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From clebertsuco...@apache.org
Subject svn commit: r1018163 [20/45] - in /websites/production/activemq/content/artemis/docs: 2.2.0/ latest/ latest/diagrams/ latest/gitbook/ latest/gitbook/fonts/ latest/gitbook/fonts/fontawesome/ latest/gitbook/gitbook-plugin-fontsettings/ latest/gitbook/git...
Date Thu, 14 Sep 2017 19:48:13 GMT
Added: websites/production/activemq/content/artemis/docs/latest/ha.html
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--- websites/production/activemq/content/artemis/docs/latest/ha.html (added)
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+                    Last-Value Queues
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+            
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+            
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+                    The JMS Bridge
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+        <li class="chapter " data-level="1.43" data-path="client-reconnection.html">
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+            
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+            
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+            
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+            
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+                    High Availability and Failover
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+            
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+            
+                    
+                    Graceful Server Shutdown
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+            
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+                    REST Interface
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+    
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+            
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+    
+        <li class="chapter " data-level="1.65" data-path="updating-artemis.html">
+            
+                <a href="updating-artemis.html">
+            
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+                    Updating Artemis
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+        <i class="fa fa-circle-o-notch fa-spin"></i>
+        <a href="." >High Availability and Failover</a>
+    </h1>
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+                                
+                                <h1 id="high-availability-and-failover">High Availability and Failover</h1>
+<p>We define high availability as the <em>ability for the system to continue
+functioning after failure of one or more of the servers</em>.</p>
+<p>A part of high availability is <em>failover</em> which we define as the
+<em>ability for client connections to migrate from one server to another in
+event of server failure so client applications can continue to operate</em>.</p>
+<h2 id="live---backup-groups">Live - Backup Groups</h2>
+<p>Apache ActiveMQ Artemis allows servers to be linked together as <em>live - backup</em> groups
+where each live server can have 1 or more backup servers. A backup
+server is owned by only one live server. Backup servers are not
+operational until failover occurs, however 1 chosen backup, which will
+be in passive mode, announces its status and waits to take over the live
+servers work</p>
+<p>Before failover, only the live server is serving the Apache ActiveMQ Artemis clients
+while the backup servers remain passive or awaiting to become a backup
+server. When a live server crashes or is brought down in the correct
+mode, the backup server currently in passive mode will become live and
+another backup server will become passive. If a live server restarts
+after a failover then it will have priority and be the next server to
+become live when the current live server goes down, if the current live
+server is configured to allow automatic failback then it will detect the
+live server coming back up and automatically stop.</p>
+<h3 id="ha-policies">HA Policies</h3>
+<p>Apache ActiveMQ Artemis supports two different strategies for backing up a server
+<em>shared store</em> and <em>replication</em>. Which is configured via the
+<code>ha-policy</code> configuration element.</p>
+<pre><code>&lt;ha-policy&gt;
+  &lt;replication/&gt;
+&lt;/ha-policy&gt;
+</code></pre><p>or</p>
+<pre><code>&lt;ha-policy&gt;
+   &lt;shared-store/&gt;
+&lt;/ha-policy&gt;
+</code></pre><p>As well as these 2 strategies there is also a 3rd called <code>live-only</code>.
+This of course means there will be no Backup Strategy and is the default
+if none is provided, however this is used to configure <code>scale-down</code>
+which we will cover in a later chapter.</p>
+<blockquote>
+<p><strong>Note</strong></p>
+<p>The <code>ha-policy</code> configurations replaces any current HA configuration
+in the root of the <code>broker.xml</code> configuration. All old
+configuration is now deprecated although best efforts will be made to
+honour it if configured this way.</p>
+<p><strong>Note</strong></p>
+<p>Only persistent message data will survive failover. Any non persistent
+message data will not be available after failover.</p>
+</blockquote>
+<p>The <code>ha-policy</code> type configures which strategy a cluster should use to
+provide the backing up of a servers data. Within this configuration
+element is configured how a server should behave within the cluster,
+either as a master (live), slave (backup) or colocated (both live and
+backup). This would look something like:</p>
+<pre><code>&lt;ha-policy&gt;
+   &lt;replication&gt;
+      &lt;master/&gt;
+   &lt;/replication&gt;
+&lt;/ha-policy&gt;
+</code></pre><p>or</p>
+<pre><code>&lt;ha-policy&gt;
+   &lt;shared-store/&gt;
+      &lt;slave/&gt;
+   &lt;/shared-store/&gt;
+&lt;/ha-policy&gt;
+</code></pre><p>or</p>
+<pre><code>&lt;ha-policy&gt;
+   &lt;replication&gt;
+      &lt;colocated/&gt;
+   &lt;/replication&gt;
+&lt;/ha-policy&gt;
+</code></pre><h3 id="data-replication">Data Replication</h3>
+<p>When using replication, the live and the backup servers do not share the
+same data directories, all data synchronization is done over the
+network. Therefore all (persistent) data received by the live server
+will be duplicated to the backup.</p>
+<p>Notice that upon start-up the backup server will first need to
+synchronize all existing data from the live server before becoming
+capable of replacing the live server should it fail. So unlike when
+using shared storage, a replicating backup will not be a fully
+operational backup right after start-up, but only after it finishes
+synchronizing the data with its live server. The time it will take for
+this to happen will depend on the amount of data to be synchronized and
+the connection speed.</p>
+<blockquote>
+<p><strong>Note</strong></p>
+<p>In general, synchronization occurs in parallel with current network traffic so
+this won&apos;t cause any blocking on current clients. However, there is a critical
+moment at the end of this process where the replicating server must complete
+the synchronization and ensure the replica acknowledges this completion. This
+exchange between the replicating server and replica will block any journal
+related operations. The maximum length of time that this exchange will block
+is controlled by the <code>initial-replication-sync-timeout</code> configuration element.</p>
+</blockquote>
+<p>Replication will create a copy of the data at the backup. One issue to
+be aware of is: in case of a successful fail-over, the backup&apos;s data
+will be newer than the one at the live&apos;s storage. If you configure your
+live server to perform a failback to live server when restarted, it will synchronize its data
+with the backup&apos;s. If both servers are shutdown, the administrator will
+have to determine which one has the latest data.</p>
+<p>The replicating live and backup pair must be part of a cluster. The
+Cluster Connection also defines how backup servers will find the remote
+live servers to pair with. Refer to <a href="clusters.html">Clusters</a> for details on how this is done,
+and how to configure a cluster connection. Notice that:</p>
+<ul>
+<li><p>Both live and backup servers must be part of the same cluster.
+Notice that even a simple live/backup replicating pair will require
+a cluster configuration.</p>
+</li>
+<li><p>Their cluster user and password must match.</p>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>Within a cluster, there are two ways that a backup server will locate a
+live server to replicate from, these are:</p>
+<ul>
+<li><p><code>specifying a node group</code>. You can specify a group of live servers
+that a backup server can connect to. This is done by configuring
+<code>group-name</code> in either the <code>master</code> or the <code>slave</code> element of the
+<code>broker.xml</code>. A Backup server will only connect to a
+live server that shares the same node group name</p>
+</li>
+<li><p><code>connecting to any live</code>. This will be the behaviour if <code>group-name</code>
+is not configured allowing a backup server to connect to any live
+server</p>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<blockquote>
+<p><strong>Note</strong></p>
+<p>A <code>group-name</code> example: suppose you have 5 live servers and 6 backup
+servers:</p>
+<ul>
+<li><p><code>live1</code>, <code>live2</code>, <code>live3</code>: with <code>group-name=fish</code></p>
+</li>
+<li><p><code>live4</code>, <code>live5</code>: with <code>group-name=bird</code></p>
+</li>
+<li><p><code>backup1</code>, <code>backup2</code>, <code>backup3</code>, <code>backup4</code>: with <code>group-name=fish</code></p>
+</li>
+<li><p><code>backup5</code>, <code>backup6</code>: with <code>group-name=bird</code></p>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>After joining the cluster the backups with <code>group-name=fish</code> will
+search for live servers with <code>group-name=fish</code> to pair with. Since
+there is one backup too many, the <code>fish</code> will remain with one spare
+backup.</p>
+<p>The 2 backups with <code>group-name=bird</code> (<code>backup5</code> and <code>backup6</code>) will
+pair with live servers <code>live4</code> and <code>live5</code>.</p>
+</blockquote>
+<p>The backup will search for any live server that it is configured to
+connect to. It then tries to replicate with each live server in turn
+until it finds a live server that has no current backup configured. If
+no live server is available it will wait until the cluster topology
+changes and repeats the process.</p>
+<blockquote>
+<p><strong>Note</strong></p>
+<p>This is an important distinction from a shared-store backup, if a
+backup starts and does not find a live server, the server will just
+activate and start to serve client requests. In the replication case,
+the backup just keeps waiting for a live server to pair with. Note
+that in replication the backup server does not know whether any data
+it might have is up to date, so it really cannot decide to activate
+automatically. To activate a replicating backup server using the data
+it has, the administrator must change its configuration to make it a
+live server by changing <code>slave</code> to <code>master</code>.</p>
+</blockquote>
+<p>Much like in the shared-store case, when the live server stops or
+crashes, its replicating backup will become active and take over its
+duties. Specifically, the backup will become active when it loses
+connection to its live server. This can be problematic because this can
+also happen because of a temporary network problem. In order to address
+this issue, the backup will try to determine whether it still can
+connect to the other servers in the cluster. If it can connect to more
+than half the servers, it will become active, if more than half the
+servers also disappeared with the live, the backup will wait and try
+reconnecting with the live. This avoids a split brain situation.</p>
+<h4 id="configuration">Configuration</h4>
+<p>To configure the live and backup servers to be a replicating pair,
+configure the live server in &apos; <code>broker.xml</code> to have:</p>
+<pre><code>&lt;ha-policy&gt;
+   &lt;replication&gt;
+      &lt;master/&gt;
+   &lt;/replication&gt;
+&lt;/ha-policy&gt;
+.
+&lt;cluster-connections&gt;
+   &lt;cluster-connection name=&quot;my-cluster&quot;&gt;
+      ...
+   &lt;/cluster-connection&gt;
+&lt;/cluster-connections&gt;
+</code></pre><p>The backup server must be similarly configured but as a <code>slave</code></p>
+<pre><code>&lt;ha-policy&gt;
+   &lt;replication&gt;
+      &lt;slave/&gt;
+   &lt;/replication&gt;
+&lt;/ha-policy&gt;
+</code></pre><h4 id="all-replication-configuration">All Replication Configuration</h4>
+<p>The following table lists all the <code>ha-policy</code> configuration elements for
+HA strategy Replication for <code>master</code>:</p>
+<table summary="HA Replication Master Policy" border="1">
+    <colgroup>
+        <col>
+        <col>
+    </colgroup>
+    <thead>
+    <tr>
+        <th>Name</th>
+        <th>Description</th>
+    </tr>
+    </thead>
+    <tbody>
+    <tr>
+        <td>`check-for-live-server`</td>
+        <td>Whether to check the cluster for a (live) server using our own server ID
+        when starting up. This option is only necessary for performing &apos;fail-back&apos;
+        on replicating servers.</td>
+    </tr>
+    <tr>
+        <td>`cluster-name`</td>
+        <td>Name of the cluster configuration to use for replication. This setting is
+        only necessary if you configure multiple cluster connections. If configured then
+        the connector configuration of the cluster configuration with this name will be
+        used when connecting to the cluster to discover if a live server is already running,
+        see `check-for-live-server`. If unset then the default cluster connections configuration
+        is used (the first one configured).</td>
+    </tr>
+    <tr>
+        <td>`group-name`</td>
+        <td>If set, backup servers will only pair with live servers with matching group-name.</td>
+    </tr>
+    <tr>
+        <td>`initial-replication-sync-timeout`</td>
+        <td>The amount of time the replicating server will wait at the completion of the initial
+        replication process for the replica to acknowledge it has received all the necessary
+        data. The default is 30,000 milliseconds. <strong>Note</strong>: during this interval any
+        journal related operations will be blocked.</td>
+    </tr>
+    </tbody>
+</table>
+
+<p>The following table lists all the <code>ha-policy</code> configuration elements for
+HA strategy Replication for <code>slave</code>:</p>
+<table summary="HA Replication Slave Policy" border="1">
+    <colgroup>
+        <col>
+        <col>
+    </colgroup>
+    <thead>
+    <tr>
+        <th>Name</th>
+        <th>Description</th>
+    </tr>
+    </thead>
+    <tbody>
+    <tr>
+        <td>`cluster-name`</td>
+        <td>Name of the cluster configuration to use for replication.
+        This setting is only necessary if you configure multiple cluster
+        connections. If configured then the connector configuration of
+        the cluster configuration with this name will be used when
+        connecting to the cluster to discover if a live server is already
+        running, see `check-for-live-server`. If unset then the default
+        cluster connections configuration is used (the first one configured)</td>
+    </tr>
+    <tr>
+        <td>`group-name`</td>
+        <td>If set, backup servers will only pair with live servers with matching group-name</td>
+    </tr>
+    <tr>
+        <td>`max-saved-replicated-journals-size`</td>
+        <td>This specifies how many times a replicated backup server
+        can restart after moving its files on start. Once there are
+        this number of backup journal files the server will stop permanently
+        after if fails back.</td>
+    </tr>
+    <tr>
+        <td>`allow-failback`</td>
+        <td>Whether a server will automatically stop when a another places a
+        request to take over its place. The use case is when the backup has
+        failed over</td>
+    </tr>
+    <tr>
+        <td>`initial-replication-sync-timeout`</td>
+        <td>After failover and the slave has become live, this is
+        set on the new live server. It represents the amount of time
+        the replicating server will wait at the completion of the
+        initial replication process for the replica to acknowledge
+        it has received all the necessary data. The default is
+        30,000 milliseconds. <strong>Note</strong>: during this interval any
+        journal related operations will be blocked.</td>
+    </tr>
+    </tbody>
+</table>
+
+<h3 id="shared-store">Shared Store</h3>
+<p>When using a shared store, both live and backup servers share the <em>same</em>
+entire data directory using a shared file system. This means the paging
+directory, journal directory, large messages and binding journal.</p>
+<p>When failover occurs and a backup server takes over, it will load the
+persistent storage from the shared file system and clients can connect
+to it.</p>
+<p>This style of high availability differs from data replication in that it
+requires a shared file system which is accessible by both the live and
+backup nodes. Typically this will be some kind of high performance
+Storage Area Network (SAN). We do not recommend you use Network Attached
+Storage (NAS), e.g. NFS mounts to store any shared journal (NFS is
+slow).</p>
+<p>The advantage of shared-store high availability is that no replication
+occurs between the live and backup nodes, this means it does not suffer
+any performance penalties due to the overhead of replication during
+normal operation.</p>
+<p>The disadvantage of shared store replication is that it requires a
+shared file system, and when the backup server activates it needs to
+load the journal from the shared store which can take some time
+depending on the amount of data in the store.</p>
+<p>If you require the highest performance during normal operation, have
+access to a fast SAN and live with a slightly slower failover (depending
+on amount of data).</p>
+<p><img src="images/ha-shared-store.png" alt="ActiveMQ Artemis ha-shared-store.png"></p>
+<h4 id="configuration">Configuration</h4>
+<p>To configure the live and backup servers to share their store, configure
+id via the <code>ha-policy</code> configuration in <code>broker.xml</code>:</p>
+<pre><code>&lt;ha-policy&gt;
+   &lt;shared-store&gt;
+      &lt;master/&gt;
+   &lt;/shared-store&gt;
+&lt;/ha-policy&gt;
+.
+&lt;cluster-connections&gt;
+   &lt;cluster-connection name=&quot;my-cluster&quot;&gt;
+...
+   &lt;/cluster-connection&gt;
+&lt;/cluster-connections&gt;
+</code></pre><p>The backup server must also be configured as a backup.</p>
+<pre><code>&lt;ha-policy&gt;
+   &lt;shared-store&gt;
+      &lt;slave/&gt;
+   &lt;/shared-store&gt;
+&lt;/ha-policy&gt;
+</code></pre><p>In order for live - backup groups to operate properly with a shared
+store, both servers must have configured the location of journal
+directory to point to the <em>same shared location</em> (as explained in <a href="persistence.html">Configuring the message journal</a>)</p>
+<blockquote>
+<p><strong>Note</strong></p>
+<p>todo write something about GFS</p>
+</blockquote>
+<p>Also each node, live and backups, will need to have a cluster connection
+defined even if not part of a cluster. The Cluster Connection info
+defines how backup servers announce there presence to its live server or
+any other nodes in the cluster. Refer to <a href="clusters.html">Clusters</a> for details on how this is
+done.</p>
+<h3 id="failing-back-to-live-server">Failing Back to live Server</h3>
+<p>After a live server has failed and a backup taken has taken over its
+duties, you may want to restart the live server and have clients fail
+back.</p>
+<p>In case of &quot;shared disk&quot;, simply restart the original live server and
+kill the new live server by can do this by killing the process itself.
+Alternatively you can set <code>allow-fail-back</code> to <code>true</code> on the slave
+config which will force the backup that has become live to automatically
+stop. This configuration would look like:</p>
+<pre><code>&lt;ha-policy&gt;
+   &lt;shared-store&gt;
+      &lt;slave&gt;
+         &lt;allow-failback&gt;true&lt;/allow-failback&gt;
+      &lt;/slave&gt;
+   &lt;/shared-store&gt;
+&lt;/ha-policy&gt;
+</code></pre><p>In replication HA mode you need to set an extra property
+<code>check-for-live-server</code> to <code>true</code> in the <code>master</code> configuration. If set
+to true, during start-up a live server will first search the cluster for
+another server using its nodeID. If it finds one, it will contact this
+server and try to &quot;fail-back&quot;. Since this is a remote replication
+scenario, the &quot;starting live&quot; will have to synchronize its data with the
+server running with its ID, once they are in sync, it will request the
+other server (which it assumes it is a back that has assumed its duties)
+to shutdown for it to take over. This is necessary because otherwise the
+live server has no means to know whether there was a fail-over or not,
+and if there was if the server that took its duties is still running or
+not. To configure this option at your <code>broker.xml</code>
+configuration file as follows:</p>
+<pre><code>&lt;ha-policy&gt;
+   &lt;replication&gt;
+      &lt;master&gt;
+         &lt;check-for-live-server&gt;true&lt;/check-for-live-server&gt;
+      &lt;master&gt;
+   &lt;/replication&gt;
+&lt;/ha-policy&gt;
+</code></pre><blockquote>
+<p><strong>Warning</strong></p>
+<p>Be aware that if you restart a live server while after failover has
+occurred then <code>check-for-live-server</code> must be set to <code>true</code>. If not the live server
+will restart and server the same messages that the backup has already
+handled causing duplicates.</p>
+</blockquote>
+<p>It is also possible, in the case of shared store, to cause failover to
+occur on normal server shutdown, to enable this set the following
+property to true in the <code>ha-policy</code> configuration on either the <code>master</code>
+or <code>slave</code> like so:</p>
+<pre><code>&lt;ha-policy&gt;
+   &lt;shared-store&gt;
+      &lt;master&gt;
+         &lt;failover-on-shutdown&gt;true&lt;/failover-on-shutdown&gt;
+      &lt;/master&gt;
+   &lt;/shared-store&gt;
+&lt;/ha-policy&gt;
+</code></pre><p>By default this is set to false, if by some chance you have set this to
+false but still want to stop the server normally and cause failover then
+you can do this by using the management API as explained at <a href="management.html">Management</a></p>
+<p>You can also force the running live server to shutdown when the old live
+server comes back up allowing the original live server to take over
+automatically by setting the following property in the
+<code>broker.xml</code> configuration file as follows:</p>
+<pre><code>&lt;ha-policy&gt;
+   &lt;shared-store&gt;
+      &lt;slave&gt;
+         &lt;allow-failback&gt;true&lt;/allow-failback&gt;
+      &lt;/slave&gt;
+   &lt;/shared-store&gt;
+&lt;/ha-policy&gt;
+</code></pre><h4 id="all-shared-store-configuration">All Shared Store Configuration</h4>
+<p>The following table lists all the <code>ha-policy</code> configuration elements for
+HA strategy shared store for <code>master</code>:</p>
+<table summary="HA Shared Store Master Policy" border="1">
+    <colgroup>
+        <col>
+        <col>
+    </colgroup>
+    <thead>
+    <tr>
+        <th>Name</th>
+        <th>Description</th>
+    </tr>
+    </thead>
+    <tbody>
+    <tr>
+        <td>`failover-on-server-shutdown`</td>
+        <td>If set to true then when this server is stopped
+        normally the backup will become live assuming failover.
+        If false then the backup server will remain passive.
+        Note that if false you want failover to occur the you
+        can use the the management API as explained at [Management](management.md)</td>
+    </tr>
+    <tr>
+        <td>`wait-for-activation`</td>
+        <td>If set to true then server startup will wait until it is activated.
+        If set to false then server startup will be done in the background.
+        Default is true.</td>
+    </tr>
+    </tbody>
+</table>
+
+<p>The following table lists all the <code>ha-policy</code> configuration elements for
+HA strategy Shared Store for <code>slave</code>:</p>
+<table summary="HA Shared Store Slave Policy" border="1">
+    <colgroup>
+        <col>
+        <col>
+    </colgroup>
+    <thead>
+    <tr>
+        <th>Name</th>
+        <th>Description</th>
+    </tr>
+    </thead>
+    <tbody>
+    <tr>
+        <td>`failover-on-server-shutdown`</td>
+        <td>In the case of a backup that has become live. then
+        when set to true then when this server is stopped normally
+        the backup will become liveassuming failover. If false then
+        the backup server will remain passive. Note that if false
+        you want failover to occur the you can use the the management
+        API as explained at [Management](management.md)</td>
+    </tr>
+    <tr>
+        <td>`allow-failback`</td>
+        <td>Whether a server will automatically stop when a another
+        places a request to take over its place. The use case is
+        when the backup has failed over.</td>
+    </tr>
+    </tbody>
+</table>
+
+<h4 id="colocated-backup-servers">Colocated Backup Servers</h4>
+<p>It is also possible when running standalone to colocate backup servers
+in the same JVM as another live server. Live Servers can be configured
+to request another live server in the cluster to start a backup server
+in the same JVM either using shared store or replication. The new backup
+server will inherit its configuration from the live server creating it
+apart from its name, which will be set to <code>colocated_backup_n</code> where n
+is the number of backups the server has created, and any directories and
+its Connectors and Acceptors which are discussed later on in this
+chapter. A live server can also be configured to allow requests from
+backups and also how many backups a live server can start. this way you
+can evenly distribute backups around the cluster. This is configured via
+the <code>ha-policy</code> element in the <code>broker.xml</code> file like
+so:</p>
+<pre><code>&lt;ha-policy&gt;
+   &lt;replication&gt;
+      &lt;colocated&gt;
+         &lt;request-backup&gt;true&lt;/request-backup&gt;
+         &lt;max-backups&gt;1&lt;/max-backups&gt;
+         &lt;backup-request-retries&gt;-1&lt;/backup-request-retries&gt;
+         &lt;backup-request-retry-interval&gt;5000&lt;/backup-request-retry-interval&gt;
+         &lt;master/&gt;
+         &lt;slave/&gt;
+      &lt;/colocated&gt;
+   &lt;replication&gt;
+&lt;/ha-policy&gt;
+</code></pre><p>the above example is configured to use replication, in this case the
+<code>master</code> and <code>slave</code> configurations must match those for normal
+replication as in the previous chapter. <code>shared-store</code> is also supported</p>
+<p><img src="images/ha-colocated.png" alt="ActiveMQ Artemis ha-colocated.png"></p>
+<h4 id="configuring-connectors-and-acceptors">Configuring Connectors and Acceptors</h4>
+<p>If the HA Policy is colocated then connectors and acceptors will be
+inherited from the live server creating it and offset depending on the
+setting of <code>backup-port-offset</code> configuration element. If this is set to
+say 100 (which is the default) and a connector is using port 61616 then
+this will be set to 5545 for the first server created, 5645 for the
+second and so on.</p>
+<blockquote>
+<p><strong>Note</strong></p>
+<p>for INVM connectors and Acceptors the id will have
+<code>colocated_backup_n</code> appended, where n is the backup server number.</p>
+</blockquote>
+<h4 id="remote-connectors">Remote Connectors</h4>
+<p>It may be that some of the Connectors configured are for external
+servers and hence should be excluded from the offset. for instance a
+Connector used by the cluster connection to do quorum voting for a
+replicated backup server, these can be omitted from being offset by
+adding them to the <code>ha-policy</code> configuration like so:</p>
+<pre><code>&lt;ha-policy&gt;
+   &lt;replication&gt;
+      &lt;colocated&gt;
+         &lt;excludes&gt;
+            &lt;connector-ref&gt;remote-connector&lt;/connector-ref&gt;
+         &lt;/excludes&gt;
+.........
+&lt;/ha-policy&gt;
+</code></pre><h4 id="configuring-directories">Configuring Directories</h4>
+<p>Directories for the Journal, Large messages and Paging will be set
+according to what the HA strategy is. If shared store the the requesting
+server will notify the target server of which directories to use. If
+replication is configured then directories will be inherited from the
+creating server but have the new backups name appended.</p>
+<p>The following table lists all the <code>ha-policy</code> configuration elements for colocated policy:</p>
+<table summary="HA Replication Colocation Policy" border="1">
+    <colgroup>
+        <col>
+        <col>
+    </colgroup>
+    <thead>
+    <tr>
+        <th>Name</th>
+        <th>Description</th>
+    </tr>
+    </thead>
+    <tbody>
+    <tr>
+        <td>`request-backup`</td>
+        <td>If true then the server will request a backup on another node</td>
+    </tr>
+    <tr>
+        <td>`backup-request-retries`</td>
+        <td>How many times the live server will try to request a backup, -1 means for ever.</td>
+    </tr>
+    <tr>
+        <td>`backup-request-retry-interval`</td>
+        <td>How long to wait for retries between attempts to request a backup server.</td>
+    </tr>
+    <tr>
+        <td>`max-backups`</td>
+        <td>How many backups a live server can create</td>
+    </tr>
+    <tr>
+        <td>`backup-port-offset`</td>
+        <td>The offset to use for the Connectors and Acceptors when creating a new backup server.</td>
+    </tr>
+    </tbody>
+</table>
+
+<h3 id="scaling-down">Scaling Down</h3>
+<p>An alternative to using Live/Backup groups is to configure scaledown.
+when configured for scale down a server can copy all its messages and
+transaction state to another live server. The advantage of this is that
+you dont need full backups to provide some form of HA, however there are
+disadvantages with this approach the first being that it only deals with
+a server being stopped and not a server crash. The caveat here is if you
+configure a backup to scale down.</p>
+<p>Another disadvantage is that it is possible to lose message ordering.
+This happens in the following scenario, say you have 2 live servers and
+messages are distributed evenly between the servers from a single
+producer, if one of the servers scales down then the messages sent back
+to the other server will be in the queue after the ones already there,
+so server 1 could have messages 1,3,5,7,9 and server 2 would have
+2,4,6,8,10, if server 2 scales down the order in server 1 would be
+1,3,5,7,9,2,4,6,8,10.</p>
+<p><img src="images/ha-scaledown.png" alt="ActiveMQ Artemis ha-scaledown.png"></p>
+<p>The configuration for a live server to scale down would be something
+like:</p>
+<pre><code>&lt;ha-policy&gt;
+   &lt;live-only&gt;
+      &lt;scale-down&gt;
+         &lt;connectors&gt;
+            &lt;connector-ref&gt;server1-connector&lt;/connector-ref&gt;
+         &lt;/connectors&gt;
+      &lt;/scale-down&gt;
+   &lt;/live-only&gt;
+&lt;/ha-policy&gt;
+</code></pre><p>In this instance the server is configured to use a specific connector to
+scale down, if a connector is not specified then the first INVM
+connector is chosen, this is to make scale down fromm a backup server
+easy to configure. It is also possible to use discovery to scale down,
+this would look like:</p>
+<pre><code>&lt;ha-policy&gt;
+   &lt;live-only&gt;
+      &lt;scale-down&gt;
+         &lt;discovery-group-ref discovery-group-name=&quot;my-discovery-group&quot;/&gt;
+      &lt;/scale-down&gt;
+   &lt;/live-only&gt;
+&lt;/ha-policy&gt;
+</code></pre><h4 id="scale-down-with-groups">Scale Down with groups</h4>
+<p>It is also possible to configure servers to only scale down to servers
+that belong in the same group. This is done by configuring the group
+like so:</p>
+<pre><code>&lt;ha-policy&gt;
+   &lt;live-only&gt;
+      &lt;scale-down&gt;
+         ...
+         &lt;group-name&gt;my-group&lt;/group-name&gt;
+      &lt;/scale-down&gt;
+   &lt;/live-only&gt;
+&lt;/ha-policy&gt;
+</code></pre><p>In this scenario only servers that belong to the group <code>my-group</code> will
+be scaled down to</p>
+<h4 id="scale-down-and-backups">Scale Down and Backups</h4>
+<p>It is also possible to mix scale down with HA via backup servers. If a
+slave is configured to scale down then after failover has occurred,
+instead of starting fully the backup server will immediately scale down
+to another live server. The most appropriate configuration for this is
+using the <code>colocated</code> approach. it means as you bring up live server
+they will automatically be backed up by server and as live servers are
+shutdown, there messages are made available on another live server. A
+typical configuration would look like:</p>
+<pre><code>&lt;ha-policy&gt;
+   &lt;replication&gt;
+      &lt;colocated&gt;
+         &lt;backup-request-retries&gt;44&lt;/backup-request-retries&gt;
+         &lt;backup-request-retry-interval&gt;33&lt;/backup-request-retry-interval&gt;
+         &lt;max-backups&gt;3&lt;/max-backups&gt;
+         &lt;request-backup&gt;false&lt;/request-backup&gt;
+         &lt;backup-port-offset&gt;33&lt;/backup-port-offset&gt;
+         &lt;master&gt;
+            &lt;group-name&gt;purple&lt;/group-name&gt;
+            &lt;check-for-live-server&gt;true&lt;/check-for-live-server&gt;
+            &lt;cluster-name&gt;abcdefg&lt;/cluster-name&gt;
+         &lt;/master&gt;
+         &lt;slave&gt;
+            &lt;group-name&gt;tiddles&lt;/group-name&gt;
+            &lt;max-saved-replicated-journals-size&gt;22&lt;/max-saved-replicated-journals-size&gt;
+            &lt;cluster-name&gt;33rrrrr&lt;/cluster-name&gt;
+            &lt;restart-backup&gt;false&lt;/restart-backup&gt;
+            &lt;scale-down&gt;
+               &lt;!--a grouping of servers that can be scaled down to--&gt;
+               &lt;group-name&gt;boo!&lt;/group-name&gt;
+               &lt;!--either a discovery group--&gt;
+               &lt;discovery-group-ref discovery-group-name=&quot;wahey&quot;/&gt;
+            &lt;/scale-down&gt;
+         &lt;/slave&gt;
+      &lt;/colocated&gt;
+   &lt;/replication&gt;
+&lt;/ha-policy&gt;
+</code></pre><h4 id="scale-down-and-clients">Scale Down and Clients</h4>
+<p>When a server is stopping and preparing to scale down it will send a
+message to all its clients informing them which server it is scaling
+down to before disconnecting them. At this point the client will
+reconnect however this will only succeed once the server has completed
+scaledown. This is to ensure that any state such as queues or
+transactions are there for the client when it reconnects. The normal
+reconnect settings apply when the client is reconnecting so these should
+be high enough to deal with the time needed to scale down.</p>
+<h2 id="failover-modes">Failover Modes</h2>
+<p>Apache ActiveMQ Artemis defines two types of client failover:</p>
+<ul>
+<li><p>Automatic client failover</p>
+</li>
+<li><p>Application-level client failover</p>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>Apache ActiveMQ Artemis also provides 100% transparent automatic reattachment of
+connections to the same server (e.g. in case of transient network
+problems). This is similar to failover, except it is reconnecting to the
+same server and is discussed in <a href="client-reconnection.html">Client Reconnection and Session Reattachment</a></p>
+<p>During failover, if the client has consumers on any non persistent or
+temporary queues, those queues will be automatically recreated during
+failover on the backup node, since the backup node will not have any
+knowledge of non persistent queues.</p>
+<h3 id="automatic-client-failover">Automatic Client Failover</h3>
+<p>Apache ActiveMQ Artemis clients can be configured to receive knowledge of all live and
+backup servers, so that in event of connection failure at the client -
+live server connection, the client will detect this and reconnect to the
+backup server. The backup server will then automatically recreate any
+sessions and consumers that existed on each connection before failover,
+thus saving the user from having to hand-code manual reconnection logic.</p>
+<p>Apache ActiveMQ Artemis clients detect connection failure when it has not received
+packets from the server within the time given by
+<code>client-failure-check-period</code> as explained in section <a href="connection-ttl.html">Detecting Dead Connections</a>. If the client
+does not receive data in good time, it will assume the connection has
+failed and attempt failover. Also if the socket is closed by the OS,
+usually if the server process is killed rather than the machine itself
+crashing, then the client will failover straight away.</p>
+<p>Apache ActiveMQ Artemis clients can be configured to discover the list of live-backup
+server groups in a number of different ways. They can be configured
+explicitly or probably the most common way of doing this is to use
+<em>server discovery</em> for the client to automatically discover the list.
+For full details on how to configure server discovery, please see <a href="clusters.html">Clusters</a>.
+Alternatively, the clients can explicitly connect to a specific server
+and download the current servers and backups see <a href="clusters.html">Clusters</a>.</p>
+<p>To enable automatic client failover, the client must be configured to
+allow non-zero reconnection attempts (as explained in <a href="client-reconnection.html">Client Reconnection and Session Reattachment</a>).</p>
+<p>By default failover will only occur after at least one connection has
+been made to the live server. In other words, by default, failover will
+not occur if the client fails to make an initial connection to the live
+server - in this case it will simply retry connecting to the live server
+according to the reconnect-attempts property and fail after this number
+of attempts.</p>
+<h4 id="failing-over-on-the-initial-connection">Failing over on the Initial Connection</h4>
+<p>Since the client does not learn about the full topology until after the
+first connection is made there is a window where it does not know about
+the backup. If a failure happens at this point the client can only try
+reconnecting to the original live server. To configure how many attempts
+the client will make you can set the URL parameter <code>initialConnectAttempts</code>.
+The default for this is <code>0</code>, that is try only once. Once the number of
+attempts has been made an exception will be thrown.</p>
+<p>For examples of automatic failover with transacted and non-transacted
+JMS sessions, please see <a href="examples.html">the examples</a> chapter.</p>
+<h4 id="a-note-on-server-replication">A Note on Server Replication</h4>
+<p>Apache ActiveMQ Artemis does not replicate full server state between live and backup
+servers. When the new session is automatically recreated on the backup
+it won&apos;t have any knowledge of messages already sent or acknowledged in
+that session. Any in-flight sends or acknowledgements at the time of
+failover might also be lost.</p>
+<p>By replicating full server state, theoretically we could provide a 100%
+transparent seamless failover, which would avoid any lost messages or
+acknowledgements, however this comes at a great cost: replicating the
+full server state (including the queues, session, etc.). This would
+require replication of the entire server state machine; every operation
+on the live server would have to replicated on the replica server(s) in
+the exact same global order to ensure a consistent replica state. This
+is extremely hard to do in a performant and scalable way, especially
+when one considers that multiple threads are changing the live server
+state concurrently.</p>
+<p>It is possible to provide full state machine replication using
+techniques such as <em>virtual synchrony</em>, but this does not scale well and
+effectively serializes all operations to a single thread, dramatically
+reducing concurrency.</p>
+<p>Other techniques for multi-threaded active replication exist such as
+replicating lock states or replicating thread scheduling but this is
+very hard to achieve at a Java level.</p>
+<p>Consequently it has decided it was not worth massively reducing
+performance and concurrency for the sake of 100% transparent failover.
+Even without 100% transparent failover, it is simple to guarantee <em>once
+and only once</em> delivery, even in the case of failure, by using a
+combination of duplicate detection and retrying of transactions. However
+this is not 100% transparent to the client code.</p>
+<h4 id="handling-blocking-calls-during-failover">Handling Blocking Calls During Failover</h4>
+<p>If the client code is in a blocking call to the server, waiting for a
+response to continue its execution, when failover occurs, the new
+session will not have any knowledge of the call that was in progress.
+This call might otherwise hang for ever, waiting for a response that
+will never come.</p>
+<p>To prevent this, Apache ActiveMQ Artemis will unblock any blocking calls that were in
+progress at the time of failover by making them throw a
+<code>javax.jms.JMSException</code> (if using JMS), or a <code>ActiveMQException</code> with
+error code <code>ActiveMQException.UNBLOCKED</code>. It is up to the client code to
+catch this exception and retry any operations if desired.</p>
+<p>If the method being unblocked is a call to commit(), or prepare(), then
+the transaction will be automatically rolled back and Apache ActiveMQ Artemis will
+throw a <code>javax.jms.TransactionRolledBackException</code> (if using JMS), or a
+<code>ActiveMQException</code> with error code
+<code>ActiveMQException.TRANSACTION_ROLLED_BACK</code> if using the core API.</p>
+<h4 id="handling-failover-with-transactions">Handling Failover With Transactions</h4>
+<p>If the session is transactional and messages have already been sent or
+acknowledged in the current transaction, then the server cannot be sure
+that messages sent or acknowledgements have not been lost during the
+failover.</p>
+<p>Consequently the transaction will be marked as rollback-only, and any
+subsequent attempt to commit it will throw a
+<code>javax.jms.TransactionRolledBackException</code> (if using JMS), or a
+<code>ActiveMQException</code> with error code
+<code>ActiveMQException.TRANSACTION_ROLLED_BACK</code> if using the core API.</p>
+<blockquote>
+<p><strong>Warning</strong></p>
+<p>The caveat to this rule is when XA is used either via JMS or through
+the core API. If 2 phase commit is used and prepare has already been
+called then rolling back could cause a <code>HeuristicMixedException</code>.
+Because of this the commit will throw a <code>XAException.XA_RETRY</code>
+exception. This informs the Transaction Manager that it should retry
+the commit at some later point in time, a side effect of this is that
+any non persistent messages will be lost. To avoid this use persistent
+messages when using XA. With acknowledgements this is not an issue
+since they are flushed to the server before prepare gets called.</p>
+</blockquote>
+<p>It is up to the user to catch the exception, and perform any client side
+local rollback code as necessary. There is no need to manually rollback
+the session - it is already rolled back. The user can then just retry
+the transactional operations again on the same session.</p>
+<p>Apache ActiveMQ Artemis ships with a fully functioning example demonstrating how to do
+this, please see <a href="examples.html">the examples</a> chapter.</p>
+<p>If failover occurs when a commit call is being executed, the server, as
+previously described, will unblock the call to prevent a hang, since no
+response will come back. In this case it is not easy for the client to
+determine whether the transaction commit was actually processed on the
+live server before failure occurred.</p>
+<blockquote>
+<p><strong>Note</strong></p>
+<p>If XA is being used either via JMS or through the core API then an
+<code>XAException.XA_RETRY</code> is thrown. This is to inform Transaction
+Managers that a retry should occur at some point. At some later point
+in time the Transaction Manager will retry the commit. If the original
+commit has not occurred then it will still exist and be committed, if
+it does not exist then it is assumed to have been committed although
+the transaction manager may log a warning.</p>
+</blockquote>
+<p>To remedy this, the client can simply enable duplicate detection (<a href="duplicate-detection.html">Duplicate Message Detection</a>) in
+the transaction, and retry the transaction operations again after the
+call is unblocked. If the transaction had indeed been committed on the
+live server successfully before failover, then when the transaction is
+retried, duplicate detection will ensure that any durable messages
+resent in the transaction will be ignored on the server to prevent them
+getting sent more than once.</p>
+<blockquote>
+<p><strong>Note</strong></p>
+<p>By catching the rollback exceptions and retrying, catching unblocked
+calls and enabling duplicate detection, once and only once delivery
+guarantees for messages can be provided in the case of failure,
+guaranteeing 100% no loss or duplication of messages.</p>
+</blockquote>
+<h4 id="handling-failover-with-non-transactional-sessions">Handling Failover With Non Transactional Sessions</h4>
+<p>If the session is non transactional, messages or acknowledgements can be
+lost in the event of failover.</p>
+<p>If you wish to provide <em>once and only once</em> delivery guarantees for non
+transacted sessions too, enabled duplicate detection, and catch unblock
+exceptions as described in <a href="ha.html">Handling Blocking Calls During Failover</a></p>
+<h3 id="getting-notified-of-connection-failure">Getting Notified of Connection Failure</h3>
+<p>JMS provides a standard mechanism for getting notified asynchronously of
+connection failure: <code>java.jms.ExceptionListener</code>. Please consult the JMS
+javadoc or any good JMS tutorial for more information on how to use
+this.</p>
+<p>The Apache ActiveMQ Artemis core API also provides a similar feature in the form of the
+class <code>org.apache.activemq.artemis.core.client.SessionFailureListener</code></p>
+<p>Any ExceptionListener or SessionFailureListener instance will always be
+called by ActiveMQ Artemis on event of connection failure, <strong>irrespective</strong> of
+whether the connection was successfully failed over, reconnected or
+reattached, however you can find out if reconnect or reattach has
+happened by either the <code>failedOver</code> flag passed in on the
+<code>connectionFailed</code> on <code>SessionfailureListener</code> or by inspecting the
+error code on the <code>javax.jms.JMSException</code> which will be one of the
+following:</p>
+<p>JMSException error codes</p>
+<table summary="HA Replication Colocation Policy" border="1">
+    <colgroup>
+        <col>
+        <col>
+    </colgroup>
+    <thead>
+    <tr>
+        <th>Error code</th>
+        <th>Description</th>
+    </tr>
+    </thead>
+    <tbody>
+    <tr>
+        <td>FAILOVER</td>
+        <td>Failover has occurred and we have successfully reattached or reconnected.</td>
+    </tr>
+    <tr>
+        <td>DISCONNECT</td>
+        <td>No failover has occurred and we are disconnected.</td>
+    </tr>
+    </tbody>
+</table>
+
+<h3 id="application-level-failover">Application-Level Failover</h3>
+<p>In some cases you may not want automatic client failover, and prefer to
+handle any connection failure yourself, and code your own manually
+reconnection logic in your own failure handler. We define this as
+<em>application-level</em> failover, since the failover is handled at the user
+application level.</p>
+<p>To implement application-level failover, if you&apos;re using JMS then you
+need to set an <code>ExceptionListener</code> class on the JMS connection. The
+<code>ExceptionListener</code> will be called by Apache ActiveMQ Artemis in the event that
+connection failure is detected. In your <code>ExceptionListener</code>, you would
+close your old JMS connections, potentially look up new connection
+factory instances from JNDI and creating new connections.</p>
+<p>For a working example of application-level failover, please see <a href="examples.html">the examples</a> chapter.</p>
+<p>If you are using the core API, then the procedure is very similar: you
+would set a <code>FailureListener</code> on the core <code>ClientSession</code> instances.</p>
+
+                                
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