;
+      var args = slice.call(arguments);
+      var length = args.length;
+  
+      if (length > 0){
+        for(i=0; i<length; i++){
+          delete this.templateCaches[args[i]];
+        }
+      } else {
+        this.templateCaches = {};
+      }
+    }
+  });
+  
+  // TemplateCache instance methods, allowing each
+  // template cache object to manage its own state
+  // and know whether or not it has been loaded
+  _.extend(Marionette.TemplateCache.prototype, {
+  
+    // Internal method to load the template
+    load: function(){
+      // Guard clause to prevent loading this template more than once
+      if (this.compiledTemplate){
+        return this.compiledTemplate;
+      }
+  
+      // Load the template and compile it
+      var template = this.loadTemplate(this.templateId);
+      this.compiledTemplate = this.compileTemplate(template);
+  
+      return this.compiledTemplate;
+    },
+  
+    // Load a template from the DOM, by default. Override
+    // this method to provide your own template retrieval
+    // For asynchronous loading with AMD/RequireJS, consider
+    // using a template-loader plugin as described here:
+    // https://github.com/marionettejs/backbone.marionette/wiki/Using-marionette-with-requirejs
+    loadTemplate: function(templateId){
+      var template = Marionette.$(templateId).html();
+  
+      if (!template || template.length === 0){
+        throwError("Could not find template: '" + templateId + "'", "NoTemplateError");
+      }
+  
+      return template;
+    },
+  
+    // Pre-compile the template before caching it. Override
+    // this method if you do not need to pre-compile a template
+    // (JST / RequireJS for example) or if you want to change
+    // the template engine used (Handebars, etc).
+    compileTemplate: function(rawTemplate){
+      return _.template(rawTemplate);
+    }
+  });
+  
+  // Renderer
+  // --------
+  
+  // Render a template with data by passing in the template
+  // selector and the data to render.
+  Marionette.Renderer = {
+  
+    // Render a template with data. The `template` parameter is
+    // passed to the `TemplateCache` object to retrieve the
+    // template function. Override this method to provide your own
+    // custom rendering and template handling for all of Marionette.
+    render: function(template, data){
+  
+      if (!template) {
+        throwError("Cannot render the template since it's false, null or undefined.", "TemplateNotFoundError");
+      }
+  
+      var templateFunc;
+      if (typeof template === "function"){
+        templateFunc = template;
+      } else {
+        templateFunc = Marionette.TemplateCache.get(template);
+      }
+  
+      return templateFunc(data);
+    }
+  };
+  
+  
+  // Marionette.View
+  // ---------------
+  
+  // The core view type that other Marionette views extend from.
+  Marionette.View = Backbone.View.extend({
+  
+    constructor: function(options){
+      _.bindAll(this, "render");
+  
+      // this exposes view options to the view initializer
+      // this is a backfill since backbone removed the assignment
+      // of this.options
+      // at some point however this may be removed
+      this.options = _.extend({}, _.result(this, 'options'), _.isFunction(options) ? options.call(this) : options);
+  
+      // parses out the @ui DSL for events
+      this.events = this.normalizeUIKeys(_.result(this, 'events'));
+  
+      if (_.isObject(this.behaviors)) {
+        new Marionette.Behaviors(this);
+      }
+  
+      Backbone.View.prototype.constructor.apply(this, arguments);
+  
+      Marionette.MonitorDOMRefresh(this);
+      this.listenTo(this, "show", this.onShowCalled);
+    },
+  
+    // import the "triggerMethod" to trigger events with corresponding
+    // methods if the method exists
+    triggerMethod: Marionette.triggerMethod,
+  
+    // Imports the "normalizeMethods" to transform hashes of
+    // events=>function references/names to a hash of events=>function references
+    normalizeMethods: Marionette.normalizeMethods,
+  
+    // Get the template for this view
+    // instance. You can set a `template` attribute in the view
+    // definition or pass a `template: "whatever"` parameter in
+    // to the constructor options.
+    getTemplate: function(){
+      return Marionette.getOption(this, "template");
+    },
+  
+    // Mix in template helper methods. Looks for a
+    // `templateHelpers` attribute, which can either be an
+    // object literal, or a function that returns an object
+    // literal. All methods and attributes from this object
+    // are copies to the object passed in.
+    mixinTemplateHelpers: function(target){
+      target = target || {};
+      var templateHelpers = Marionette.getOption(this, "templateHelpers");
+      if (_.isFunction(templateHelpers)){
+        templateHelpers = templateHelpers.call(this);
+      }
+      return _.extend(target, templateHelpers);
+    },
+  
+  
+    normalizeUIKeys: function(hash) {
+      var ui = _.result(this, 'ui');
+      return Marionette.normalizeUIKeys(hash, ui);
+    },
+  
+    // Configure `triggers` to forward DOM events to view
+    // events. `triggers: {"click .foo": "do:foo"}`
+    configureTriggers: function(){
+      if (!this.triggers) { return; }
+  
+      var triggerEvents = {};
+  
+      // Allow `triggers` to be configured as a function
+      var triggers = this.normalizeUIKeys(_.result(this, "triggers"));
+  
+      // Configure the triggers, prevent default
+      // action and stop propagation of DOM events
+      _.each(triggers, function(value, key){
+  
+        var hasOptions = _.isObject(value);
+        var eventName = hasOptions ? value.event : value;
+  
+        // build the event handler function for the DOM event
+        triggerEvents[key] = function(e){
+  
+          // stop the event in its tracks
+          if (e) {
+            var prevent = e.preventDefault;
+            var stop = e.stopPropagation;
+  
+            var shouldPrevent = hasOptions ? value.preventDefault : prevent;
+            var shouldStop = hasOptions ? value.stopPropagation : stop;
+  
+            if (shouldPrevent && prevent) { prevent.apply(e); }
+            if (shouldStop && stop) { stop.apply(e); }
+          }
+  
+          // build the args for the event
+          var args = {
+            view: this,
+            model: this.model,
+            collection: this.collection
+          };
+  
+          // trigger the event
+          this.triggerMethod(eventName, args);
+        };
+  
+      }, this);
+  
+      return triggerEvents;
+    },
+  
+    // Overriding Backbone.View's delegateEvents to handle
+    // the `triggers`, `modelEvents`, and `collectionEvents` configuration
+    delegateEvents: function(events){
+      this._delegateDOMEvents(events);
+      Marionette.bindEntityEvents(this, this.model, Marionette.getOption(this, "modelEvents"));
+      Marionette.bindEntityEvents(this, this.collection, Marionette.getOption(this, "collectionEvents"));
+    },
+  
+    // internal method to delegate DOM events and triggers
+    _delegateDOMEvents: function(events){
+      events = events || this.events;
+      if (_.isFunction(events)){ events = events.call(this); }
+  
+      var combinedEvents = {};
+  
+      // look up if this view has behavior events
+      var behaviorEvents = _.result(this, 'behaviorEvents') || {};
+      var triggers = this.configureTriggers();
+  
+      // behavior events will be overriden by view events and or triggers
+      _.extend(combinedEvents, behaviorEvents, events, triggers);
+  
+      Backbone.View.prototype.delegateEvents.call(this, combinedEvents);
+    },
+  
+    // Overriding Backbone.View's undelegateEvents to handle unbinding
+    // the `triggers`, `modelEvents`, and `collectionEvents` config
+    undelegateEvents: function(){
+      var args = Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments);
+      Backbone.View.prototype.undelegateEvents.apply(this, args);
+  
+      Marionette.unbindEntityEvents(this, this.model, Marionette.getOption(this, "modelEvents"));
+      Marionette.unbindEntityEvents(this, this.collection, Marionette.getOption(this, "collectionEvents"));
+    },
+  
+    // Internal method, handles the `show` event.
+    onShowCalled: function(){},
+  
+    // Default `close` implementation, for removing a view from the
+    // DOM and unbinding it. Regions will call this method
+    // for you. You can specify an `onClose` method in your view to
+    // add custom code that is called after the view is closed.
+    close: function(){
+      if (this.isClosed) { return; }
+  
+      var args = Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments);
+  
+      // allow the close to be stopped by returning `false`
+      // from the `onBeforeClose` method
+      var shouldClose = this.triggerMethod.apply(this, ["before:close"].concat(args));
+      if (shouldClose === false){
+        return;
+      }
+  
+      // mark as closed before doing the actual close, to
+      // prevent infinite loops within "close" event handlers
+      // that are trying to close other views
+      this.isClosed = true;
+      this.triggerMethod.apply(this, ["close"].concat(args));
+  
+      // unbind UI elements
+      this.unbindUIElements();
+  
+      // remove the view from the DOM
+      this.remove();
+    },
+  
+    // This method binds the elements specified in the "ui" hash inside the view's code with
+    // the associated jQuery selectors.
+    bindUIElements: function(){
+      if (!this.ui) { return; }
+  
+      // store the ui hash in _uiBindings so they can be reset later
+      // and so re-rendering the view will be able to find the bindings
+      if (!this._uiBindings){
+        this._uiBindings = this.ui;
+      }
+  
+      // get the bindings result, as a function or otherwise
+      var bindings = _.result(this, "_uiBindings");
+  
+      // empty the ui so we don't have anything to start with
+      this.ui = {};
+  
+      // bind each of the selectors
+      _.each(_.keys(bindings), function(key) {
+        var selector = bindings[key];
+        this.ui[key] = this.$(selector);
+      }, this);
+    },
+  
+    // This method unbinds the elements specified in the "ui" hash
+    unbindUIElements: function(){
+      if (!this.ui || !this._uiBindings){ return; }
+  
+      // delete all of the existing ui bindings
+      _.each(this.ui, function($el, name){
+        delete this.ui[name];
+      }, this);
+  
+      // reset the ui element to the original bindings configuration
+      this.ui = this._uiBindings;
+      delete this._uiBindings;
+    }
+  });
+  
+  // Item View
+  // ---------
+  
+  // A single item view implementation that contains code for rendering
+  // with underscore.js templates, serializing the view's model or collection,
+  // and calling several methods on extended views, such as `onRender`.
+  Marionette.ItemView = Marionette.View.extend({
+  
+    // Setting up the inheritance chain which allows changes to
+    // Marionette.View.prototype.constructor which allows overriding
+    constructor: function(){
+      Marionette.View.prototype.constructor.apply(this, arguments);
+    },
+  
+    // Serialize the model or collection for the view. If a model is
+    // found, `.toJSON()` is called. If a collection is found, `.toJSON()`
+    // is also called, but is used to populate an `items` array in the
+    // resulting data. If both are found, defaults to the model.
+    // You can override the `serializeData` method in your own view
+    // definition, to provide custom serialization for your view's data.
+    serializeData: function(){
+      var data = {};
+  
+      if (this.model) {
+        data = this.model.toJSON();
+      }
+      else if (this.collection) {
+        data = { items: this.collection.toJSON() };
+      }
+  
+      return data;
+    },
+  
+    // Render the view, defaulting to underscore.js templates.
+    // You can override this in your view definition to provide
+    // a very specific rendering for your view. In general, though,
+    // you should override the `Marionette.Renderer` object to
+    // change how Marionette renders views.
+    render: function(){
+      this.isClosed = false;
+  
+      this.triggerMethod("before:render", this);
+      this.triggerMethod("item:before:render", this);
+  
+      var data = this.serializeData();
+      data = this.mixinTemplateHelpers(data);
+  
+      var template = this.getTemplate();
+      var html = Marionette.Renderer.render(template, data);
+  
+      this.$el.html(html);
+      this.bindUIElements();
+  
+      this.triggerMethod("render", this);
+      this.triggerMethod("item:rendered", this);
+  
+      return this;
+    },
+  
+    // Override the default close event to add a few
+    // more events that are triggered.
+    close: function(){
+      if (this.isClosed){ return; }
+  
+      this.triggerMethod('item:before:close');
+  
+      Marionette.View.prototype.close.apply(this, arguments);
+  
+      this.triggerMethod('item:closed');
+    }
+  });
+  
+  // Collection View
+  // ---------------
+  
+  // A view that iterates over a Backbone.Collection
+  // and renders an individual ItemView for each model.
+  Marionette.CollectionView = Marionette.View.extend({
+    // used as the prefix for item view events
+    // that are forwarded through the collectionview
+    itemViewEventPrefix: "itemview",
+  
+    // constructor
+    constructor: function(options){
+      this._initChildViewStorage();
+  
+      Marionette.View.prototype.constructor.apply(this, arguments);
+  
+      this._initialEvents();
+      this.initRenderBuffer();
+    },
+  
+    // Instead of inserting elements one by one into the page,
+    // it's much more performant to insert elements into a document
+    // fragment and then insert that document fragment into the page
+    initRenderBuffer: function() {
+      this.elBuffer = document.createDocumentFragment();
+      this._bufferedChildren = [];
+    },
+  
+    startBuffering: function() {
+      this.initRenderBuffer();
+      this.isBuffering = true;
+    },
+  
+    endBuffering: function() {
+      this.isBuffering = false;
+      this.appendBuffer(this, this.elBuffer);
+      this._triggerShowBufferedChildren();
+      this.initRenderBuffer();
+    },
+  
+    _triggerShowBufferedChildren: function () {
+      if (this._isShown) {
+        _.each(this._bufferedChildren, function (child) {
+          if (_.isFunction(child.triggerMethod)) {
+            child.triggerMethod('show');
+          } else {
+            Marionette.triggerMethod.call(child, 'show');
+          }
+        });
+        this._bufferedChildren = [];
+      }
+    },
+  
+    // Configured the initial events that the collection view
+    // binds to.
+    _initialEvents: function(){
+      if (this.collection){
+        this.listenTo(this.collection, "add", this.addChildView);
+        this.listenTo(this.collection, "remove", this.removeItemView);
+        this.listenTo(this.collection, "reset", this.render);
+      }
+    },
+  
+    // Handle a child item added to the collection
+    addChildView: function(item, collection, options){
+      this.closeEmptyView();
+      var ItemView = this.getItemView(item);
+      var index = this.collection.indexOf(item);
+      this.addItemView(item, ItemView, index);
+    },
+  
+    // Override from `Marionette.View` to guarantee the `onShow` method
+    // of child views is called.
+    onShowCalled: function(){
+      this.children.each(function(child){
+        if (_.isFunction(child.triggerMethod)) {
+          child.triggerMethod('show');
+        } else {
+          Marionette.triggerMethod.call(child, 'show');
+        }
+      });
+    },
+  
+    // Internal method to trigger the before render callbacks
+    // and events
+    triggerBeforeRender: function(){
+      this.triggerMethod("before:render", this);
+      this.triggerMethod("collection:before:render", this);
+    },
+  
+    // Internal method to trigger the rendered callbacks and
+    // events
+    triggerRendered: function(){
+      this.triggerMethod("render", this);
+      this.triggerMethod("collection:rendered", this);
+    },
+  
+    // Render the collection of items. Override this method to
+    // provide your own implementation of a render function for
+    // the collection view.
+    render: function(){
+      this.isClosed = false;
+      this.triggerBeforeRender();
+      this._renderChildren();
+      this.triggerRendered();
+      return this;
+    },
+  
+    // Internal method. Separated so that CompositeView can have
+    // more control over events being triggered, around the rendering
+    // process
+    _renderChildren: function(){
+      this.startBuffering();
+  
+      this.closeEmptyView();
+      this.closeChildren();
+  
+      if (!this.isEmpty(this.collection)) {
+        this.showCollection();
+      } else {
+        this.showEmptyView();
+      }
+  
+      this.endBuffering();
+    },
+  
+    // Internal method to loop through each item in the
+    // collection view and show it
+    showCollection: function(){
+      var ItemView;
+      this.collection.each(function(item, index){
+        ItemView = this.getItemView(item);
+        this.addItemView(item, ItemView, index);
+      }, this);
+    },
+  
+    // Internal method to show an empty view in place of
+    // a collection of item views, when the collection is
+    // empty
+    showEmptyView: function(){
+      var EmptyView = this.getEmptyView();
+  
+      if (EmptyView && !this._showingEmptyView){
+        this._showingEmptyView = true;
+        var model = new Backbone.Model();
+        this.addItemView(model, EmptyView, 0);
+      }
+    },
+  
+    // Internal method to close an existing emptyView instance
+    // if one exists. Called when a collection view has been
+    // rendered empty, and then an item is added to the collection.
+    closeEmptyView: function(){
+      if (this._showingEmptyView){
+        this.closeChildren();
+        delete this._showingEmptyView;
+      }
+    },
+  
+    // Retrieve the empty view type
+    getEmptyView: function(){
+      return Marionette.getOption(this, "emptyView");
+    },
+  
+    // Retrieve the itemView type, either from `this.options.itemView`
+    // or from the `itemView` in the object definition. The "options"
+    // takes precedence.
+    getItemView: function(item){
+      var itemView = Marionette.getOption(this, "itemView");
+  
+      if (!itemView){
+        throwError("An `itemView` must be specified", "NoItemViewError");
+      }
+  
+      return itemView;
+    },
+  
+    // Render the child item's view and add it to the
+    // HTML for the collection view.
+    addItemView: function(item, ItemView, index){
+      // get the itemViewOptions if any were specified
+      var itemViewOptions = Marionette.getOption(this, "itemViewOptions");
+      if (_.isFunction(itemViewOptions)){
+        itemViewOptions = itemViewOptions.call(this, item, index);
+      }
+  
+      // build the view
+      var view = this.buildItemView(item, ItemView, itemViewOptions);
+  
+      // set up the child view event forwarding
+      this.addChildViewEventForwarding(view);
+  
+      // this view is about to be added
+      this.triggerMethod("before:item:added", view);
+  
+      // Store the child view itself so we can properly
+      // remove and/or close it later
+      this.children.add(view);
+  
+      // Render it and show it
+      this.renderItemView(view, index);
+  
+      // call the "show" method if the collection view
+      // has already been shown
+      if (this._isShown && !this.isBuffering){
+        if (_.isFunction(view.triggerMethod)) {
+          view.triggerMethod('show');
+        } else {
+          Marionette.triggerMethod.call(view, 'show');
+        }
+      }
+  
+      // this view was added
+      this.triggerMethod("after:item:added", view);
+  
+      return view;
+    },
+  
+    // Set up the child view event forwarding. Uses an "itemview:"
+    // prefix in front of all forwarded events.
+    addChildViewEventForwarding: function(view){
+      var prefix = Marionette.getOption(this, "itemViewEventPrefix");
+  
+      // Forward all child item view events through the parent,
+      // prepending "itemview:" to the event name
+      this.listenTo(view, "all", function(){
+        var args = slice.call(arguments);
+        var rootEvent = args[0];
+        var itemEvents = this.normalizeMethods(this.getItemEvents());
+  
+        args[0] = prefix + ":" + rootEvent;
+        args.splice(1, 0, view);
+  
+        // call collectionView itemEvent if defined
+        if (typeof itemEvents !== "undefined" && _.isFunction(itemEvents[rootEvent])) {
+          itemEvents[rootEvent].apply(this, args);
+        }
+  
+        Marionette.triggerMethod.apply(this, args);
+      }, this);
+    },
+  
+    // returns the value of itemEvents depending on if a function
+    getItemEvents: function() {
+      if (_.isFunction(this.itemEvents)) {
+        return this.itemEvents.call(this);
+      }
+  
+      return this.itemEvents;
+    },
+  
+    // render the item view
+    renderItemView: function(view, index) {
+      view.render();
+      this.appendHtml(this, view, index);
+    },
+  
+    // Build an `itemView` for every model in the collection.
+    buildItemView: function(item, ItemViewType, itemViewOptions){
+      var options = _.extend({model: item}, itemViewOptions);
+      return new ItemViewType(options);
+    },
+  
+    // get the child view by item it holds, and remove it
+    removeItemView: function(item){
+      var view = this.children.findByModel(item);
+      this.removeChildView(view);
+      this.checkEmpty();
+    },
+  
+    // Remove the child view and close it
+    removeChildView: function(view){
+  
+      // shut down the child view properly,
+      // including events that the collection has from it
+      if (view){
+        // call 'close' or 'remove', depending on which is found
+        if (view.close) { view.close(); }
+        else if (view.remove) { view.remove(); }
+  
+        this.stopListening(view);
+        this.children.remove(view);
+      }
+  
+      this.triggerMethod("item:removed", view);
+    },
+  
+    // helper to check if the collection is empty
+    isEmpty: function(collection){
+      // check if we're empty now
+      return !this.collection || this.collection.length === 0;
+    },
+  
+    // If empty, show the empty view
+    checkEmpty: function (){
+      if (this.isEmpty(this.collection)){
+        this.showEmptyView();
+      }
+    },
+  
+    // You might need to override this if you've overridden appendHtml
+    appendBuffer: function(collectionView, buffer) {
+      collectionView.$el.append(buffer);
+    },
+  
+    // Append the HTML to the collection's `el`.
+    // Override this method to do something other
+    // than `.append`.
+    appendHtml: function(collectionView, itemView, index){
+      if (collectionView.isBuffering) {
+        // buffering happens on reset events and initial renders
+        // in order to reduce the number of inserts into the
+        // document, which are expensive.
+        collectionView.elBuffer.appendChild(itemView.el);
+        collectionView._bufferedChildren.push(itemView);
+      }
+      else {
+        // If we've already rendered the main collection, just
+        // append the new items directly into the element.
+        collectionView.$el.append(itemView.el);
+      }
+    },
+  
+    // Internal method to set up the `children` object for
+    // storing all of the child views
+    _initChildViewStorage: function(){
+      this.children = new Backbone.ChildViewContainer();
+    },
+  
+    // Handle cleanup and other closing needs for
+    // the collection of views.
+    close: function(){
+      if (this.isClosed){ return; }
+  
+      this.triggerMethod("collection:before:close");
+      this.closeChildren();
+      this.triggerMethod("collection:closed");
+  
+      Marionette.View.prototype.close.apply(this, arguments);
+    },
+  
+    // Close the child views that this collection view
+    // is holding on to, if any
+    closeChildren: function(){
+      this.children.each(function(child){
+        this.removeChildView(child);
+      }, this);
+      this.checkEmpty();
+    }
+  });
+  
+  // Composite View
+  // --------------
+  
+  // Used for rendering a branch-leaf, hierarchical structure.
+  // Extends directly from CollectionView and also renders an
+  // an item view as `modelView`, for the top leaf
+  Marionette.CompositeView = Marionette.CollectionView.extend({
+  
+    // Setting up the inheritance chain which allows changes to
+    // Marionette.CollectionView.prototype.constructor which allows overriding
+    constructor: function(){
+      Marionette.CollectionView.prototype.constructor.apply(this, arguments);
+    },
+  
+    // Configured the initial events that the composite view
+    // binds to. Override this method to prevent the initial
+    // events, or to add your own initial events.
+    _initialEvents: function(){
+  
+      // Bind only after composite view is rendered to avoid adding child views
+      // to nonexistent itemViewContainer
+      this.once('render', function () {
+        if (this.collection){
+          this.listenTo(this.collection, "add", this.addChildView);
+          this.listenTo(this.collection, "remove", this.removeItemView);
+          this.listenTo(this.collection, "reset", this._renderChildren);
+        }
+      });
+  
+    },
+  
+    // Retrieve the `itemView` to be used when rendering each of
+    // the items in the collection. The default is to return
+    // `this.itemView` or Marionette.CompositeView if no `itemView`
+    // has been defined
+    getItemView: function(item){
+      var itemView = Marionette.getOption(this, "itemView") || this.constructor;
+  
+      if (!itemView){
+        throwError("An `itemView` must be specified", "NoItemViewError");
+      }
+  
+      return itemView;
+    },
+  
+    // Serialize the collection for the view.
+    // You can override the `serializeData` method in your own view
+    // definition, to provide custom serialization for your view's data.
+    serializeData: function(){
+      var data = {};
+  
+      if (this.model){
+        data = this.model.toJSON();
+      }
+  
+      return data;
+    },
+  
+    // Renders the model once, and the collection once. Calling
+    // this again will tell the model's view to re-render itself
+    // but the collection will not re-render.
+    render: function(){
+      this.isRendered = true;
+      this.isClosed = false;
+      this.resetItemViewContainer();
+  
+      this.triggerBeforeRender();
+      var html = this.renderModel();
+      this.$el.html(html);
+      // the ui bindings is done here and not at the end of render since they
+      // will not be available until after the model is rendered, but should be
+      // available before the collection is rendered.
+      this.bindUIElements();
+      this.triggerMethod("composite:model:rendered");
+  
+      this._renderChildren();
+  
+      this.triggerMethod("composite:rendered");
+      this.triggerRendered();
+      return this;
+    },
+  
+    _renderChildren: function(){
+      if (this.isRendered){
+        this.triggerMethod("composite:collection:before:render");
+        Marionette.CollectionView.prototype._renderChildren.call(this);
+        this.triggerMethod("composite:collection:rendered");
+      }
+    },
+  
+    // Render an individual model, if we have one, as
+    // part of a composite view (branch / leaf). For example:
+    // a treeview.
+    renderModel: function(){
+      var data = {};
+      data = this.serializeData();
+      data = this.mixinTemplateHelpers(data);
+  
+      var template = this.getTemplate();
+      return Marionette.Renderer.render(template, data);
+    },
+  
+  
+    // You might need to override this if you've overridden appendHtml
+    appendBuffer: function(compositeView, buffer) {
+      var $container = this.getItemViewContainer(compositeView);
+      $container.append(buffer);
+    },
+  
+    // Appends the `el` of itemView instances to the specified
+    // `itemViewContainer` (a jQuery selector). Override this method to
+    // provide custom logic of how the child item view instances have their
+    // HTML appended to the composite view instance.
+    appendHtml: function(compositeView, itemView, index){
+      if (compositeView.isBuffering) {
+        compositeView.elBuffer.appendChild(itemView.el);
+        compositeView._bufferedChildren.push(itemView);
+      }
+      else {
+        // If we've already rendered the main collection, just
+        // append the new items directly into the element.
+        var $container = this.getItemViewContainer(compositeView);
+        $container.append(itemView.el);
+      }
+    },
+  
+    // Internal method to ensure an `$itemViewContainer` exists, for the
+    // `appendHtml` method to use.
+    getItemViewContainer: function(containerView){
+      if ("$itemViewContainer" in containerView){
+        return containerView.$itemViewContainer;
+      }
+  
+      var container;
+      var itemViewContainer = Marionette.getOption(containerView, "itemViewContainer");
+      if (itemViewContainer){
+  
+        var selector = _.isFunction(itemViewContainer) ? itemViewContainer.call(containerView) : itemViewContainer;
+  
+        if (selector.charAt(0) === "@" && containerView.ui) {
+          container = containerView.ui[selector.substr(4)];
+        } else {
+          container = containerView.$(selector);
+        }
+  
+        if (container.length <= 0) {
+          throwError("The specified `itemViewContainer` was not found: " + containerView.itemViewContainer, "ItemViewContainerMissingError");
+        }
+  
+      } else {
+        container = containerView.$el;
+      }
+  
+      containerView.$itemViewContainer = container;
+      return container;
+    },
+  
+    // Internal method to reset the `$itemViewContainer` on render
+    resetItemViewContainer: function(){
+      if (this.$itemViewContainer){
+        delete this.$itemViewContainer;
+      }
+    }
+  });
+  
+  // Layout
+  // ------
+  
+  // Used for managing application layouts, nested layouts and
+  // multiple regions within an application or sub-application.
+  //
+  // A specialized view type that renders an area of HTML and then
+  // attaches `Region` instances to the specified `regions`.
+  // Used for composite view management and sub-application areas.
+  Marionette.Layout = Marionette.ItemView.extend({
+    regionType: Marionette.Region,
+  
+    // Ensure the regions are available when the `initialize` method
+    // is called.
+    constructor: function (options) {
+      options = options || {};
+  
+      this._firstRender = true;
+      this._initializeRegions(options);
+  
+      Marionette.ItemView.prototype.constructor.call(this, options);
+    },
+  
+    // Layout's render will use the existing region objects the
+    // first time it is called. Subsequent calls will close the
+    // views that the regions are showing and then reset the `el`
+    // for the regions to the newly rendered DOM elements.
+    render: function(){
+  
+      if (this.isClosed){
+        // a previously closed layout means we need to
+        // completely re-initialize the regions
+        this._initializeRegions();
+      }
+      if (this._firstRender) {
+        // if this is the first render, don't do anything to
+        // reset the regions
+        this._firstRender = false;
+      } else if (!this.isClosed){
+        // If this is not the first render call, then we need to
+        // re-initializing the `el` for each region
+        this._reInitializeRegions();
+      }
+  
+      return Marionette.ItemView.prototype.render.apply(this, arguments);
+    },
+  
+    // Handle closing regions, and then close the view itself.
+    close: function () {
+      if (this.isClosed){ return; }
+      this.regionManager.close();
+      Marionette.ItemView.prototype.close.apply(this, arguments);
+    },
+  
+    // Add a single region, by name, to the layout
+    addRegion: function(name, definition){
+      var regions = {};
+      regions[name] = definition;
+      return this._buildRegions(regions)[name];
+    },
+  
+    // Add multiple regions as a {name: definition, name2: def2} object literal
+    addRegions: function(regions){
+      this.regions = _.extend({}, this.regions, regions);
+      return this._buildRegions(regions);
+    },
+  
+    // Remove a single region from the Layout, by name
+    removeRegion: function(name){
+      delete this.regions[name];
+      return this.regionManager.removeRegion(name);
+    },
+  
+    // Provides alternative access to regions
+    // Accepts the region name
+    // getRegion('main')
+    getRegion: function(region) {
+      return this.regionManager.get(region);
+    },
+  
+    // internal method to build regions
+    _buildRegions: function(regions){
+      var that = this;
+  
+      var defaults = {
+        regionType: Marionette.getOption(this, "regionType"),
+        parentEl: function(){ return that.$el; }
+      };
+  
+      return this.regionManager.addRegions(regions, defaults);
+    },
+  
+    // Internal method to initialize the regions that have been defined in a
+    // `regions` attribute on this layout.
+    _initializeRegions: function (options) {
+      var regions;
+      this._initRegionManager();
+  
+      if (_.isFunction(this.regions)) {
+        regions = this.regions(options);
+      } else {
+        regions = this.regions || {};
+      }
+  
+      this.addRegions(regions);
+    },
+  
+    // Internal method to re-initialize all of the regions by updating the `el` that
+    // they point to
+    _reInitializeRegions: function(){
+      this.regionManager.closeRegions();
+      this.regionManager.each(function(region){
+        region.reset();
+      });
+    },
+  
+    // Internal method to initialize the region manager
+    // and all regions in it
+    _initRegionManager: function(){
+      this.regionManager = new Marionette.RegionManager();
+  
+      this.listenTo(this.regionManager, "region:add", function(name, region){
+        this[name] = region;
+        this.trigger("region:add", name, region);
+      });
+  
+      this.listenTo(this.regionManager, "region:remove", function(name, region){
+        delete this[name];
+        this.trigger("region:remove", name, region);
+      });
+    }
+  });
+  
+  
+  // Behavior
+  // -----------
+  
+  // A Behavior is an isolated set of DOM /
+  // user interactions that can be mixed into any View.
+  // Behaviors allow you to blackbox View specific interactions
+  // into portable logical chunks, keeping your views simple and your code DRY.
+  
+  Marionette.Behavior = (function(_, Backbone){
+    function Behavior(options, view){
+      // Setup reference to the view.
+      // this comes in handle when a behavior
+      // wants to directly talk up the chain
+      // to the view.
+      this.view = view;
+      this.defaults = _.result(this, "defaults") || {};
+      this.options  = _.extend({}, this.defaults, options);
+  
+      // proxy behavior $ method to the view
+      // this is useful for doing jquery DOM lookups
+      // scoped to behaviors view.
+      this.$ = function() {
+        return this.view.$.apply(this.view, arguments);
+      };
+  
+      // Call the initialize method passing
+      // the arguments from the instance constructor
+      this.initialize.apply(this, arguments);
+    }
+  
+    _.extend(Behavior.prototype, Backbone.Events, {
+      initialize: function(){},
+  
+      // stopListening to behavior `onListen` events.
+      close: function() {
+        this.stopListening();
+      },
+  
+      // Setup class level proxy for triggerMethod.
+      triggerMethod: Marionette.triggerMethod
+    });
+  
+    // Borrow Backbones extend implementation
+    // this allows us to setup a proper
+    // inheritence pattern that follow in suite
+    // with the rest of Marionette views.
+    Behavior.extend = Marionette.extend;
+  
+    return Behavior;
+  })(_, Backbone);
+  
+  // Marionette.Behaviors
+  // --------
+  
+  // Behaviors is a utility class that takes care of
+  // glueing your behavior instances to their given View.
+  // The most important part of this class is that you
+  // **MUST** override the class level behaviorsLookup
+  // method for things to work properly.
+  
+  Marionette.Behaviors = (function(Marionette, _) {
+  
+    function Behaviors(view) {
+      // Behaviors defined on a view can be a flat object literal
+      // or it can be a function that returns an object.
+      this.behaviors = Behaviors.parseBehaviors(view, _.result(view, 'behaviors'));
+  
+      // Wraps several of the view's methods
+      // calling the methods first on each behavior
+      // and then eventually calling the method on the view.
+      Behaviors.wrap(view, this.behaviors, [
+        'bindUIElements', 'unbindUIElements',
+        'delegateEvents', 'undelegateEvents',
+        'behaviorEvents', 'triggerMethod',
+        'setElement', 'close'
+      ]);
+    }
+  
+    var methods = {
+      setElement: function(setElement, behaviors) {
+        setElement.apply(this, _.tail(arguments, 2));
+  
+        // proxy behavior $el to the view's $el.
+        // This is needed because a view's $el proxy
+        // is not set until after setElement is called.
+        _.each(behaviors, function(b) {
+          b.$el = this.$el;
+        }, this);
+      },
+  
+      close: function(close, behaviors) {
+        var args = _.tail(arguments, 2);
+        close.apply(this, args);
+  
+        // Call close on each behavior after
+        // closing down the view.
+        // This unbinds event listeners
+        // that behaviors have registerd for.
+        _.invoke(behaviors, 'close', args);
+      },
+  
+      bindUIElements: function(bindUIElements, behaviors) {
+        bindUIElements.apply(this);
+        _.invoke(behaviors, bindUIElements);
+      },
+  
+      unbindUIElements: function(unbindUIElements, behaviors) {
+        unbindUIElements.apply(this);
+        _.invoke(behaviors, unbindUIElements);
+      },
+  
+      triggerMethod: function(triggerMethod, behaviors) {
+        var args = _.tail(arguments, 2);
+        triggerMethod.apply(this, args);
+  
+        _.each(behaviors, function(b) {
+          triggerMethod.apply(b, args);
+        });
+      },
+  
+      delegateEvents: function(delegateEvents, behaviors) {
+        var args = _.tail(arguments, 2);
+        delegateEvents.apply(this, args);
+  
+        _.each(behaviors, function(b){
+          Marionette.bindEntityEvents(b, this.model, Marionette.getOption(b, "modelEvents"));
+          Marionette.bindEntityEvents(b, this.collection, Marionette.getOption(b, "collectionEvents"));
+        }, this);
+      },
+  
+      undelegateEvents: function(undelegateEvents, behaviors) {
+        var args = _.tail(arguments, 2);
+        undelegateEvents.apply(this, args);
+  
+        _.each(behaviors, function(b) {
+          Marionette.unbindEntityEvents(b, this.model, Marionette.getOption(b, "modelEvents"));
+          Marionette.unbindEntityEvents(b, this.collection, Marionette.getOption(b, "collectionEvents"));
+        }, this);
+      },
+  
+      behaviorEvents: function(behaviorEvents, behaviors) {
+        var _behaviorsEvents = {};
+        var viewUI = _.result(this, 'ui');
+  
+        _.each(behaviors, function(b, i) {
+          var _events = {};
+          var behaviorEvents = _.clone(_.result(b, 'events')) || {};
+          var behaviorUI = _.result(b, 'ui');
+  
+          // Construct an internal UI hash first using
+          // the views UI hash and then the behaviors UI hash.
+          // This allows the user to use UI hash elements
+          // defined in the parent view as well as those
+          // defined in the given behavior.
+          var ui = _.extend({}, viewUI, behaviorUI);
+  
+          // Normalize behavior events hash to allow
+          // a user to use the @ui. syntax.
+          behaviorEvents = Marionette.normalizeUIKeys(behaviorEvents, ui);
+  
+          _.each(_.keys(behaviorEvents), function(key) {
+            // append white-space at the end of each key to prevent behavior key collisions
+            // this is relying on the fact backbone events considers "click .foo" the same  "click .foo "
+            // starts with an array of two so the first behavior has one space
+  
+            // +2 is uses becauce new Array(1) or 0 is "" and not " "
+            var whitespace = (new Array(i+2)).join(" ");
+            var eventKey   = key + whitespace;
+            var handler    = _.isFunction(behaviorEvents[key]) ? behaviorEvents[key] : b[behaviorEvents[key]];
+  
+            _events[eventKey] = _.bind(handler, b);
+          });
+  
+          _behaviorsEvents = _.extend(_behaviorsEvents, _events);
+        });
+  
+        return _behaviorsEvents;
+      }
+    };
+  
+    _.extend(Behaviors, {
+  
+      // placeholder method to be extended by the user
+      // should define the object that stores the behaviors
+      // i.e.
+      //
+      // Marionette.Behaviors.behaviorsLookup: function() {
+      //   return App.Behaviors
+      // }
+      behaviorsLookup: function() {
+        throw new Error("You must define where your behaviors are stored. See https://github.com/marionettejs/backbone.marionette/blob/master/docs/marionette.behaviors.md#behaviorslookup");
+      },
+  
+      // Takes care of getting the behavior class
+      // given options and a key.
+      // If a user passes in options.behaviorClass
+      // default to using that. Otherwise delegate
+      // the lookup to the users behaviorsLookup implementation.
+      getBehaviorClass: function(options, key) {
+        if (options.behaviorClass) {
+          return options.behaviorClass;
+        }
+  
+        // Get behavior class can be either a flat object or a method
+        return _.isFunction(Behaviors.behaviorsLookup) ? Behaviors.behaviorsLookup.apply(this, arguments)[key] : Behaviors.behaviorsLookup[key];
+      },
+  
+      // Maps over a view's behaviors. Performing
+      // a lookup on each behavior and the instantiating
+      // said behavior passing its options and view.
+      parseBehaviors: function(view, behaviors){
+        return _.map(behaviors, function(options, key){
+          var BehaviorClass = Behaviors.getBehaviorClass(options, key);
+          return new BehaviorClass(options, view);
+        });
+      },
+  
+      // wrap view internal methods so that they delegate to behaviors.
+      // For example, onClose should trigger close on all of the behaviors and then close itself.
+      // i.e.
+      //
+      // view.delegateEvents = _.partial(methods.delegateEvents, view.delegateEvents, behaviors);
+      wrap: function(view, behaviors, methodNames) {
+        _.each(methodNames, function(methodName) {
+          view[methodName] = _.partial(methods[methodName], view[methodName], behaviors);
+        });
+      }
+    });
+  
+    return Behaviors;
+  
+  })(Marionette, _);
+  
+  
+  // AppRouter
+  // ---------
+  
+  // Reduce the boilerplate code of handling route events
+  // and then calling a single method on another object.
+  // Have your routers configured to call the method on
+  // your object, directly.
+  //
+  // Configure an AppRouter with `appRoutes`.
+  //
+  // App routers can only take one `controller` object.
+  // It is recommended that you divide your controller
+  // objects in to smaller pieces of related functionality
+  // and have multiple routers / controllers, instead of
+  // just one giant router and controller.
+  //
+  // You can also add standard routes to an AppRouter.
+  
+  Marionette.AppRouter = Backbone.Router.extend({
+  
+    constructor: function(options){
+      Backbone.Router.prototype.constructor.apply(this, arguments);
+  
+      this.options = options || {};
+  
+      var appRoutes = Marionette.getOption(this, "appRoutes");
+      var controller = this._getController();
+      this.processAppRoutes(controller, appRoutes);
+      this.on("route", this._processOnRoute, this);
+    },
+  
+    // Similar to route method on a Backbone Router but
+    // method is called on the controller
+    appRoute: function(route, methodName) {
+      var controller = this._getController();
+      this._addAppRoute(controller, route, methodName);
+    },
+  
+    // process the route event and trigger the onRoute
+    // method call, if it exists
+    _processOnRoute: function(routeName, routeArgs){
+      // find the path that matched
+      var routePath = _.invert(this.appRoutes)[routeName];
+  
+      // make sure an onRoute is there, and call it
+      if (_.isFunction(this.onRoute)){
+        this.onRoute(routeName, routePath, routeArgs);
+      }
+    },
+  
+    // Internal method to process the `appRoutes` for the
+    // router, and turn them in to routes that trigger the
+    // specified method on the specified `controller`.
+    processAppRoutes: function(controller, appRoutes) {
+      if (!appRoutes){ return; }
+  
+      var routeNames = _.keys(appRoutes).reverse(); // Backbone requires reverted order of routes
+  
+      _.each(routeNames, function(route) {
+        this._addAppRoute(controller, route, appRoutes[route]);
+      }, this);
+    },
+  
+    _getController: function(){
+      return Marionette.getOption(this, "controller");
+    },
+  
+    _addAppRoute: function(controller, route, methodName){
+      var method = controller[methodName];
+  
+      if (!method) {
+        throwError("Method '" + methodName + "' was not found on the controller");
+      }
+  
+      this.route(route, methodName, _.bind(method, controller));
+    }
+  });
+  
+  // Application
+  // -----------
+  
+  // Contain and manage the composite application as a whole.
+  // Stores and starts up `Region` objects, includes an
+  // event aggregator as `app.vent`
+  Marionette.Application = function(options){
+    this._initRegionManager();
+    this._initCallbacks = new Marionette.Callbacks();
+    this.vent = new Backbone.Wreqr.EventAggregator();
+    this.commands = new Backbone.Wreqr.Commands();
+    this.reqres = new Backbone.Wreqr.RequestResponse();
+    this.submodules = {};
+  
+    _.extend(this, options);
+  
+    this.triggerMethod = Marionette.triggerMethod;
+  };
+  
+  _.extend(Marionette.Application.prototype, Backbone.Events, {
+    // Command execution, facilitated by Backbone.Wreqr.Commands
+    execute: function(){
+      this.commands.execute.apply(this.commands, arguments);
+    },
+  
+    // Request/response, facilitated by Backbone.Wreqr.RequestResponse
+    request: function(){
+      return this.reqres.request.apply(this.reqres, arguments);
+    },
+  
+    // Add an initializer that is either run at when the `start`
+    // method is called, or run immediately if added after `start`
+    // has already been called.
+    addInitializer: function(initializer){
+      this._initCallbacks.add(initializer);
+    },
+  
+    // kick off all of the application's processes.
+    // initializes all of the regions that have been added
+    // to the app, and runs all of the initializer functions
+    start: function(options){
+      this.triggerMethod("initialize:before", options);
+      this._initCallbacks.run(options, this);
+      this.triggerMethod("initialize:after", options);
+  
+      this.triggerMethod("start", options);
+    },
+  
+    // Add regions to your app.
+    // Accepts a hash of named strings or Region objects
+    // addRegions({something: "#someRegion"})
+    // addRegions({something: Region.extend({el: "#someRegion"}) });
+    addRegions: function(regions){
+      return this._regionManager.addRegions(regions);
+    },
+  
+    // Close all regions in the app, without removing them
+    closeRegions: function(){
+      this._regionManager.closeRegions();
+    },
+  
+    // Removes a region from your app, by name
+    // Accepts the regions name
+    // removeRegion('myRegion')
+    removeRegion: function(region) {
+      this._regionManager.removeRegion(region);
+    },
+  
+    // Provides alternative access to regions
+    // Accepts the region name
+    // getRegion('main')
+    getRegion: function(region) {
+      return this._regionManager.get(region);
+    },
+  
+    // Create a module, attached to the application
+    module: function(moduleNames, moduleDefinition){
+  
+      // Overwrite the module class if the user specifies one
+      var ModuleClass = Marionette.Module.getClass(moduleDefinition);
+  
+      // slice the args, and add this application object as the
+      // first argument of the array
+      var args = slice.call(arguments);
+      args.unshift(this);
+  
+      // see the Marionette.Module object for more information
+      return ModuleClass.create.apply(ModuleClass, args);
+    },
+  
+    // Internal method to set up the region manager
+    _initRegionManager: function(){
+      this._regionManager = new Marionette.RegionManager();
+  
+      this.listenTo(this._regionManager, "region:add", function(name, region){
+        this[name] = region;
+      });
+  
+      this.listenTo(this._regionManager, "region:remove", function(name, region){
+        delete this[name];
+      });
+    }
+  });
+  
+  // Copy the `extend` function used by Backbone's classes
+  Marionette.Application.extend = Marionette.extend;
+  
+  // Module
+  // ------
+  
+  // A simple module system, used to create privacy and encapsulation in
+  // Marionette applications
+  Marionette.Module = function(moduleName, app, options){
+    this.moduleName = moduleName;
+    this.options = _.extend({}, this.options, options);
+    // Allow for a user to overide the initialize
+    // for a given module instance.
+    this.initialize = options.initialize || this.initialize;
+  
+    // Set up an internal store for sub-modules.
+    this.submodules = {};
+  
+    this._setupInitializersAndFinalizers();
+  
+    // Set an internal reference to the app
+    // within a module.
+    this.app = app;
+  
+    // By default modules start with their parents.
+    this.startWithParent = true;
+  
+    // Setup a proxy to the trigger method implementation.
+    this.triggerMethod = Marionette.triggerMethod;
+  
+    if (_.isFunction(this.initialize)){
+      this.initialize(this.options, moduleName, app);
+    }
+  };
+  
+  Marionette.Module.extend = Marionette.extend;
+  
+  // Extend the Module prototype with events / listenTo, so that the module
+  // can be used as an event aggregator or pub/sub.
+  _.extend(Marionette.Module.prototype, Backbone.Events, {
+  
+    // Initialize is an empty function by default. Override it with your own
+    // initialization logic when extending Marionette.Module.
+    initialize: function(){},
+  
+    // Initializer for a specific module. Initializers are run when the
+    // module's `start` method is called.
+    addInitializer: function(callback){
+      this._initializerCallbacks.add(callback);
+    },
+  
+    // Finalizers are run when a module is stopped. They are used to teardown
+    // and finalize any variables, references, events and other code that the
+    // module had set up.
+    addFinalizer: function(callback){
+      this._finalizerCallbacks.add(callback);
+    },
+  
+    // Start the module, and run all of its initializers
+    start: function(options){
+      // Prevent re-starting a module that is already started
+      if (this._isInitialized){ return; }
+  
+      // start the sub-modules (depth-first hierarchy)
+      _.each(this.submodules, function(mod){
+        // check to see if we should start the sub-module with this parent
+        if (mod.startWithParent){
+          mod.start(options);
+        }
+      });
+  
+      // run the callbacks to "start" the current module
+      this.triggerMethod("before:start", options);
+  
+      this._initializerCallbacks.run(options, this);
+      this._isInitialized = true;
+  
+      this.triggerMethod("start", options);
+    },
+  
+    // Stop this module by running its finalizers and then stop all of
+    // the sub-modules for this module
+    stop: function(){
+      // if we are not initialized, don't bother finalizing
+      if (!this._isInitialized){ return; }
+      this._isInitialized = false;
+  
+      Marionette.triggerMethod.call(this, "before:stop");
+  
+      // stop the sub-modules; depth-first, to make sure the
+      // sub-modules are stopped / finalized before parents
+      _.each(this.submodules, function(mod){ mod.stop(); });
+  
+      // run the finalizers
+      this._finalizerCallbacks.run(undefined,this);
+  
+      // reset the initializers and finalizers
+      this._initializerCallbacks.reset();
+      this._finalizerCallbacks.reset();
+  
+      Marionette.triggerMethod.call(this, "stop");
+    },
+  
+    // Configure the module with a definition function and any custom args
+    // that are to be passed in to the definition function
+    addDefinition: function(moduleDefinition, customArgs){
+      this._runModuleDefinition(moduleDefinition, customArgs);
+    },
+  
+    // Internal method: run the module definition function with the correct
+    // arguments
+    _runModuleDefinition: function(definition, customArgs){
+      // If there is no definition short circut the method.
+      if (!definition){ return; }
+  
+      // build the correct list of arguments for the module definition
+      var args = _.flatten([
+        this,
+        this.app,
+        Backbone,
+        Marionette,
+        Marionette.$, _,
+        customArgs
+      ]);
+  
+      definition.apply(this, args);
+    },
+  
+    // Internal method: set up new copies of initializers and finalizers.
+    // Calling this method will wipe out all existing initializers and
+    // finalizers.
+    _setupInitializersAndFinalizers: function(){
+      this._initializerCallbacks = new Marionette.Callbacks();
+      this._finalizerCallbacks = new Marionette.Callbacks();
+    }
+  });
+  
+  // Type methods to create modules
+  _.extend(Marionette.Module, {
+  
+    // Create a module, hanging off the app parameter as the parent object.
+    create: function(app, moduleNames, moduleDefinition){
+      var module = app;
+  
+      // get the custom args passed in after the module definition and
+      // get rid of the module name and definition function
+      var customArgs = slice.call(arguments);
+      customArgs.splice(0, 3);
+  
+      // Split the module names and get the number of submodules.
+      // i.e. an example module name of `Doge.Wow.Amaze` would
+      // then have the potential for 3 module definitions.
+      moduleNames = moduleNames.split(".");
+      var length = moduleNames.length;
+  
+      // store the module definition for the last module in the chain
+      var moduleDefinitions = [];
+      moduleDefinitions[length-1] = moduleDefinition;
+  
+      // Loop through all the parts of the module definition
+      _.each(moduleNames, function(moduleName, i){
+        var parentModule = module;
+        module = this._getModule(parentModule, moduleName, app, moduleDefinition);
+        this._addModuleDefinition(parentModule, module, moduleDefinitions[i], customArgs);
+      }, this);
+  
+      // Return the last module in the definition chain
+      return module;
+    },
+  
+    _getModule: function(parentModule, moduleName, app, def, args){
+      var options = _.extend({}, def);
+      var ModuleClass = this.getClass(def);
+  
+      // Get an existing module of this name if we have one
+      var module = parentModule[moduleName];
+  
+      if (!module){
+        // Create a new module if we don't have one
+        module = new ModuleClass(moduleName, app, options);
+        parentModule[moduleName] = module;
+        // store the module on the parent
+        parentModule.submodules[moduleName] = module;
+      }
+  
+      return module;
+    },
+  
+    // ## Module Classes
+    //
+    // Module classes can be used as an alternative to the define pattern.
+    // The extend function of a Module is identical to the extend functions
+    // on other Backbone and Marionette classes.
+    // This allows module lifecyle events like `onStart` and `onStop` to be called directly.
+    getClass: function(moduleDefinition) {
+      var ModuleClass = Marionette.Module;
+  
+      if (!moduleDefinition) {
+        return ModuleClass;
+      }
+  
+      // If all of the module's functionality is defined inside its class,
+      // then the class can be passed in directly. `MyApp.module("Foo", FooModule)`.
+      if (moduleDefinition.prototype instanceof ModuleClass) {
+        return moduleDefinition;
+      }
+  
+      return moduleDefinition.moduleClass || ModuleClass;
+    },
+  
+    // Add the module definition and add a startWithParent initializer function.
+    // This is complicated because module definitions are heavily overloaded
+    // and support an anonymous function, module class, or options object
+    _addModuleDefinition: function(parentModule, module, def, args){
+      var fn = this._getDefine(def);
+      var startWithParent = this._getStartWithParent(def, module);
+  
+      if (fn){
+        module.addDefinition(fn, args);
+      }
+  
+      this._addStartWithParent(parentModule, module, startWithParent);
+    },
+  
+    _getStartWithParent: function(def, module) {
+      var swp;
+  
+      if (_.isFunction(def) && (def.prototype instanceof Marionette.Module)) {
+        swp = module.constructor.prototype.startWithParent;
+        return _.isUndefined(swp) ? true : swp;
+      }
+  
+      if (_.isObject(def)){
+        swp = def.startWithParent;
+        return _.isUndefined(swp) ? true : swp;
+      }
+  
+      return true;
+    },
+  
+    _getDefine: function(def) {
+      if (_.isFunction(def) && !(def.prototype instanceof Marionette.Module)) {
+        return def;
+      }
+  
+      if (_.isObject(def)){
+        return def.define;
+      }
+  
+      return null;
+    },
+  
+    _addStartWithParent: function(parentModule, module, startWithParent) {
+      module.startWithParent = module.startWithParent && startWithParent;
+  
+      if (!module.startWithParent || !!module.startWithParentIsConfigured){
+        return;
+      }
+  
+      module.startWithParentIsConfigured = true;
+  
+      parentModule.addInitializer(function(options){
+        if (module.startWithParent){
+          module.start(options);
+        }
+      });
+    }
+  });
+  
+  
+    return Marionette;
+  })(this, Backbone, _);
+  
+  return Backbone.Marionette;
+
+}));


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