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From srima...@apache.org
Subject [23/25] ambari git commit: AMBARI-10064. Storm Ambari view (Sriharsha Chintalapani via srimanth)
Date Fri, 22 May 2015 19:41:41 GMT
http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/ambari/blob/cd6398a1/contrib/views/storm/src/main/resources/libs/bower/backbone.marionette/js/backbone.marionette.js
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/contrib/views/storm/src/main/resources/libs/bower/backbone.marionette/js/backbone.marionette.js b/contrib/views/storm/src/main/resources/libs/bower/backbone.marionette/js/backbone.marionette.js
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..8714cd7
--- /dev/null
+++ b/contrib/views/storm/src/main/resources/libs/bower/backbone.marionette/js/backbone.marionette.js
@@ -0,0 +1,3128 @@
+// MarionetteJS (Backbone.Marionette)
+// ----------------------------------
+// v2.3.2
+//
+// Copyright (c)2015 Derick Bailey, Muted Solutions, LLC.
+// Distributed under MIT license
+//
+// http://marionettejs.com
+
+(function(root, factory) {
+
+  if (typeof define === 'function' && define.amd) {
+    define(['backbone', 'underscore', 'backbone.wreqr', 'backbone.babysitter'], function(Backbone, _) {
+      return (root.Marionette = root.Mn = factory(root, Backbone, _));
+    });
+  } else if (typeof exports !== 'undefined') {
+    var Backbone = require('backbone');
+    var _ = require('underscore');
+    var Wreqr = require('backbone.wreqr');
+    var BabySitter = require('backbone.babysitter');
+    module.exports = factory(root, Backbone, _);
+  } else {
+    root.Marionette = root.Mn = factory(root, root.Backbone, root._);
+  }
+
+}(this, function(root, Backbone, _) {
+  'use strict';
+
+  var previousMarionette = root.Marionette;
+  var previousMn = root.Mn;
+
+  var Marionette = Backbone.Marionette = {};
+
+  Marionette.VERSION = '2.3.2';
+
+  Marionette.noConflict = function() {
+    root.Marionette = previousMarionette;
+    root.Mn = previousMn;
+    return this;
+  };
+
+  // Get the Deferred creator for later use
+  Marionette.Deferred = Backbone.$.Deferred;
+
+  /* jshint unused: false *//* global console */
+
+  // Helpers
+  // -------
+
+  // Marionette.extend
+  // -----------------
+
+  // Borrow the Backbone `extend` method so we can use it as needed
+  Marionette.extend = Backbone.Model.extend;
+
+  // Marionette.isNodeAttached
+  // -------------------------
+
+  // Determine if `el` is a child of the document
+  Marionette.isNodeAttached = function(el) {
+    return Backbone.$.contains(document.documentElement, el);
+  };
+
+
+  // Marionette.getOption
+  // --------------------
+
+  // Retrieve an object, function or other value from a target
+  // object or its `options`, with `options` taking precedence.
+  Marionette.getOption = function(target, optionName) {
+    if (!target || !optionName) { return; }
+    if (target.options && (target.options[optionName] !== undefined)) {
+      return target.options[optionName];
+    } else {
+      return target[optionName];
+    }
+  };
+
+  // Proxy `Marionette.getOption`
+  Marionette.proxyGetOption = function(optionName) {
+    return Marionette.getOption(this, optionName);
+  };
+
+  // Similar to `_.result`, this is a simple helper
+  // If a function is provided we call it with context
+  // otherwise just return the value. If the value is
+  // undefined return a default value
+  Marionette._getValue = function(value, context, params) {
+    if (_.isFunction(value)) {
+      // We need to ensure that params is not undefined
+      // to prevent `apply` from failing in ie8
+      params = params || [];
+
+      value = value.apply(context, params);
+    }
+    return value;
+  };
+
+  // Marionette.normalizeMethods
+  // ----------------------
+
+  // Pass in a mapping of events => functions or function names
+  // and return a mapping of events => functions
+  Marionette.normalizeMethods = function(hash) {
+    return _.reduce(hash, function(normalizedHash, method, name) {
+      if (!_.isFunction(method)) {
+        method = this[method];
+      }
+      if (method) {
+        normalizedHash[name] = method;
+      }
+      return normalizedHash;
+    }, {}, this);
+  };
+
+  // utility method for parsing @ui. syntax strings
+  // into associated selector
+  Marionette.normalizeUIString = function(uiString, ui) {
+    return uiString.replace(/@ui\.[a-zA-Z_$0-9]*/g, function(r) {
+      return ui[r.slice(4)];
+    });
+  };
+
+  // allows for the use of the @ui. syntax within
+  // a given key for triggers and events
+  // swaps the @ui with the associated selector.
+  // Returns a new, non-mutated, parsed events hash.
+  Marionette.normalizeUIKeys = function(hash, ui) {
+    return _.reduce(hash, function(memo, val, key) {
+      var normalizedKey = Marionette.normalizeUIString(key, ui);
+      memo[normalizedKey] = val;
+      return memo;
+    }, {});
+  };
+
+  // allows for the use of the @ui. syntax within
+  // a given value for regions
+  // swaps the @ui with the associated selector
+  Marionette.normalizeUIValues = function(hash, ui) {
+    _.each(hash, function(val, key) {
+      if (_.isString(val)) {
+        hash[key] = Marionette.normalizeUIString(val, ui);
+      }
+    });
+    return hash;
+  };
+
+  // Mix in methods from Underscore, for iteration, and other
+  // collection related features.
+  // Borrowing this code from Backbone.Collection:
+  // http://backbonejs.org/docs/backbone.html#section-121
+  Marionette.actAsCollection = function(object, listProperty) {
+    var methods = ['forEach', 'each', 'map', 'find', 'detect', 'filter',
+      'select', 'reject', 'every', 'all', 'some', 'any', 'include',
+      'contains', 'invoke', 'toArray', 'first', 'initial', 'rest',
+      'last', 'without', 'isEmpty', 'pluck'];
+
+    _.each(methods, function(method) {
+      object[method] = function() {
+        var list = _.values(_.result(this, listProperty));
+        var args = [list].concat(_.toArray(arguments));
+        return _[method].apply(_, args);
+      };
+    });
+  };
+
+  var deprecate = Marionette.deprecate = function(message, test) {
+    if (_.isObject(message)) {
+      message = (
+        message.prev + ' is going to be removed in the future. ' +
+        'Please use ' + message.next + ' instead.' +
+        (message.url ? ' See: ' + message.url : '')
+      );
+    }
+
+    if ((test === undefined || !test) && !deprecate._cache[message]) {
+      deprecate._warn('Deprecation warning: ' + message);
+      deprecate._cache[message] = true;
+    }
+  };
+
+  deprecate._warn = typeof console !== 'undefined' && (console.warn || console.log) || function() {};
+  deprecate._cache = {};
+
+  /* jshint maxstatements: 14, maxcomplexity: 7 */
+
+  // Trigger Method
+  // --------------
+
+
+  Marionette._triggerMethod = (function() {
+    // split the event name on the ":"
+    var splitter = /(^|:)(\w)/gi;
+
+    // take the event section ("section1:section2:section3")
+    // and turn it in to uppercase name
+    function getEventName(match, prefix, eventName) {
+      return eventName.toUpperCase();
+    }
+
+    return function(context, event, args) {
+      var noEventArg = arguments.length < 3;
+      if (noEventArg) {
+        args = event;
+        event = args[0];
+      }
+
+      // get the method name from the event name
+      var methodName = 'on' + event.replace(splitter, getEventName);
+      var method = context[methodName];
+      var result;
+
+      // call the onMethodName if it exists
+      if (_.isFunction(method)) {
+        // pass all args, except the event name
+        result = method.apply(context, noEventArg ? _.rest(args) : args);
+      }
+
+      // trigger the event, if a trigger method exists
+      if (_.isFunction(context.trigger)) {
+        if (noEventArg + args.length > 1) {
+          context.trigger.apply(context, noEventArg ? args : [event].concat(_.rest(args, 0)));
+        } else {
+          context.trigger(event);
+        }
+      }
+
+      return result;
+    };
+  })();
+
+  // Trigger an event and/or a corresponding method name. Examples:
+  //
+  // `this.triggerMethod("foo")` will trigger the "foo" event and
+  // call the "onFoo" method.
+  //
+  // `this.triggerMethod("foo:bar")` will trigger the "foo:bar" event and
+  // call the "onFooBar" method.
+  Marionette.triggerMethod = function(event) {
+    return Marionette._triggerMethod(this, arguments);
+  };
+
+  // triggerMethodOn invokes triggerMethod on a specific context
+  //
+  // e.g. `Marionette.triggerMethodOn(view, 'show')`
+  // will trigger a "show" event or invoke onShow the view.
+  Marionette.triggerMethodOn = function(context) {
+    var fnc = _.isFunction(context.triggerMethod) ?
+                  context.triggerMethod :
+                  Marionette.triggerMethod;
+
+    return fnc.apply(context, _.rest(arguments));
+  };
+
+  // DOM Refresh
+  // -----------
+
+  // Monitor a view's state, and after it has been rendered and shown
+  // in the DOM, trigger a "dom:refresh" event every time it is
+  // re-rendered.
+
+  Marionette.MonitorDOMRefresh = function(view) {
+
+    // track when the view has been shown in the DOM,
+    // using a Marionette.Region (or by other means of triggering "show")
+    function handleShow() {
+      view._isShown = true;
+      triggerDOMRefresh();
+    }
+
+    // track when the view has been rendered
+    function handleRender() {
+      view._isRendered = true;
+      triggerDOMRefresh();
+    }
+
+    // Trigger the "dom:refresh" event and corresponding "onDomRefresh" method
+    function triggerDOMRefresh() {
+      if (view._isShown && view._isRendered && Marionette.isNodeAttached(view.el)) {
+        if (_.isFunction(view.triggerMethod)) {
+          view.triggerMethod('dom:refresh');
+        }
+      }
+    }
+
+    view.on({
+      show: handleShow,
+      render: handleRender
+    });
+  };
+
+  /* jshint maxparams: 5 */
+
+  // Bind Entity Events & Unbind Entity Events
+  // -----------------------------------------
+  //
+  // These methods are used to bind/unbind a backbone "entity" (e.g. collection/model)
+  // to methods on a target object.
+  //
+  // The first parameter, `target`, must have the Backbone.Events module mixed in.
+  //
+  // The second parameter is the `entity` (Backbone.Model, Backbone.Collection or
+  // any object that has Backbone.Events mixed in) to bind the events from.
+  //
+  // The third parameter is a hash of { "event:name": "eventHandler" }
+  // configuration. Multiple handlers can be separated by a space. A
+  // function can be supplied instead of a string handler name.
+
+  (function(Marionette) {
+    'use strict';
+
+    // Bind the event to handlers specified as a string of
+    // handler names on the target object
+    function bindFromStrings(target, entity, evt, methods) {
+      var methodNames = methods.split(/\s+/);
+
+      _.each(methodNames, function(methodName) {
+
+        var method = target[methodName];
+        if (!method) {
+          throw new Marionette.Error('Method "' + methodName +
+            '" was configured as an event handler, but does not exist.');
+        }
+
+        target.listenTo(entity, evt, method);
+      });
+    }
+
+    // Bind the event to a supplied callback function
+    function bindToFunction(target, entity, evt, method) {
+      target.listenTo(entity, evt, method);
+    }
+
+    // Bind the event to handlers specified as a string of
+    // handler names on the target object
+    function unbindFromStrings(target, entity, evt, methods) {
+      var methodNames = methods.split(/\s+/);
+
+      _.each(methodNames, function(methodName) {
+        var method = target[methodName];
+        target.stopListening(entity, evt, method);
+      });
+    }
+
+    // Bind the event to a supplied callback function
+    function unbindToFunction(target, entity, evt, method) {
+      target.stopListening(entity, evt, method);
+    }
+
+
+    // generic looping function
+    function iterateEvents(target, entity, bindings, functionCallback, stringCallback) {
+      if (!entity || !bindings) { return; }
+
+      // type-check bindings
+      if (!_.isObject(bindings)) {
+        throw new Marionette.Error({
+          message: 'Bindings must be an object or function.',
+          url: 'marionette.functions.html#marionettebindentityevents'
+        });
+      }
+
+      // allow the bindings to be a function
+      bindings = Marionette._getValue(bindings, target);
+
+      // iterate the bindings and bind them
+      _.each(bindings, function(methods, evt) {
+
+        // allow for a function as the handler,
+        // or a list of event names as a string
+        if (_.isFunction(methods)) {
+          functionCallback(target, entity, evt, methods);
+        } else {
+          stringCallback(target, entity, evt, methods);
+        }
+
+      });
+    }
+
+    // Export Public API
+    Marionette.bindEntityEvents = function(target, entity, bindings) {
+      iterateEvents(target, entity, bindings, bindToFunction, bindFromStrings);
+    };
+
+    Marionette.unbindEntityEvents = function(target, entity, bindings) {
+      iterateEvents(target, entity, bindings, unbindToFunction, unbindFromStrings);
+    };
+
+    // Proxy `bindEntityEvents`
+    Marionette.proxyBindEntityEvents = function(entity, bindings) {
+      return Marionette.bindEntityEvents(this, entity, bindings);
+    };
+
+    // Proxy `unbindEntityEvents`
+    Marionette.proxyUnbindEntityEvents = function(entity, bindings) {
+      return Marionette.unbindEntityEvents(this, entity, bindings);
+    };
+  })(Marionette);
+
+
+  // Error
+  // -----
+
+  var errorProps = ['description', 'fileName', 'lineNumber', 'name', 'message', 'number'];
+
+  Marionette.Error = Marionette.extend.call(Error, {
+    urlRoot: 'http://marionettejs.com/docs/v' + Marionette.VERSION + '/',
+
+    constructor: function(message, options) {
+      if (_.isObject(message)) {
+        options = message;
+        message = options.message;
+      } else if (!options) {
+        options = {};
+      }
+
+      var error = Error.call(this, message);
+      _.extend(this, _.pick(error, errorProps), _.pick(options, errorProps));
+
+      this.captureStackTrace();
+
+      if (options.url) {
+        this.url = this.urlRoot + options.url;
+      }
+    },
+
+    captureStackTrace: function() {
+      if (Error.captureStackTrace) {
+        Error.captureStackTrace(this, Marionette.Error);
+      }
+    },
+
+    toString: function() {
+      return this.name + ': ' + this.message + (this.url ? ' See: ' + this.url : '');
+    }
+  });
+
+  Marionette.Error.extend = Marionette.extend;
+
+  // Callbacks
+  // ---------
+
+  // A simple way of managing a collection of callbacks
+  // and executing them at a later point in time, using jQuery's
+  // `Deferred` object.
+  Marionette.Callbacks = function() {
+    this._deferred = Marionette.Deferred();
+    this._callbacks = [];
+  };
+
+  _.extend(Marionette.Callbacks.prototype, {
+
+    // Add a callback to be executed. Callbacks added here are
+    // guaranteed to execute, even if they are added after the
+    // `run` method is called.
+    add: function(callback, contextOverride) {
+      var promise = _.result(this._deferred, 'promise');
+
+      this._callbacks.push({cb: callback, ctx: contextOverride});
+
+      promise.then(function(args) {
+        if (contextOverride){ args.context = contextOverride; }
+        callback.call(args.context, args.options);
+      });
+    },
+
+    // Run all registered callbacks with the context specified.
+    // Additional callbacks can be added after this has been run
+    // and they will still be executed.
+    run: function(options, context) {
+      this._deferred.resolve({
+        options: options,
+        context: context
+      });
+    },
+
+    // Resets the list of callbacks to be run, allowing the same list
+    // to be run multiple times - whenever the `run` method is called.
+    reset: function() {
+      var callbacks = this._callbacks;
+      this._deferred = Marionette.Deferred();
+      this._callbacks = [];
+
+      _.each(callbacks, function(cb) {
+        this.add(cb.cb, cb.ctx);
+      }, this);
+    }
+  });
+
+  // Controller
+  // ----------
+
+  // A multi-purpose object to use as a controller for
+  // modules and routers, and as a mediator for workflow
+  // and coordination of other objects, views, and more.
+  Marionette.Controller = function(options) {
+    this.options = options || {};
+
+    if (_.isFunction(this.initialize)) {
+      this.initialize(this.options);
+    }
+  };
+
+  Marionette.Controller.extend = Marionette.extend;
+
+  // Controller Methods
+  // --------------
+
+  // Ensure it can trigger events with Backbone.Events
+  _.extend(Marionette.Controller.prototype, Backbone.Events, {
+    destroy: function() {
+      Marionette._triggerMethod(this, 'before:destroy', arguments);
+      Marionette._triggerMethod(this, 'destroy', arguments);
+
+      this.stopListening();
+      this.off();
+      return this;
+    },
+
+    // import the `triggerMethod` to trigger events with corresponding
+    // methods if the method exists
+    triggerMethod: Marionette.triggerMethod,
+
+    // Proxy `getOption` to enable getting options from this or this.options by name.
+    getOption: Marionette.proxyGetOption
+
+  });
+
+  // Object
+  // ------
+
+  // A Base Class that other Classes should descend from.
+  // Object borrows many conventions and utilities from Backbone.
+  Marionette.Object = function(options) {
+    this.options = _.extend({}, _.result(this, 'options'), options);
+
+    this.initialize.apply(this, arguments);
+  };
+
+  Marionette.Object.extend = Marionette.extend;
+
+  // Object Methods
+  // --------------
+
+  // Ensure it can trigger events with Backbone.Events
+  _.extend(Marionette.Object.prototype, Backbone.Events, {
+
+    //this is a noop method intended to be overridden by classes that extend from this base
+    initialize: function() {},
+
+    destroy: function() {
+      this.triggerMethod('before:destroy');
+      this.triggerMethod('destroy');
+      this.stopListening();
+    },
+
+    // Import the `triggerMethod` to trigger events with corresponding
+    // methods if the method exists
+    triggerMethod: Marionette.triggerMethod,
+
+    // Proxy `getOption` to enable getting options from this or this.options by name.
+    getOption: Marionette.proxyGetOption,
+
+    // Proxy `bindEntityEvents` to enable binding view's events from another entity.
+    bindEntityEvents: Marionette.proxyBindEntityEvents,
+
+    // Proxy `unbindEntityEvents` to enable unbinding view's events from another entity.
+    unbindEntityEvents: Marionette.proxyUnbindEntityEvents
+  });
+
+  /* jshint maxcomplexity: 16, maxstatements: 45, maxlen: 120 */
+
+  // Region
+  // ------
+
+  // Manage the visual regions of your composite application. See
+  // http://lostechies.com/derickbailey/2011/12/12/composite-js-apps-regions-and-region-managers/
+
+  Marionette.Region = Marionette.Object.extend({
+    constructor: function (options) {
+
+      // set options temporarily so that we can get `el`.
+      // options will be overriden by Object.constructor
+      this.options = options || {};
+      this.el = this.getOption('el');
+
+      // Handle when this.el is passed in as a $ wrapped element.
+      this.el = this.el instanceof Backbone.$ ? this.el[0] : this.el;
+
+      if (!this.el) {
+        throw new Marionette.Error({
+          name: 'NoElError',
+          message: 'An "el" must be specified for a region.'
+        });
+      }
+
+      this.$el = this.getEl(this.el);
+      Marionette.Object.call(this, options);
+    },
+
+    // Displays a backbone view instance inside of the region.
+    // Handles calling the `render` method for you. Reads content
+    // directly from the `el` attribute. Also calls an optional
+    // `onShow` and `onDestroy` method on your view, just after showing
+    // or just before destroying the view, respectively.
+    // The `preventDestroy` option can be used to prevent a view from
+    // the old view being destroyed on show.
+    // The `forceShow` option can be used to force a view to be
+    // re-rendered if it's already shown in the region.
+    show: function(view, options){
+      if (!this._ensureElement()) {
+        return;
+      }
+
+      this._ensureViewIsIntact(view);
+
+      var showOptions     = options || {};
+      var isDifferentView = view !== this.currentView;
+      var preventDestroy  = !!showOptions.preventDestroy;
+      var forceShow       = !!showOptions.forceShow;
+
+      // We are only changing the view if there is a current view to change to begin with
+      var isChangingView = !!this.currentView;
+
+      // Only destroy the current view if we don't want to `preventDestroy` and if
+      // the view given in the first argument is different than `currentView`
+      var _shouldDestroyView = isDifferentView && !preventDestroy;
+
+      // Only show the view given in the first argument if it is different than
+      // the current view or if we want to re-show the view. Note that if
+      // `_shouldDestroyView` is true, then `_shouldShowView` is also necessarily true.
+      var _shouldShowView = isDifferentView || forceShow;
+
+      if (isChangingView) {
+        this.triggerMethod('before:swapOut', this.currentView, this, options);
+      }
+
+      if (this.currentView) {
+        delete this.currentView._parent;
+      }
+
+      if (_shouldDestroyView) {
+        this.empty();
+
+      // A `destroy` event is attached to the clean up manually removed views.
+      // We need to detach this event when a new view is going to be shown as it
+      // is no longer relevant.
+      } else if (isChangingView && _shouldShowView) {
+        this.currentView.off('destroy', this.empty, this);
+      }
+
+      if (_shouldShowView) {
+
+        // We need to listen for if a view is destroyed
+        // in a way other than through the region.
+        // If this happens we need to remove the reference
+        // to the currentView since once a view has been destroyed
+        // we can not reuse it.
+        view.once('destroy', this.empty, this);
+        view.render();
+
+        view._parent = this;
+
+        if (isChangingView) {
+          this.triggerMethod('before:swap', view, this, options);
+        }
+
+        this.triggerMethod('before:show', view, this, options);
+        Marionette.triggerMethodOn(view, 'before:show', view, this, options);
+
+        if (isChangingView) {
+          this.triggerMethod('swapOut', this.currentView, this, options);
+        }
+
+        // An array of views that we're about to display
+        var attachedRegion = Marionette.isNodeAttached(this.el);
+
+        // The views that we're about to attach to the document
+        // It's important that we prevent _getNestedViews from being executed unnecessarily
+        // as it's a potentially-slow method
+        var displayedViews = [];
+
+        var triggerBeforeAttach = showOptions.triggerBeforeAttach || this.triggerBeforeAttach;
+        var triggerAttach = showOptions.triggerAttach || this.triggerAttach;
+
+        if (attachedRegion && triggerBeforeAttach) {
+          displayedViews = this._displayedViews(view);
+          this._triggerAttach(displayedViews, 'before:');
+        }
+
+        this.attachHtml(view);
+        this.currentView = view;
+
+        if (attachedRegion && triggerAttach) {
+          displayedViews = this._displayedViews(view);
+          this._triggerAttach(displayedViews);
+        }
+
+        if (isChangingView) {
+          this.triggerMethod('swap', view, this, options);
+        }
+
+        this.triggerMethod('show', view, this, options);
+        Marionette.triggerMethodOn(view, 'show', view, this, options);
+
+        return this;
+      }
+
+      return this;
+    },
+
+    triggerBeforeAttach: true,
+    triggerAttach: true,
+
+    _triggerAttach: function(views, prefix) {
+      var eventName = (prefix || '') + 'attach';
+      _.each(views, function(view) {
+        Marionette.triggerMethodOn(view, eventName, view, this);
+      }, this);
+    },
+
+    _displayedViews: function(view) {
+      return _.union([view], _.result(view, '_getNestedViews') || []);
+    },
+
+    _ensureElement: function(){
+      if (!_.isObject(this.el)) {
+        this.$el = this.getEl(this.el);
+        this.el = this.$el[0];
+      }
+
+      if (!this.$el || this.$el.length === 0) {
+        if (this.getOption('allowMissingEl')) {
+          return false;
+        } else {
+          throw new Marionette.Error('An "el" ' + this.$el.selector + ' must exist in DOM');
+        }
+      }
+      return true;
+    },
+
+    _ensureViewIsIntact: function(view) {
+      if (!view) {
+        throw new Marionette.Error({
+          name: 'ViewNotValid',
+          message: 'The view passed is undefined and therefore invalid. You must pass a view instance to show.'
+        });
+      }
+
+      if (view.isDestroyed) {
+        throw new Marionette.Error({
+          name: 'ViewDestroyedError',
+          message: 'View (cid: "' + view.cid + '") has already been destroyed and cannot be used.'
+        });
+      }
+    },
+
+    // Override this method to change how the region finds the DOM
+    // element that it manages. Return a jQuery selector object scoped
+    // to a provided parent el or the document if none exists.
+    getEl: function(el) {
+      return Backbone.$(el, Marionette._getValue(this.options.parentEl, this));
+    },
+
+    // Override this method to change how the new view is
+    // appended to the `$el` that the region is managing
+    attachHtml: function(view) {
+      this.$el.contents().detach();
+
+      this.el.appendChild(view.el);
+    },
+
+    // Destroy the current view, if there is one. If there is no
+    // current view, it does nothing and returns immediately.
+    empty: function() {
+      var view = this.currentView;
+
+      // If there is no view in the region
+      // we should not remove anything
+      if (!view) { return; }
+
+      view.off('destroy', this.empty, this);
+      this.triggerMethod('before:empty', view);
+      this._destroyView();
+      this.triggerMethod('empty', view);
+
+      // Remove region pointer to the currentView
+      delete this.currentView;
+      return this;
+    },
+
+    // call 'destroy' or 'remove', depending on which is found
+    // on the view (if showing a raw Backbone view or a Marionette View)
+    _destroyView: function() {
+      var view = this.currentView;
+
+      if (view.destroy && !view.isDestroyed) {
+        view.destroy();
+      } else if (view.remove) {
+        view.remove();
+
+        // appending isDestroyed to raw Backbone View allows regions
+        // to throw a ViewDestroyedError for this view
+        view.isDestroyed = true;
+      }
+    },
+
+    // Attach an existing view to the region. This
+    // will not call `render` or `onShow` for the new view,
+    // and will not replace the current HTML for the `el`
+    // of the region.
+    attachView: function(view) {
+      this.currentView = view;
+      return this;
+    },
+
+    // Checks whether a view is currently present within
+    // the region. Returns `true` if there is and `false` if
+    // no view is present.
+    hasView: function() {
+      return !!this.currentView;
+    },
+
+    // Reset the region by destroying any existing view and
+    // clearing out the cached `$el`. The next time a view
+    // is shown via this region, the region will re-query the
+    // DOM for the region's `el`.
+    reset: function() {
+      this.empty();
+
+      if (this.$el) {
+        this.el = this.$el.selector;
+      }
+
+      delete this.$el;
+      return this;
+    }
+
+  },
+
+  // Static Methods
+  {
+
+    // Build an instance of a region by passing in a configuration object
+    // and a default region class to use if none is specified in the config.
+    //
+    // The config object should either be a string as a jQuery DOM selector,
+    // a Region class directly, or an object literal that specifies a selector,
+    // a custom regionClass, and any options to be supplied to the region:
+    //
+    // ```js
+    // {
+    //   selector: "#foo",
+    //   regionClass: MyCustomRegion,
+    //   allowMissingEl: false
+    // }
+    // ```
+    //
+    buildRegion: function(regionConfig, DefaultRegionClass) {
+      if (_.isString(regionConfig)) {
+        return this._buildRegionFromSelector(regionConfig, DefaultRegionClass);
+      }
+
+      if (regionConfig.selector || regionConfig.el || regionConfig.regionClass) {
+        return this._buildRegionFromObject(regionConfig, DefaultRegionClass);
+      }
+
+      if (_.isFunction(regionConfig)) {
+        return this._buildRegionFromRegionClass(regionConfig);
+      }
+
+      throw new Marionette.Error({
+        message: 'Improper region configuration type.',
+        url: 'marionette.region.html#region-configuration-types'
+      });
+    },
+
+    // Build the region from a string selector like '#foo-region'
+    _buildRegionFromSelector: function(selector, DefaultRegionClass) {
+      return new DefaultRegionClass({ el: selector });
+    },
+
+    // Build the region from a configuration object
+    // ```js
+    // { selector: '#foo', regionClass: FooRegion, allowMissingEl: false }
+    // ```
+    _buildRegionFromObject: function(regionConfig, DefaultRegionClass) {
+      var RegionClass = regionConfig.regionClass || DefaultRegionClass;
+      var options = _.omit(regionConfig, 'selector', 'regionClass');
+
+      if (regionConfig.selector && !options.el) {
+        options.el = regionConfig.selector;
+      }
+
+      return new RegionClass(options);
+    },
+
+    // Build the region directly from a given `RegionClass`
+    _buildRegionFromRegionClass: function(RegionClass) {
+      return new RegionClass();
+    }
+  });
+
+  // Region Manager
+  // --------------
+
+  // Manage one or more related `Marionette.Region` objects.
+  Marionette.RegionManager = Marionette.Controller.extend({
+    constructor: function(options) {
+      this._regions = {};
+
+      Marionette.Controller.call(this, options);
+
+      this.addRegions(this.getOption('regions'));
+    },
+
+    // Add multiple regions using an object literal or a
+    // function that returns an object literal, where
+    // each key becomes the region name, and each value is
+    // the region definition.
+    addRegions: function(regionDefinitions, defaults) {
+      regionDefinitions = Marionette._getValue(regionDefinitions, this, arguments);
+
+      return _.reduce(regionDefinitions, function(regions, definition, name) {
+        if (_.isString(definition)) {
+          definition = {selector: definition};
+        }
+        if (definition.selector) {
+          definition = _.defaults({}, definition, defaults);
+        }
+
+        regions[name] = this.addRegion(name, definition);
+        return regions;
+      }, {}, this);
+    },
+
+    // Add an individual region to the region manager,
+    // and return the region instance
+    addRegion: function(name, definition) {
+      var region;
+
+      if (definition instanceof Marionette.Region) {
+        region = definition;
+      } else {
+        region = Marionette.Region.buildRegion(definition, Marionette.Region);
+      }
+
+      this.triggerMethod('before:add:region', name, region);
+
+      region._parent = this;
+      this._store(name, region);
+
+      this.triggerMethod('add:region', name, region);
+      return region;
+    },
+
+    // Get a region by name
+    get: function(name) {
+      return this._regions[name];
+    },
+
+    // Gets all the regions contained within
+    // the `regionManager` instance.
+    getRegions: function(){
+      return _.clone(this._regions);
+    },
+
+    // Remove a region by name
+    removeRegion: function(name) {
+      var region = this._regions[name];
+      this._remove(name, region);
+
+      return region;
+    },
+
+    // Empty all regions in the region manager, and
+    // remove them
+    removeRegions: function() {
+      var regions = this.getRegions();
+      _.each(this._regions, function(region, name) {
+        this._remove(name, region);
+      }, this);
+
+      return regions;
+    },
+
+    // Empty all regions in the region manager, but
+    // leave them attached
+    emptyRegions: function() {
+      var regions = this.getRegions();
+      _.invoke(regions, 'empty');
+      return regions;
+    },
+
+    // Destroy all regions and shut down the region
+    // manager entirely
+    destroy: function() {
+      this.removeRegions();
+      return Marionette.Controller.prototype.destroy.apply(this, arguments);
+    },
+
+    // internal method to store regions
+    _store: function(name, region) {
+      this._regions[name] = region;
+      this._setLength();
+    },
+
+    // internal method to remove a region
+    _remove: function(name, region) {
+      this.triggerMethod('before:remove:region', name, region);
+      region.empty();
+      region.stopListening();
+
+      delete region._parent;
+      delete this._regions[name];
+      this._setLength();
+      this.triggerMethod('remove:region', name, region);
+    },
+
+    // set the number of regions current held
+    _setLength: function() {
+      this.length = _.size(this._regions);
+    }
+  });
+
+  Marionette.actAsCollection(Marionette.RegionManager.prototype, '_regions');
+
+
+  // Template Cache
+  // --------------
+
+  // Manage templates stored in `<script>` blocks,
+  // caching them for faster access.
+  Marionette.TemplateCache = function(templateId) {
+    this.templateId = templateId;
+  };
+
+  // TemplateCache object-level methods. Manage the template
+  // caches from these method calls instead of creating
+  // your own TemplateCache instances
+  _.extend(Marionette.TemplateCache, {
+    templateCaches: {},
+
+    // Get the specified template by id. Either
+    // retrieves the cached version, or loads it
+    // from the DOM.
+    get: function(templateId) {
+      var cachedTemplate = this.templateCaches[templateId];
+
+      if (!cachedTemplate) {
+        cachedTemplate = new Marionette.TemplateCache(templateId);
+        this.templateCaches[templateId] = cachedTemplate;
+      }
+
+      return cachedTemplate.load();
+    },
+
+    // Clear templates from the cache. If no arguments
+    // are specified, clears all templates:
+    // `clear()`
+    //
+    // If arguments are specified, clears each of the
+    // specified templates from the cache:
+    // `clear("#t1", "#t2", "...")`
+    clear: function() {
+      var i;
+      var args = _.toArray(arguments);
+      var length = args.length;
+
+      if (length > 0) {
+        for (i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+          delete this.templateCaches[args[i]];
+        }
+      } else {
+        this.templateCaches = {};
+      }
+    }
+  });
+
+  // TemplateCache instance methods, allowing each
+  // template cache object to manage its own state
+  // and know whether or not it has been loaded
+  _.extend(Marionette.TemplateCache.prototype, {
+
+    // Internal method to load the template
+    load: function() {
+      // Guard clause to prevent loading this template more than once
+      if (this.compiledTemplate) {
+        return this.compiledTemplate;
+      }
+
+      // Load the template and compile it
+      var template = this.loadTemplate(this.templateId);
+      this.compiledTemplate = this.compileTemplate(template);
+
+      return this.compiledTemplate;
+    },
+
+    // Load a template from the DOM, by default. Override
+    // this method to provide your own template retrieval
+    // For asynchronous loading with AMD/RequireJS, consider
+    // using a template-loader plugin as described here:
+    // https://github.com/marionettejs/backbone.marionette/wiki/Using-marionette-with-requirejs
+    loadTemplate: function(templateId) {
+      var template = Backbone.$(templateId).html();
+
+      if (!template || template.length === 0) {
+        throw new Marionette.Error({
+          name: 'NoTemplateError',
+          message: 'Could not find template: "' + templateId + '"'
+        });
+      }
+
+      return template;
+    },
+
+    // Pre-compile the template before caching it. Override
+    // this method if you do not need to pre-compile a template
+    // (JST / RequireJS for example) or if you want to change
+    // the template engine used (Handebars, etc).
+    compileTemplate: function(rawTemplate) {
+      return _.template(rawTemplate);
+    }
+  });
+
+  // Renderer
+  // --------
+
+  // Render a template with data by passing in the template
+  // selector and the data to render.
+  Marionette.Renderer = {
+
+    // Render a template with data. The `template` parameter is
+    // passed to the `TemplateCache` object to retrieve the
+    // template function. Override this method to provide your own
+    // custom rendering and template handling for all of Marionette.
+    render: function(template, data) {
+      if (!template) {
+        throw new Marionette.Error({
+          name: 'TemplateNotFoundError',
+          message: 'Cannot render the template since its false, null or undefined.'
+        });
+      }
+
+      var templateFunc = _.isFunction(template) ? template : Marionette.TemplateCache.get(template);
+
+      return templateFunc(data);
+    }
+  };
+
+
+  /* jshint maxlen: 114, nonew: false */
+  // View
+  // ----
+
+  // The core view class that other Marionette views extend from.
+  Marionette.View = Backbone.View.extend({
+    isDestroyed: false,
+
+    constructor: function(options) {
+      _.bindAll(this, 'render');
+
+      options = Marionette._getValue(options, this);
+
+      // this exposes view options to the view initializer
+      // this is a backfill since backbone removed the assignment
+      // of this.options
+      // at some point however this may be removed
+      this.options = _.extend({}, _.result(this, 'options'), options);
+
+      this._behaviors = Marionette.Behaviors(this);
+
+      Backbone.View.apply(this, arguments);
+
+      Marionette.MonitorDOMRefresh(this);
+      this.on('show', this.onShowCalled);
+    },
+
+    // Get the template for this view
+    // instance. You can set a `template` attribute in the view
+    // definition or pass a `template: "whatever"` parameter in
+    // to the constructor options.
+    getTemplate: function() {
+      return this.getOption('template');
+    },
+
+    // Serialize a model by returning its attributes. Clones
+    // the attributes to allow modification.
+    serializeModel: function(model){
+      return model.toJSON.apply(model, _.rest(arguments));
+    },
+
+    // Mix in template helper methods. Looks for a
+    // `templateHelpers` attribute, which can either be an
+    // object literal, or a function that returns an object
+    // literal. All methods and attributes from this object
+    // are copies to the object passed in.
+    mixinTemplateHelpers: function(target) {
+      target = target || {};
+      var templateHelpers = this.getOption('templateHelpers');
+      templateHelpers = Marionette._getValue(templateHelpers, this);
+      return _.extend(target, templateHelpers);
+    },
+
+    // normalize the keys of passed hash with the views `ui` selectors.
+    // `{"@ui.foo": "bar"}`
+    normalizeUIKeys: function(hash) {
+      var uiBindings = _.result(this, '_uiBindings');
+      return Marionette.normalizeUIKeys(hash, uiBindings || _.result(this, 'ui'));
+    },
+
+    // normalize the values of passed hash with the views `ui` selectors.
+    // `{foo: "@ui.bar"}`
+    normalizeUIValues: function(hash) {
+      var ui = _.result(this, 'ui');
+      var uiBindings = _.result(this, '_uiBindings');
+      return Marionette.normalizeUIValues(hash, uiBindings || ui);
+    },
+
+    // Configure `triggers` to forward DOM events to view
+    // events. `triggers: {"click .foo": "do:foo"}`
+    configureTriggers: function() {
+      if (!this.triggers) { return; }
+
+      // Allow `triggers` to be configured as a function
+      var triggers = this.normalizeUIKeys(_.result(this, 'triggers'));
+
+      // Configure the triggers, prevent default
+      // action and stop propagation of DOM events
+      return _.reduce(triggers, function(events, value, key) {
+        events[key] = this._buildViewTrigger(value);
+        return events;
+      }, {}, this);
+    },
+
+    // Overriding Backbone.View's delegateEvents to handle
+    // the `triggers`, `modelEvents`, and `collectionEvents` configuration
+    delegateEvents: function(events) {
+      this._delegateDOMEvents(events);
+      this.bindEntityEvents(this.model, this.getOption('modelEvents'));
+      this.bindEntityEvents(this.collection, this.getOption('collectionEvents'));
+
+      _.each(this._behaviors, function(behavior) {
+        behavior.bindEntityEvents(this.model, behavior.getOption('modelEvents'));
+        behavior.bindEntityEvents(this.collection, behavior.getOption('collectionEvents'));
+      }, this);
+
+      return this;
+    },
+
+    // internal method to delegate DOM events and triggers
+    _delegateDOMEvents: function(eventsArg) {
+      var events = Marionette._getValue(eventsArg || this.events, this);
+
+      // normalize ui keys
+      events = this.normalizeUIKeys(events);
+      if(_.isUndefined(eventsArg)) {this.events = events;}
+
+      var combinedEvents = {};
+
+      // look up if this view has behavior events
+      var behaviorEvents = _.result(this, 'behaviorEvents') || {};
+      var triggers = this.configureTriggers();
+      var behaviorTriggers = _.result(this, 'behaviorTriggers') || {};
+
+      // behavior events will be overriden by view events and or triggers
+      _.extend(combinedEvents, behaviorEvents, events, triggers, behaviorTriggers);
+
+      Backbone.View.prototype.delegateEvents.call(this, combinedEvents);
+    },
+
+    // Overriding Backbone.View's undelegateEvents to handle unbinding
+    // the `triggers`, `modelEvents`, and `collectionEvents` config
+    undelegateEvents: function() {
+      Backbone.View.prototype.undelegateEvents.apply(this, arguments);
+
+      this.unbindEntityEvents(this.model, this.getOption('modelEvents'));
+      this.unbindEntityEvents(this.collection, this.getOption('collectionEvents'));
+
+      _.each(this._behaviors, function(behavior) {
+        behavior.unbindEntityEvents(this.model, behavior.getOption('modelEvents'));
+        behavior.unbindEntityEvents(this.collection, behavior.getOption('collectionEvents'));
+      }, this);
+
+      return this;
+    },
+
+    // Internal method, handles the `show` event.
+    onShowCalled: function() {},
+
+    // Internal helper method to verify whether the view hasn't been destroyed
+    _ensureViewIsIntact: function() {
+      if (this.isDestroyed) {
+        throw new Marionette.Error({
+          name: 'ViewDestroyedError',
+          message: 'View (cid: "' + this.cid + '") has already been destroyed and cannot be used.'
+        });
+      }
+    },
+
+    // Default `destroy` implementation, for removing a view from the
+    // DOM and unbinding it. Regions will call this method
+    // for you. You can specify an `onDestroy` method in your view to
+    // add custom code that is called after the view is destroyed.
+    destroy: function() {
+      if (this.isDestroyed) { return; }
+
+      var args = _.toArray(arguments);
+
+      this.triggerMethod.apply(this, ['before:destroy'].concat(args));
+
+      // mark as destroyed before doing the actual destroy, to
+      // prevent infinite loops within "destroy" event handlers
+      // that are trying to destroy other views
+      this.isDestroyed = true;
+      this.triggerMethod.apply(this, ['destroy'].concat(args));
+
+      // unbind UI elements
+      this.unbindUIElements();
+
+      // remove the view from the DOM
+      this.remove();
+
+      // Call destroy on each behavior after
+      // destroying the view.
+      // This unbinds event listeners
+      // that behaviors have registered for.
+      _.invoke(this._behaviors, 'destroy', args);
+
+      return this;
+    },
+
+    bindUIElements: function() {
+      this._bindUIElements();
+      _.invoke(this._behaviors, this._bindUIElements);
+    },
+
+    // This method binds the elements specified in the "ui" hash inside the view's code with
+    // the associated jQuery selectors.
+    _bindUIElements: function() {
+      if (!this.ui) { return; }
+
+      // store the ui hash in _uiBindings so they can be reset later
+      // and so re-rendering the view will be able to find the bindings
+      if (!this._uiBindings) {
+        this._uiBindings = this.ui;
+      }
+
+      // get the bindings result, as a function or otherwise
+      var bindings = _.result(this, '_uiBindings');
+
+      // empty the ui so we don't have anything to start with
+      this.ui = {};
+
+      // bind each of the selectors
+      _.each(bindings, function(selector, key) {
+        this.ui[key] = this.$(selector);
+      }, this);
+    },
+
+    // This method unbinds the elements specified in the "ui" hash
+    unbindUIElements: function() {
+      this._unbindUIElements();
+      _.invoke(this._behaviors, this._unbindUIElements);
+    },
+
+    _unbindUIElements: function() {
+      if (!this.ui || !this._uiBindings) { return; }
+
+      // delete all of the existing ui bindings
+      _.each(this.ui, function($el, name) {
+        delete this.ui[name];
+      }, this);
+
+      // reset the ui element to the original bindings configuration
+      this.ui = this._uiBindings;
+      delete this._uiBindings;
+    },
+
+    // Internal method to create an event handler for a given `triggerDef` like
+    // 'click:foo'
+    _buildViewTrigger: function(triggerDef) {
+      var hasOptions = _.isObject(triggerDef);
+
+      var options = _.defaults({}, (hasOptions ? triggerDef : {}), {
+        preventDefault: true,
+        stopPropagation: true
+      });
+
+      var eventName = hasOptions ? options.event : triggerDef;
+
+      return function(e) {
+        if (e) {
+          if (e.preventDefault && options.preventDefault) {
+            e.preventDefault();
+          }
+
+          if (e.stopPropagation && options.stopPropagation) {
+            e.stopPropagation();
+          }
+        }
+
+        var args = {
+          view: this,
+          model: this.model,
+          collection: this.collection
+        };
+
+        this.triggerMethod(eventName, args);
+      };
+    },
+
+    setElement: function() {
+      var ret = Backbone.View.prototype.setElement.apply(this, arguments);
+
+      // proxy behavior $el to the view's $el.
+      // This is needed because a view's $el proxy
+      // is not set until after setElement is called.
+      _.invoke(this._behaviors, 'proxyViewProperties', this);
+
+      return ret;
+    },
+
+    // import the `triggerMethod` to trigger events with corresponding
+    // methods if the method exists
+    triggerMethod: function() {
+      var triggerMethod = Marionette._triggerMethod;
+      var ret = triggerMethod(this, arguments);
+      var behaviors = this._behaviors;
+      // Use good ol' for as this is a very hot function
+      for (var i = 0, length = behaviors && behaviors.length; i < length; i++) {
+        triggerMethod(behaviors[i], arguments);
+      }
+
+      return ret;
+    },
+
+    // This method returns any views that are immediate
+    // children of this view
+    _getImmediateChildren: function() {
+      return [];
+    },
+
+    // Returns an array of every nested view within this view
+    _getNestedViews: function() {
+      var children = this._getImmediateChildren();
+
+      if (!children.length) { return children; }
+
+      return _.reduce(children, function(memo, view) {
+        if (!view._getNestedViews) { return memo; }
+        return memo.concat(view._getNestedViews());
+      }, children);
+    },
+
+    // Imports the "normalizeMethods" to transform hashes of
+    // events=>function references/names to a hash of events=>function references
+    normalizeMethods: Marionette.normalizeMethods,
+
+    // Proxy `getOption` to enable getting options from this or this.options by name.
+    getOption: Marionette.proxyGetOption,
+
+    // Proxy `bindEntityEvents` to enable binding view's events from another entity.
+    bindEntityEvents: Marionette.proxyBindEntityEvents,
+
+    // Proxy `unbindEntityEvents` to enable unbinding view's events from another entity.
+    unbindEntityEvents: Marionette.proxyUnbindEntityEvents
+  });
+
+  // Item View
+  // ---------
+
+  // A single item view implementation that contains code for rendering
+  // with underscore.js templates, serializing the view's model or collection,
+  // and calling several methods on extended views, such as `onRender`.
+  Marionette.ItemView = Marionette.View.extend({
+
+    // Setting up the inheritance chain which allows changes to
+    // Marionette.View.prototype.constructor which allows overriding
+    constructor: function() {
+      Marionette.View.apply(this, arguments);
+    },
+
+    // Serialize the model or collection for the view. If a model is
+    // found, the view's `serializeModel` is called. If a collection is found,
+    // each model in the collection is serialized by calling
+    // the view's `serializeCollection` and put into an `items` array in
+    // the resulting data. If both are found, defaults to the model.
+    // You can override the `serializeData` method in your own view definition,
+    // to provide custom serialization for your view's data.
+    serializeData: function(){
+      if (!this.model && !this.collection) {
+        return {};
+      }
+
+      var args = [this.model || this.collection];
+      if (arguments.length) {
+        args.push.apply(args, arguments);
+      }
+
+      if (this.model) {
+        return this.serializeModel.apply(this, args);
+      } else {
+        return {
+          items: this.serializeCollection.apply(this, args)
+        };
+      }
+    },
+
+    // Serialize a collection by serializing each of its models.
+    serializeCollection: function(collection){
+      return collection.toJSON.apply(collection, _.rest(arguments));
+    },
+
+    // Render the view, defaulting to underscore.js templates.
+    // You can override this in your view definition to provide
+    // a very specific rendering for your view. In general, though,
+    // you should override the `Marionette.Renderer` object to
+    // change how Marionette renders views.
+    render: function() {
+      this._ensureViewIsIntact();
+
+      this.triggerMethod('before:render', this);
+
+      this._renderTemplate();
+      this.bindUIElements();
+
+      this.triggerMethod('render', this);
+
+      return this;
+    },
+
+    // Internal method to render the template with the serialized data
+    // and template helpers via the `Marionette.Renderer` object.
+    // Throws an `UndefinedTemplateError` error if the template is
+    // any falsely value but literal `false`.
+    _renderTemplate: function() {
+      var template = this.getTemplate();
+
+      // Allow template-less item views
+      if (template === false) {
+        return;
+      }
+
+      if (!template) {
+        throw new Marionette.Error({
+          name: 'UndefinedTemplateError',
+          message: 'Cannot render the template since it is null or undefined.'
+        });
+      }
+
+      // Add in entity data and template helpers
+      var data = this.serializeData();
+      data = this.mixinTemplateHelpers(data);
+
+      // Render and add to el
+      var html = Marionette.Renderer.render(template, data, this);
+      this.attachElContent(html);
+
+      return this;
+    },
+
+    // Attaches the content of a given view.
+    // This method can be overridden to optimize rendering,
+    // or to render in a non standard way.
+    //
+    // For example, using `innerHTML` instead of `$el.html`
+    //
+    // ```js
+    // attachElContent: function(html) {
+    //   this.el.innerHTML = html;
+    //   return this;
+    // }
+    // ```
+    attachElContent: function(html) {
+      this.$el.html(html);
+
+      return this;
+    }
+  });
+
+  /* jshint maxstatements: 14 */
+
+  // Collection View
+  // ---------------
+
+  // A view that iterates over a Backbone.Collection
+  // and renders an individual child view for each model.
+  Marionette.CollectionView = Marionette.View.extend({
+
+    // used as the prefix for child view events
+    // that are forwarded through the collectionview
+    childViewEventPrefix: 'childview',
+
+    // constructor
+    // option to pass `{sort: false}` to prevent the `CollectionView` from
+    // maintaining the sorted order of the collection.
+    // This will fallback onto appending childView's to the end.
+    constructor: function(options){
+      var initOptions = options || {};
+      if (_.isUndefined(this.sort)){
+        this.sort = _.isUndefined(initOptions.sort) ? true : initOptions.sort;
+      }
+
+      this.once('render', this._initialEvents);
+      this._initChildViewStorage();
+
+      Marionette.View.apply(this, arguments);
+
+      this.initRenderBuffer();
+    },
+
+    // Instead of inserting elements one by one into the page,
+    // it's much more performant to insert elements into a document
+    // fragment and then insert that document fragment into the page
+    initRenderBuffer: function() {
+      this.elBuffer = document.createDocumentFragment();
+      this._bufferedChildren = [];
+    },
+
+    startBuffering: function() {
+      this.initRenderBuffer();
+      this.isBuffering = true;
+    },
+
+    endBuffering: function() {
+      this.isBuffering = false;
+      this._triggerBeforeShowBufferedChildren();
+      this.attachBuffer(this, this.elBuffer);
+      this._triggerShowBufferedChildren();
+      this.initRenderBuffer();
+    },
+
+    _triggerBeforeShowBufferedChildren: function() {
+      if (this._isShown) {
+        _.each(this._bufferedChildren, _.partial(this._triggerMethodOnChild, 'before:show'));
+      }
+    },
+
+    _triggerShowBufferedChildren: function() {
+      if (this._isShown) {
+        _.each(this._bufferedChildren, _.partial(this._triggerMethodOnChild, 'show'));
+
+        this._bufferedChildren = [];
+      }
+    },
+
+    // Internal method for _.each loops to call `Marionette.triggerMethodOn` on
+    // a child view
+    _triggerMethodOnChild: function(event, childView) {
+      Marionette.triggerMethodOn(childView, event);
+    },
+
+    // Configured the initial events that the collection view
+    // binds to.
+    _initialEvents: function() {
+      if (this.collection) {
+        this.listenTo(this.collection, 'add', this._onCollectionAdd);
+        this.listenTo(this.collection, 'remove', this._onCollectionRemove);
+        this.listenTo(this.collection, 'reset', this.render);
+
+        if (this.sort) {
+          this.listenTo(this.collection, 'sort', this._sortViews);
+        }
+      }
+    },
+
+    // Handle a child added to the collection
+    _onCollectionAdd: function(child) {
+      this.destroyEmptyView();
+      var ChildView = this.getChildView(child);
+      var index = this.collection.indexOf(child);
+      this.addChild(child, ChildView, index);
+    },
+
+    // get the child view by model it holds, and remove it
+    _onCollectionRemove: function(model) {
+      var view = this.children.findByModel(model);
+      this.removeChildView(view);
+      this.checkEmpty();
+    },
+
+    // Override from `Marionette.View` to trigger show on child views
+    onShowCalled: function() {
+      this.children.each(_.partial(this._triggerMethodOnChild, 'show'));
+    },
+
+    // Render children views. Override this method to
+    // provide your own implementation of a render function for
+    // the collection view.
+    render: function() {
+      this._ensureViewIsIntact();
+      this.triggerMethod('before:render', this);
+      this._renderChildren();
+      this.triggerMethod('render', this);
+      return this;
+    },
+
+    // Render view after sorting. Override this method to
+    // change how the view renders after a `sort` on the collection.
+    // An example of this would be to only `renderChildren` in a `CompositeView`
+    // rather than the full view.
+    resortView: function() {
+      this.render();
+    },
+
+    // Internal method. This checks for any changes in the order of the collection.
+    // If the index of any view doesn't match, it will render.
+    _sortViews: function() {
+      // check for any changes in sort order of views
+      var orderChanged = this.collection.find(function(item, index){
+        var view = this.children.findByModel(item);
+        return !view || view._index !== index;
+      }, this);
+
+      if (orderChanged) {
+        this.resortView();
+      }
+    },
+
+    // Internal reference to what index a `emptyView` is.
+    _emptyViewIndex: -1,
+
+    // Internal method. Separated so that CompositeView can have
+    // more control over events being triggered, around the rendering
+    // process
+    _renderChildren: function() {
+      this.destroyEmptyView();
+      this.destroyChildren();
+
+      if (this.isEmpty(this.collection)) {
+        this.showEmptyView();
+      } else {
+        this.triggerMethod('before:render:collection', this);
+        this.startBuffering();
+        this.showCollection();
+        this.endBuffering();
+        this.triggerMethod('render:collection', this);
+      }
+    },
+
+    // Internal method to loop through collection and show each child view.
+    showCollection: function() {
+      var ChildView;
+      this.collection.each(function(child, index) {
+        ChildView = this.getChildView(child);
+        this.addChild(child, ChildView, index);
+      }, this);
+    },
+
+    // Internal method to show an empty view in place of
+    // a collection of child views, when the collection is empty
+    showEmptyView: function() {
+      var EmptyView = this.getEmptyView();
+
+      if (EmptyView && !this._showingEmptyView) {
+        this.triggerMethod('before:render:empty');
+
+        this._showingEmptyView = true;
+        var model = new Backbone.Model();
+        this.addEmptyView(model, EmptyView);
+
+        this.triggerMethod('render:empty');
+      }
+    },
+
+    // Internal method to destroy an existing emptyView instance
+    // if one exists. Called when a collection view has been
+    // rendered empty, and then a child is added to the collection.
+    destroyEmptyView: function() {
+      if (this._showingEmptyView) {
+        this.triggerMethod('before:remove:empty');
+
+        this.destroyChildren();
+        delete this._showingEmptyView;
+
+        this.triggerMethod('remove:empty');
+      }
+    },
+
+    // Retrieve the empty view class
+    getEmptyView: function() {
+      return this.getOption('emptyView');
+    },
+
+    // Render and show the emptyView. Similar to addChild method
+    // but "add:child" events are not fired, and the event from
+    // emptyView are not forwarded
+    addEmptyView: function(child, EmptyView) {
+
+      // get the emptyViewOptions, falling back to childViewOptions
+      var emptyViewOptions = this.getOption('emptyViewOptions') ||
+                            this.getOption('childViewOptions');
+
+      if (_.isFunction(emptyViewOptions)){
+        emptyViewOptions = emptyViewOptions.call(this, child, this._emptyViewIndex);
+      }
+
+      // build the empty view
+      var view = this.buildChildView(child, EmptyView, emptyViewOptions);
+
+      view._parent = this;
+
+      // Proxy emptyView events
+      this.proxyChildEvents(view);
+
+      // trigger the 'before:show' event on `view` if the collection view
+      // has already been shown
+      if (this._isShown) {
+        Marionette.triggerMethodOn(view, 'before:show');
+      }
+
+      // Store the `emptyView` like a `childView` so we can properly
+      // remove and/or close it later
+      this.children.add(view);
+
+      // Render it and show it
+      this.renderChildView(view, this._emptyViewIndex);
+
+      // call the 'show' method if the collection view
+      // has already been shown
+      if (this._isShown) {
+        Marionette.triggerMethodOn(view, 'show');
+      }
+    },
+
+    // Retrieve the `childView` class, either from `this.options.childView`
+    // or from the `childView` in the object definition. The "options"
+    // takes precedence.
+    // This method receives the model that will be passed to the instance
+    // created from this `childView`. Overriding methods may use the child
+    // to determine what `childView` class to return.
+    getChildView: function(child) {
+      var childView = this.getOption('childView');
+
+      if (!childView) {
+        throw new Marionette.Error({
+          name: 'NoChildViewError',
+          message: 'A "childView" must be specified'
+        });
+      }
+
+      return childView;
+    },
+
+    // Render the child's view and add it to the
+    // HTML for the collection view at a given index.
+    // This will also update the indices of later views in the collection
+    // in order to keep the children in sync with the collection.
+    addChild: function(child, ChildView, index) {
+      var childViewOptions = this.getOption('childViewOptions');
+      childViewOptions = Marionette._getValue(childViewOptions, this, [child, index]);
+
+      var view = this.buildChildView(child, ChildView, childViewOptions);
+
+      // increment indices of views after this one
+      this._updateIndices(view, true, index);
+
+      this._addChildView(view, index);
+
+      view._parent = this;
+
+      return view;
+    },
+
+    // Internal method. This decrements or increments the indices of views after the
+    // added/removed view to keep in sync with the collection.
+    _updateIndices: function(view, increment, index) {
+      if (!this.sort) {
+        return;
+      }
+
+      if (increment) {
+        // assign the index to the view
+        view._index = index;
+      }
+
+      // update the indexes of views after this one
+      this.children.each(function (laterView) {
+        if (laterView._index >= view._index) {
+          laterView._index += increment ? 1 : -1;
+        }
+      });
+    },
+
+
+    // Internal Method. Add the view to children and render it at
+    // the given index.
+    _addChildView: function(view, index) {
+      // set up the child view event forwarding
+      this.proxyChildEvents(view);
+
+      this.triggerMethod('before:add:child', view);
+
+      // Store the child view itself so we can properly
+      // remove and/or destroy it later
+      this.children.add(view);
+      this.renderChildView(view, index);
+
+      if (this._isShown && !this.isBuffering) {
+        Marionette.triggerMethodOn(view, 'show');
+      }
+
+      this.triggerMethod('add:child', view);
+    },
+
+    // render the child view
+    renderChildView: function(view, index) {
+      view.render();
+      this.attachHtml(this, view, index);
+      return view;
+    },
+
+    // Build a `childView` for a model in the collection.
+    buildChildView: function(child, ChildViewClass, childViewOptions) {
+      var options = _.extend({model: child}, childViewOptions);
+      return new ChildViewClass(options);
+    },
+
+    // Remove the child view and destroy it.
+    // This function also updates the indices of
+    // later views in the collection in order to keep
+    // the children in sync with the collection.
+    removeChildView: function(view) {
+
+      if (view) {
+        this.triggerMethod('before:remove:child', view);
+        // call 'destroy' or 'remove', depending on which is found
+        if (view.destroy) { view.destroy(); }
+        else if (view.remove) { view.remove(); }
+
+        delete view._parent;
+        this.stopListening(view);
+        this.children.remove(view);
+        this.triggerMethod('remove:child', view);
+
+        // decrement the index of views after this one
+        this._updateIndices(view, false);
+      }
+
+      return view;
+    },
+
+    // check if the collection is empty
+    isEmpty: function() {
+      return !this.collection || this.collection.length === 0;
+    },
+
+    // If empty, show the empty view
+    checkEmpty: function() {
+      if (this.isEmpty(this.collection)) {
+        this.showEmptyView();
+      }
+    },
+
+    // You might need to override this if you've overridden attachHtml
+    attachBuffer: function(collectionView, buffer) {
+      collectionView.$el.append(buffer);
+    },
+
+    // Append the HTML to the collection's `el`.
+    // Override this method to do something other
+    // than `.append`.
+    attachHtml: function(collectionView, childView, index) {
+      if (collectionView.isBuffering) {
+        // buffering happens on reset events and initial renders
+        // in order to reduce the number of inserts into the
+        // document, which are expensive.
+        collectionView.elBuffer.appendChild(childView.el);
+        collectionView._bufferedChildren.push(childView);
+      }
+      else {
+        // If we've already rendered the main collection, append
+        // the new child into the correct order if we need to. Otherwise
+        // append to the end.
+        if (!collectionView._insertBefore(childView, index)){
+          collectionView._insertAfter(childView);
+        }
+      }
+    },
+
+    // Internal method. Check whether we need to insert the view into
+    // the correct position.
+    _insertBefore: function(childView, index) {
+      var currentView;
+      var findPosition = this.sort && (index < this.children.length - 1);
+      if (findPosition) {
+        // Find the view after this one
+        currentView = this.children.find(function (view) {
+          return view._index === index + 1;
+        });
+      }
+
+      if (currentView) {
+        currentView.$el.before(childView.el);
+        return true;
+      }
+
+      return false;
+    },
+
+    // Internal method. Append a view to the end of the $el
+    _insertAfter: function(childView) {
+      this.$el.append(childView.el);
+    },
+
+    // Internal method to set up the `children` object for
+    // storing all of the child views
+    _initChildViewStorage: function() {
+      this.children = new Backbone.ChildViewContainer();
+    },
+
+    // Handle cleanup and other destroying needs for the collection of views
+    destroy: function() {
+      if (this.isDestroyed) { return; }
+
+      this.triggerMethod('before:destroy:collection');
+      this.destroyChildren();
+      this.triggerMethod('destroy:collection');
+
+      return Marionette.View.prototype.destroy.apply(this, arguments);
+    },
+
+    // Destroy the child views that this collection view
+    // is holding on to, if any
+    destroyChildren: function() {
+      var childViews = this.children.map(_.identity);
+      this.children.each(this.removeChildView, this);
+      this.checkEmpty();
+      return childViews;
+    },
+
+    // Set up the child view event forwarding. Uses a "childview:"
+    // prefix in front of all forwarded events.
+    proxyChildEvents: function(view) {
+      var prefix = this.getOption('childViewEventPrefix');
+
+      // Forward all child view events through the parent,
+      // prepending "childview:" to the event name
+      this.listenTo(view, 'all', function() {
+        var args = _.toArray(arguments);
+        var rootEvent = args[0];
+        var childEvents = this.normalizeMethods(_.result(this, 'childEvents'));
+
+        args[0] = prefix + ':' + rootEvent;
+        args.splice(1, 0, view);
+
+        // call collectionView childEvent if defined
+        if (typeof childEvents !== 'undefined' && _.isFunction(childEvents[rootEvent])) {
+          childEvents[rootEvent].apply(this, args.slice(1));
+        }
+
+        this.triggerMethod.apply(this, args);
+      }, this);
+    },
+
+    _getImmediateChildren: function() {
+      return _.values(this.children._views);
+    }
+  });
+
+  /* jshint maxstatements: 17, maxlen: 117 */
+
+  // Composite View
+  // --------------
+
+  // Used for rendering a branch-leaf, hierarchical structure.
+  // Extends directly from CollectionView and also renders an
+  // a child view as `modelView`, for the top leaf
+  Marionette.CompositeView = Marionette.CollectionView.extend({
+
+    // Setting up the inheritance chain which allows changes to
+    // Marionette.CollectionView.prototype.constructor which allows overriding
+    // option to pass '{sort: false}' to prevent the CompositeView from
+    // maintaining the sorted order of the collection.
+    // This will fallback onto appending childView's to the end.
+    constructor: function() {
+      Marionette.CollectionView.apply(this, arguments);
+    },
+
+    // Configured the initial events that the composite view
+    // binds to. Override this method to prevent the initial
+    // events, or to add your own initial events.
+    _initialEvents: function() {
+
+      // Bind only after composite view is rendered to avoid adding child views
+      // to nonexistent childViewContainer
+
+      if (this.collection) {
+        this.listenTo(this.collection, 'add', this._onCollectionAdd);
+        this.listenTo(this.collection, 'remove', this._onCollectionRemove);
+        this.listenTo(this.collection, 'reset', this._renderChildren);
+
+        if (this.sort) {
+          this.listenTo(this.collection, 'sort', this._sortViews);
+        }
+      }
+    },
+
+    // Retrieve the `childView` to be used when rendering each of
+    // the items in the collection. The default is to return
+    // `this.childView` or Marionette.CompositeView if no `childView`
+    // has been defined
+    getChildView: function(child) {
+      var childView = this.getOption('childView') || this.constructor;
+
+      return childView;
+    },
+
+    // Serialize the model for the view.
+    // You can override the `serializeData` method in your own view
+    // definition, to provide custom serialization for your view's data.
+    serializeData: function() {
+      var data = {};
+
+      if (this.model){
+        data = _.partial(this.serializeModel, this.model).apply(this, arguments);
+      }
+
+      return data;
+    },
+
+    // Renders the model and the collection.
+    render: function() {
+      this._ensureViewIsIntact();
+      this.isRendered = true;
+      this.resetChildViewContainer();
+
+      this.triggerMethod('before:render', this);
+
+      this._renderTemplate();
+      this._renderChildren();
+
+      this.triggerMethod('render', this);
+      return this;
+    },
+
+    _renderChildren: function() {
+      if (this.isRendered) {
+        Marionette.CollectionView.prototype._renderChildren.call(this);
+      }
+    },
+
+    // Render the root template that the children
+    // views are appended to
+    _renderTemplate: function() {
+      var data = {};
+      data = this.serializeData();
+      data = this.mixinTemplateHelpers(data);
+
+      this.triggerMethod('before:render:template');
+
+      var template = this.getTemplate();
+      var html = Marionette.Renderer.render(template, data, this);
+      this.attachElContent(html);
+
+      // the ui bindings is done here and not at the end of render since they
+      // will not be available until after the model is rendered, but should be
+      // available before the collection is rendered.
+      this.bindUIElements();
+      this.triggerMethod('render:template');
+    },
+
+    // Attaches the content of the root.
+    // This method can be overridden to optimize rendering,
+    // or to render in a non standard way.
+    //
+    // For example, using `innerHTML` instead of `$el.html`
+    //
+    // ```js
+    // attachElContent: function(html) {
+    //   this.el.innerHTML = html;
+    //   return this;
+    // }
+    // ```
+    attachElContent: function(html) {
+      this.$el.html(html);
+
+      return this;
+    },
+
+    // You might need to override this if you've overridden attachHtml
+    attachBuffer: function(compositeView, buffer) {
+      var $container = this.getChildViewContainer(compositeView);
+      $container.append(buffer);
+    },
+
+    // Internal method. Append a view to the end of the $el.
+    // Overidden from CollectionView to ensure view is appended to
+    // childViewContainer
+    _insertAfter: function (childView) {
+      var $container = this.getChildViewContainer(this, childView);
+      $container.append(childView.el);
+    },
+
+    // Internal method to ensure an `$childViewContainer` exists, for the
+    // `attachHtml` method to use.
+    getChildViewContainer: function(containerView, childView) {
+      if ('$childViewContainer' in containerView) {
+        return containerView.$childViewContainer;
+      }
+
+      var container;
+      var childViewContainer = Marionette.getOption(containerView, 'childViewContainer');
+      if (childViewContainer) {
+
+        var selector = Marionette._getValue(childViewContainer, containerView);
+
+        if (selector.charAt(0) === '@' && containerView.ui) {
+          container = containerView.ui[selector.substr(4)];
+        } else {
+          container = containerView.$(selector);
+        }
+
+        if (container.length <= 0) {
+          throw new Marionette.Error({
+            name: 'ChildViewContainerMissingError',
+            message: 'The specified "childViewContainer" was not found: ' + containerView.childViewContainer
+          });
+        }
+
+      } else {
+        container = containerView.$el;
+      }
+
+      containerView.$childViewContainer = container;
+      return container;
+    },
+
+    // Internal method to reset the `$childViewContainer` on render
+    resetChildViewContainer: function() {
+      if (this.$childViewContainer) {
+        delete this.$childViewContainer;
+      }
+    }
+  });
+
+  // Layout View
+  // -----------
+
+  // Used for managing application layoutViews, nested layoutViews and
+  // multiple regions within an application or sub-application.
+  //
+  // A specialized view class that renders an area of HTML and then
+  // attaches `Region` instances to the specified `regions`.
+  // Used for composite view management and sub-application areas.
+  Marionette.LayoutView = Marionette.ItemView.extend({
+    regionClass: Marionette.Region,
+
+    // Ensure the regions are available when the `initialize` method
+    // is called.
+    constructor: function(options) {
+      options = options || {};
+
+      this._firstRender = true;
+      this._initializeRegions(options);
+
+      Marionette.ItemView.call(this, options);
+    },
+
+    // LayoutView's render will use the existing region objects the
+    // first time it is called. Subsequent calls will destroy the
+    // views that the regions are showing and then reset the `el`
+    // for the regions to the newly rendered DOM elements.
+    render: function() {
+      this._ensureViewIsIntact();
+
+      if (this._firstRender) {
+        // if this is the first render, don't do anything to
+        // reset the regions
+        this._firstRender = false;
+      } else {
+        // If this is not the first render call, then we need to
+        // re-initialize the `el` for each region
+        this._reInitializeRegions();
+      }
+
+      return Marionette.ItemView.prototype.render.apply(this, arguments);
+    },
+
+    // Handle destroying regions, and then destroy the view itself.
+    destroy: function() {
+      if (this.isDestroyed) { return this; }
+
+      this.regionManager.destroy();
+      return Marionette.ItemView.prototype.destroy.apply(this, arguments);
+    },
+
+    // Add a single region, by name, to the layoutView
+    addRegion: function(name, definition) {
+      var regions = {};
+      regions[name] = definition;
+      return this._buildRegions(regions)[name];
+    },
+
+    // Add multiple regions as a {name: definition, name2: def2} object literal
+    addRegions: function(regions) {
+      this.regions = _.extend({}, this.regions, regions);
+      return this._buildRegions(regions);
+    },
+
+    // Remove a single region from the LayoutView, by name
+    removeRegion: function(name) {
+      delete this.regions[name];
+      return this.regionManager.removeRegion(name);
+    },
+
+    // Provides alternative access to regions
+    // Accepts the region name
+    // getRegion('main')
+    getRegion: function(region) {
+      return this.regionManager.get(region);
+    },
+
+    // Get all regions
+    getRegions: function(){
+      return this.regionManager.getRegions();
+    },
+
+    // internal method to build regions
+    _buildRegions: function(regions) {
+      var defaults = {
+        regionClass: this.getOption('regionClass'),
+        parentEl: _.partial(_.result, this, 'el')
+      };
+
+      return this.regionManager.addRegions(regions, defaults);
+    },
+
+    // Internal method to initialize the regions that have been defined in a
+    // `regions` attribute on this layoutView.
+    _initializeRegions: function(options) {
+      var regions;
+      this._initRegionManager();
+
+      regions = Marionette._getValue(this.regions, this, [options]) || {};
+
+      // Enable users to define `regions` as instance options.
+      var regionOptions = this.getOption.call(options, 'regions');
+
+      // enable region options to be a function
+      regionOptions = Marionette._getValue(regionOptions, this, [options]);
+
+      _.extend(regions, regionOptions);
+
+      // Normalize region selectors hash to allow
+      // a user to use the @ui. syntax.
+      regions = this.normalizeUIValues(regions);
+
+      this.addRegions(regions);
+    },
+
+    // Internal method to re-initialize all of the regions by updating the `el` that
+    // they point to
+    _reInitializeRegions: function() {
+      this.regionManager.invoke('reset');
+    },
+
+    // Enable easy overriding of the default `RegionManager`
+    // for customized region interactions and business specific
+    // view logic for better control over single regions.
+    getRegionManager: function() {
+      return new Marionette.RegionManager();
+    },
+
+    // Internal method to initialize the region manager
+    // and all regions in it
+    _initRegionManager: function() {
+      this.regionManager = this.getRegionManager();
+      this.regionManager._parent = this;
+
+      this.listenTo(this.regionManager, 'before:add:region', function(name) {
+        this.triggerMethod('before:add:region', name);
+      });
+
+      this.listenTo(this.regionManager, 'add:region', function(name, region) {
+        this[name] = region;
+        this.triggerMethod('add:region', name, region);
+      });
+
+      this.listenTo(this.regionManager, 'before:remove:region', function(name) {
+        this.triggerMethod('before:remove:region', name);
+      });
+
+      this.listenTo(this.regionManager, 'remove:region', function(name, region) {
+        delete this[name];
+        this.triggerMethod('remove:region', name, region);
+      });
+    },
+
+    _getImmediateChildren: function() {
+      return _.chain(this.regionManager.getRegions())
+        .pluck('currentView')
+        .compact()
+        .value();
+    }
+  });
+
+
+  // Behavior
+  // --------
+
+  // A Behavior is an isolated set of DOM /
+  // user interactions that can be mixed into any View.
+  // Behaviors allow you to blackbox View specific interactions
+  // into portable logical chunks, keeping your views simple and your code DRY.
+
+  Marionette.Behavior = Marionette.Object.extend({
+    constructor: function(options, view) {
+      // Setup reference to the view.
+      // this comes in handle when a behavior
+      // wants to directly talk up the chain
+      // to the view.
+      this.view = view;
+      this.defaults = _.result(this, 'defaults') || {};
+      this.options  = _.extend({}, this.defaults, options);
+
+      Marionette.Object.apply(this, arguments);
+    },
+
+    // proxy behavior $ method to the view
+    // this is useful for doing jquery DOM lookups
+    // scoped to behaviors view.
+    $: function() {
+      return this.view.$.apply(this.view, arguments);
+    },
+
+    // Stops the behavior from listening to events.
+    // Overrides Object#destroy to prevent additional events from being triggered.
+    destroy: function() {
+      this.stopListening();
+    },
+
+    proxyViewProperties: function (view) {
+      this.$el = view.$el;
+      this.el = view.el;
+    }
+  });
+
+  /* jshint maxlen: 143 */
+  // Behaviors
+  // ---------
+
+  // Behaviors is a utility class that takes care of
+  // gluing your behavior instances to their given View.
+  // The most important part of this class is that you
+  // **MUST** override the class level behaviorsLookup
+  // method for things to work properly.
+
+  Marionette.Behaviors = (function(Marionette, _) {
+    // Borrow event splitter from Backbone
+    var delegateEventSplitter = /^(\S+)\s*(.*)$/;
+
+    function Behaviors(view, behaviors) {
+
+      if (!_.isObject(view.behaviors)) {
+        return {};
+      }
+
+      // Behaviors defined on a view can be a flat object literal
+      // or it can be a function that returns an object.
+      behaviors = Behaviors.parseBehaviors(view, behaviors || _.result(view, 'behaviors'));
+
+      // Wraps several of the view's methods
+      // calling the methods first on each behavior
+      // and then eventually calling the method on the view.
+      Behaviors.wrap(view, behaviors, _.keys(methods));
+      return behaviors;
+    }
+
+    var methods = {
+      behaviorTriggers: function(behaviorTriggers, behaviors) {
+        var triggerBuilder = new BehaviorTriggersBuilder(this, behaviors);
+        return triggerBuilder.buildBehaviorTriggers();
+      },
+
+      behaviorEvents: function(behaviorEvents, behaviors) {
+        var _behaviorsEvents = {};
+        var viewUI = this._uiBindings || _.result(this, 'ui');
+
+        _.each(behaviors, function(b, i) {
+          var _events = {};
+          var behaviorEvents = _.clone(_.result(b, 'events')) || {};
+          var behaviorUI = b._uiBindings || _.result(b, 'ui');
+
+          // Construct an internal UI hash first using
+          // the views UI hash and then the behaviors UI hash.
+          // This allows the user to use UI hash elements
+          // defined in the parent view as well as those
+          // defined in the given behavior.
+          var ui = _.extend({}, viewUI, behaviorUI);
+
+          // Normalize behavior events hash to allow
+          // a user to use the @ui. syntax.
+          behaviorEvents = Marionette.normalizeUIKeys(behaviorEvents, ui);
+
+          var j = 0;
+          _.each(behaviorEvents, function(behaviour, key) {
+            var match     = key.match(delegateEventSplitter);
+
+            // Set event name to be namespaced using the view cid,
+            // the behavior index, and the behavior event index
+            // to generate a non colliding event namespace
+            // http://api.jquery.com/event.namespace/
+            var eventName = match[1] + '.' + [this.cid, i, j++, ' '].join(''),
+                selector  = match[2];
+
+            var eventKey  = eventName + selector;
+            var handler   = _.isFunction(behaviour) ? behaviour : b[behaviour];
+
+            _events[eventKey] = _.bind(handler, b);
+          }, this);
+
+          _behaviorsEvents = _.extend(_behaviorsEvents, _events);
+        }, this);
+
+        return _behaviorsEvents;
+      }
+    };
+
+    _.extend(Behaviors, {
+
+      // Placeholder method to be extended by the user.
+      // The method should define the object that stores the behaviors.
+      // i.e.
+      //
+      // ```js
+      // Marionette.Behaviors.behaviorsLookup: function() {
+      //   return App.Behaviors
+      // }
+      // ```
+      behaviorsLookup: function() {
+        throw new Marionette.Error({
+          message: 'You must define where your behaviors are stored.',
+          url: 'marionette.behaviors.html#behaviorslookup'
+        });
+      },
+
+      // Takes care of getting the behavior class
+      // given options and a key.
+      // If a user passes in options.behaviorClass
+      // default to using that. Otherwise delegate
+      // the lookup to the users `behaviorsLookup` implementation.
+      getBehaviorClass: function(options, key) {
+        if (options.behaviorClass) {
+          return options.behaviorClass;
+        }
+
+        // Get behavior class can be either a flat object or a method
+        return Marionette._getValue(Behaviors.behaviorsLookup, this, [options, key])[key];
+      },
+
+      // Iterate over the behaviors object, for each behavior
+      // instantiate it and get its grouped behaviors.
+      parseBehaviors: function(view, behaviors) {
+        return _.chain(behaviors).map(function(options, key) {
+          var BehaviorClass = Behaviors.getBehaviorClass(options, key);
+
+          var behavior = new BehaviorClass(options, view);
+          var nestedBehaviors = Behaviors.parseBehaviors(view, _.result(behavior, 'behaviors'));
+
+          return [behavior].concat(nestedBehaviors);
+        }).flatten().value();
+      },
+
+      // Wrap view internal methods so that they delegate to behaviors. For example,
+      // `onDestroy` should trigger destroy on all of the behaviors and then destroy itself.
+      // i.e.
+      //
+      // `view.delegateEvents = _.partial(methods.delegateEvents, view.delegateEvents, behaviors);`
+      wrap: function(view, behaviors, methodNames) {
+        _.each(methodNames, function(methodName) {
+          view[methodName] = _.partial(methods[methodName], view[methodName], behaviors);
+        });
+      }
+    });
+
+    // Class to build handlers for `triggers` on behaviors
+    // for views
+    function BehaviorTriggersBuilder(view, behaviors) {
+      this._view      = view;
+      this._viewUI    = _.result(view, 'ui');
+      this._behaviors = behaviors;
+      this._triggers  = {};
+    }
+
+    _.extend(BehaviorTriggersBuilder.prototype, {
+      // Main method to build the triggers hash with event keys and handlers
+      buildBehaviorTriggers: function() {
+        _.each(this._behaviors, this._buildTriggerHandlersForBehavior, this);
+        return this._triggers;
+      },
+
+      // Internal method to build all trigger handlers for a given behavior
+      _buildTriggerHandlersForBehavior: function(behavior, i) {
+        var ui = _.extend({}, this._viewUI, _.result(behavior, 'ui'));
+        var triggersHash = _.clone(_.result(behavior, 'triggers')) || {};
+
+        triggersHash = Marionette.normalizeUIKeys(triggersHash, ui);
+
+        _.each(triggersHash, _.bind(this._setHandlerForBehavior, this, behavior, i));
+      },
+
+      // Internal method to create and assign the trigger handler for a given
+      // behavior
+      _setHandlerForBehavior: function(behavior, i, eventName, trigger) {
+        // Unique identifier for the `this._triggers` hash
+        var triggerKey = trigger.replace(/^\S+/, function(triggerName) {
+          return triggerName + '.' + 'behaviortriggers' + i;
+        });
+
+        this._triggers[triggerKey] = this._view._buildViewTrigger(eventName);
+      }
+    });
+
+    return Behaviors;
+
+  })(Marionette, _);
+
+
+  // App Router
+  // ----------
+
+  // Reduce the boilerplate code of handling route events
+  // and then calling a single method on another object.
+  // Have your routers configured to call the method on
+  // your object, directly.
+  //
+  // Configure an AppRouter with `appRoutes`.
+  //
+  // App routers can only take one `controller` object.
+  // It is recommended that you divide your controller
+  // objects in to smaller pieces of related functionality
+  // and have multiple routers / controllers, instead of
+  // just one giant router and controller.
+  //
+  // You can also add standard routes to an AppRouter.
+
+  Marionette.AppRouter = Backbone.Router.extend({
+
+    constructor: function(options) {
+      this.options = options || {};
+
+      Backbone.Router.apply(this, arguments);
+
+      var appRoutes = this.getOption('appRoutes');
+      var controller = this._getController();
+      this.processAppRoutes(controller, appRoutes);
+      this.on('route', this._processOnRoute, this);
+    },
+
+    // Similar to route method on a Backbone Router but
+    // method is called on the controller
+    appRoute: function(route, methodName) {
+      var controller = this._getController();
+      this._addAppRoute(controller, route, methodName);
+    },
+
+    // process the route event and trigger the onRoute
+    // method call, if it exists
+    _processOnRoute: function(routeName, routeArgs) {
+      // make sure an onRoute before trying to call it
+      if (_.isFunction(this.onRoute)) {
+        // find the path that matches the current route
+        var routePath = _.invert(this.getOption('appRoutes'))[routeName];
+        this.onRoute(routeName, routePath, routeArgs);
+      }
+    },
+
+    // Internal method to process th

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