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From Josh Elser <josh.el...@gmail.com>
Subject Re: Accumulo and Kerberos
Date Tue, 26 Jan 2016 23:25:33 GMT
Ok, so we can confirm that the TabletServer logged in. This is what your 
.out file is telling us.

This is looking like you don't have your software configured correctly. 
As this error message is trying to tell you, HDFS supports three types 
of authentication tokens: "simple", "token", and "kerberos". "Simple" is 
what is used by default (without Kerberos). "Kerberos" refers to clients 
with a Kerberos ticket. Ignore "token" for now as it's irrelevant.

We can tell from the stack trace that the TabletServer made an RPC to a 
datanode. For some reason, this RPC was requesting "simple" 
authentication and not "kerberos". The datanode is telling you that it's 
not allowed to accept your "simple" token and that you need to use 
"kerberos" (or "token").

If I had to venture a guess, it would be that you have Accumulo 
configured to use the wrong Hadoop configuration files, notably 
core-site.xml and hdfs-site.xml.

Try the command `accumulo classpath` command and verify that the Hadoop 
configuration files included there are the correct ones (the ones that 
are configured for Kerberos).

- Josh

roman.drapeko@baesystems.com wrote:
> Hi Josh,
>
> Tried on the tserver - does not really give more information. I am trying just bin/start-here.sh
on the slave (master is successfully running).
>
> This is what I can see in ".out" log
>
> 2016-01-26 22:29:18,233 [security.SecurityUtil] INFO : Attempting to login with keytab
as accumulo/<host>@<realm>
> 2016-01-26 22:29:18,371 [util.NativeCodeLoader] WARN : Unable to load native-hadoop library
for your platform... using builtin-java classes where applicable
> 2016-01-26 22:29:18,685 [security.SecurityUtil] INFO : Succesfully logged in as user
accumulo/<host>@<realm>
>
> This is ".log" log - it looks like something with Zookeper Utils..
>
> 2016-01-26 22:29:19,963 [fs.VolumeManagerImpl] WARN : dfs.datanode.synconclose set to
false in hdfs-site.xml: data loss is possible on hard system reset or power loss
> 2016-01-26 22:29:19,966 [conf.Property] DEBUG: Loaded class : org.apache.accumulo.server.fs.PerTableVolumeChooser
> 2016-01-26 22:29:20,050 [zookeeper.ZooUtil] ERROR: Problem reading instance id out of
hdfs at hdfs://<host>:8020/accumulo/instance_id
> org.apache.hadoop.security.AccessControlException: SIMPLE authentication is not enabled.
 Available:[TOKEN, KERBEROS]
>          at sun.reflect.NativeConstructorAccessorImpl.newInstance0(Native Method)
>          at sun.reflect.NativeConstructorAccessorImpl.newInstance(NativeConstructorAccessorImpl.java:57)
>          at sun.reflect.DelegatingConstructorAccessorImpl.newInstance(DelegatingConstructorAccessorImpl.java:45)
>          at java.lang.reflect.Constructor.newInstance(Constructor.java:526)
>          at org.apache.hadoop.ipc.RemoteException.instantiateException(RemoteException.java:106)
>          at org.apache.hadoop.ipc.RemoteException.unwrapRemoteException(RemoteException.java:73)
>          at org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.DFSClient.listPaths(DFSClient.java:1965)
>          at org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.DFSClient.listPaths(DFSClient.java:1946)
>          at org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.DistributedFileSystem.listStatusInternal(DistributedFileSystem.java:693)
>          at org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.DistributedFileSystem.access$600(DistributedFileSystem.java:105)
>          at org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.DistributedFileSystem$15.doCall(DistributedFileSystem.java:755)
>          at org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.DistributedFileSystem$15.doCall(DistributedFileSystem.java:751)
>          at org.apache.hadoop.fs.FileSystemLinkResolver.resolve(FileSystemLinkResolver.java:81)
>          at org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.DistributedFileSystem.listStatus(DistributedFileSystem.java:751)
>          at org.apache.accumulo.core.zookeeper.ZooUtil.getInstanceIDFromHdfs(ZooUtil.java:59)
>          at org.apache.accumulo.core.zookeeper.ZooUtil.getInstanceIDFromHdfs(ZooUtil.java:51)
>          at org.apache.accumulo.server.client.HdfsZooInstance._getInstanceID(HdfsZooInstance.java:137)
>          at org.apache.accumulo.server.client.HdfsZooInstance.getInstanceID(HdfsZooInstance.java:121)
>          at org.apache.accumulo.server.conf.ServerConfigurationFactory.<init>(ServerConfigurationFactory.java:113)
>          at org.apache.accumulo.tserver.TabletServer.main(TabletServer.java:2952)
>          at org.apache.accumulo.tserver.TServerExecutable.execute(TServerExecutable.java:33)
>          at org.apache.accumulo.start.Main$1.run(Main.java:93)
>          at java.lang.Thread.run(Thread.java:745)
> Caused by: org.apache.hadoop.ipc.RemoteException(org.apache.hadoop.security.AccessControlException):
SIMPLE authentication is not enabled.  Available:[TOKEN, KERBEROS]
>          at org.apache.hadoop.ipc.Client.call(Client.java:1468)
>          at org.apache.hadoop.ipc.Client.call(Client.java:1399)
>          at org.apache.hadoop.ipc.ProtobufRpcEngine$Invoker.invoke(ProtobufRpcEngine.java:232)
>          at com.sun.proxy.$Proxy22.getListing(Unknown Source)
>          at org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.protocolPB.ClientNamenodeProtocolTranslatorPB.getListing(ClientNamenodeProtocolTranslatorPB.java:554)
>          at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke0(Native Method)
>          at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(NativeMethodAccessorImpl.java:57)
>          at sun.reflect.DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.java:43)
>          at java.lang.reflect.Method.invoke(Method.java:606)
>          at org.apache.hadoop.io.retry.RetryInvocationHandler.invokeMethod(RetryInvocationHandler.java:187)
>          at org.apache.hadoop.io.retry.RetryInvocationHandler.invoke(RetryInvocationHandler.java:102)
>          at com.sun.proxy.$Proxy23.getListing(Unknown Source)
>          at org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.DFSClient.listPaths(DFSClient.java:1963)
>          ... 16 more
> 2016-01-26 22:29:20,053 [tserver.TabletServer] ERROR: Uncaught exception in TabletServer.main,
exiting
> java.lang.RuntimeException: Can't tell if Accumulo is initialized; can't read instance
id at hdfs://<host>:8020/accumulo/instance_id
>          at org.apache.accumulo.core.zookeeper.ZooUtil.getInstanceIDFromHdfs(ZooUtil.java:76)
>          at org.apache.accumulo.core.zookeeper.ZooUtil.getInstanceIDFromHdfs(ZooUtil.java:51)
>          at org.apache.accumulo.server.client.HdfsZooInstance._getInstanceID(HdfsZooInstance.java:137)
>          at org.apache.accumulo.server.client.HdfsZooInstance.getInstanceID(HdfsZooInstance.java:121)
>          at org.apache.accumulo.server.conf.ServerConfigurationFactory.<init>(ServerConfigurationFactory.java:113)
>          at org.apache.accumulo.tserver.TabletServer.main(TabletServer.java:2952)
>          at org.apache.accumulo.tserver.TServerExecutable.execute(TServerExecutable.java:33)
>          at org.apache.accumulo.start.Main$1.run(Main.java:93)
>          at java.lang.Thread.run(Thread.java:745)
> Caused by: org.apache.hadoop.security.AccessControlException: SIMPLE authentication is
not enabled.  Available:[TOKEN, KERBEROS]
>          at sun.reflect.NativeConstructorAccessorImpl.newInstance0(Native Method)
>          at sun.reflect.NativeConstructorAccessorImpl.newInstance(NativeConstructorAccessorImpl.java:57)
>          at sun.reflect.DelegatingConstructorAccessorImpl.newInstance(DelegatingConstructorAccessorImpl.java:45)
>          at java.lang.reflect.Constructor.newInstance(Constructor.java:526)
>          at org.apache.hadoop.ipc.RemoteException.instantiateException(RemoteException.java:106)
>          at org.apache.hadoop.ipc.RemoteException.unwrapRemoteException(RemoteException.java:73)
>          at org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.DFSClient.listPaths(DFSClient.java:1965)
>          at org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.DFSClient.listPaths(DFSClient.java:1946)
>          at org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.DistributedFileSystem.listStatusInternal(DistributedFileSystem.java:693)
>          at org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.DistributedFileSystem.access$600(DistributedFileSystem.java:105)
>          at org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.DistributedFileSystem$15.doCall(DistributedFileSystem.java:755)
>          at org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.DistributedFileSystem$15.doCall(DistributedFileSystem.java:751)
>          at org.apache.hadoop.fs.FileSystemLinkResolver.resolve(FileSystemLinkResolver.java:81)
>          at org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.DistributedFileSystem.listStatus(DistributedFileSystem.java:751)
>          at org.apache.accumulo.core.zookeeper.ZooUtil.getInstanceIDFromHdfs(ZooUtil.java:59)
>          ... 8 more
> Caused by: org.apache.hadoop.ipc.RemoteException(org.apache.hadoop.security.AccessControlException):
SIMPLE authentication is not enabled.  Available:[TOKEN, KERBEROS]
>          at org.apache.hadoop.ipc.Client.call(Client.java:1468)
>          at org.apache.hadoop.ipc.Client.call(Client.java:1399)
>          at org.apache.hadoop.ipc.ProtobufRpcEngine$Invoker.invoke(ProtobufRpcEngine.java:232)
>          at com.sun.proxy.$Proxy22.getListing(Unknown Source)
>          at org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.protocolPB.ClientNamenodeProtocolTranslatorPB.getListing(ClientNamenodeProtocolTranslatorPB.java:554)
>          at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke0(Native Method)
>          at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(NativeMethodAccessorImpl.java:57)
>          at sun.reflect.DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.java:43)
>          at java.lang.reflect.Method.invoke(Method.java:606)
>          at org.apache.hadoop.io.retry.RetryInvocationHandler.invokeMethod(RetryInvocationHandler.java:187)
>          at org.apache.hadoop.io.retry.RetryInvocationHandler.invoke(RetryInvocationHandler.java:102)
>          at com.sun.proxy.$Proxy23.getListing(Unknown Source)
>          at org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.DFSClient.listPaths(DFSClient.java:1963)
>          ... 16 more
>
> -----Original Message-----
> From: Josh Elser [mailto:josh.elser@gmail.com]
> Sent: 26 January 2016 21:39
> To: user@accumulo.apache.org
> Subject: Re: Accumulo and Kerberos
>
> Your confusion is stemming from what stop-all.sh is actually doing (although, I still
have no idea how stopping processes has any bearing on how they start :smile:). Notably, this
script will invoke `accumulo admin stopAll` to trigger a graceful shutdown before stopping
the services hard (`kill`).
>
> So, as you would run these scripts as the 'accumulo' user without Kerberos, you should
also be logged in as the 'accumulo' Kerberos user when starting them. This might be missing
from the docs. Please do suggest where some documentation should be added to cover this.
>
> If it doesn't go without saying, this is a separate issue from your services not logging
in correctly. Can you share logs? Try enabling -Dsun.security.kr5b.debug=true in the appropriate
environment variable (for the service you want to turn it on for) in accumulo-env.sh and then
start the services again (hopefully, sharing that too if the problem isn't obvious).
>
> roman.drapeko@baesystems.com wrote:
>> I want to believe in this, but what I see contradicts this statement..
>>
>> I do bin/stop-all.sh on master.
>>
>> If I have a ticket cache for hdfs user, I don't see any errors.
>> If I don't a have ticket cache for hdfs user, I see these errors.
>>
>> I can see that all slaves and master successfully logged in as accumulo user.
>>
>> However slaves are failing straight away due to the error I posted in the previous
email. I also see this error when I stop the master and I don't' have ticket cache for hdfs
user, however I don't see it if I have ticket cache (as per above)... It's kind of a reflection
of the previous problem with vfs.
>>
>>
>>
>>
>> -----Original Message-----
>> From: Josh Elser [mailto:josh.elser@gmail.com]
>> Sent: 26 January 2016 21:08
>> To: user@accumulo.apache.org
>> Subject: Re: Accumulo and Kerberos
>>
>> Ok, let me repeat: running a `kinit` in your local shell has *no
>> bearing* on what Accumulo is doing. This is fundamentally not how it works. There
are libraries in the JDK which perform the login with the KDC using the keytab you provide
in accumulo-site.xml. Accumulo is not using the ticket cache which your `kinit` creates.
>>
>> </rant>
>>
>> You should see a message in the log stating that the Kerberos login happened (or
didn't). The server should exit if it fails to log in (but I don't know if I've actively tested
that). Do you see this message?
>> Does it say you successfully logged in (and the principal you logged in as)?
>>
>> roman.drapeko@baesystems.com wrote:
>>> Ok, there is some progress. So these issues were definitely related to VFS classloader
- now works both on the client and master - so I guess a bug is found.
>>>
>>> And it looks like there is a very similar issue related to
>>> instance_id
>>>
>>> On the slaves (does not matter whether I do kinit hdfs or not) I always receive
when I start the node:
>>>
>>>            2016-01-26 20:36:41,744 [tserver.TabletServer] ERROR: Uncaught exception
in TabletServer.main, exiting
>>>            java.lang.RuntimeException: Can't tell if Accumulo is
>>> initialized; can't read instance id at
>>> hdfs://cr-platform-qa23-01.cyberreveal.local:8020/accumulo/instance_i
>>> d
>>>
>>> On the master I can see the same issue when I do bin/stop-all.sh without kinit
hdfs and it disappears if I have a hdfs ticket.
>>>
>>> I tried both: hadoop fs -chown -R accumulo:hdfs /accumulo and hadoop
>>> fs -chown -R accumulo:accumulo /accumulo - same behavior
>>>
>>> Any thoughts please?
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>> -----Original Message-----
>>> From: Josh Elser [mailto:josh.elser@gmail.com]
>>> Sent: 26 January 2016 20:08
>>> To: user@accumulo.apache.org
>>> Subject: Re: Accumulo and Kerberos
>>>
>>> The normal classloader (on the local filesystem) which is configured out of the
box.
>>>
>>> roman.drapeko@baesystems.com wrote:
>>>> Hi Josh,
>>>>
>>>> I can confirm that issue on the master is related to VFS classloader!  Commented
out classloader and now it works without kinit. So it seems it tries loading classes before
Kerberos authentication happened. What classloader should I use instead?
>>>>
>>>> Regards,
>>>> Roman
>>>>
>>>> -----Original Message-----
>>>> From: roman.drapeko@baesystems.com
>>>> [mailto:roman.drapeko@baesystems.com]
>>>> Sent: 26 January 2016 19:43
>>>> To: user@accumulo.apache.org
>>>> Subject: RE: Accumulo and Kerberos
>>>>
>>>> Hi Josh,
>>>>
>>>> Two quick questions.
>>>>
>>>> 1) What should I use instead of HDFS classloader? All examples seem to be
from hdfs.
>>>> 2) Whan 1.7.1 release is scheduled for (approx.) ?
>>>>
>>>> Regards,
>>>> Roman
>>>>
>>>> -----Original Message-----
>>>> From: Josh Elser [mailto:josh.elser@gmail.com]
>>>> Sent: 26 January 2016 19:01
>>>> To: user@accumulo.apache.org
>>>> Subject: Re: Accumulo and Kerberos
>>>>
>>>> I would strongly recommend that you do not use the HDFS classloader. It is
known to be very broken in what you download as 1.7.0. There are a number of JIRA issues about
this which stem from a lack of a released commons-vfs2-2.1.
>>>>
>>>> That being said, I have not done anything with running Accumulo out of HDFS
with Kerberos enabled. AFAIK, you're in untraveled waters.
>>>>
>>>> re: the renewal bug: When the ticket expires, the Accumulo service
>>>> will die. Your options are to deploy a watchdog process that would
>>>> restart the service, download the fix from the JIRA case and rebuild
>>>> Accumulo yourself, or build 1.7.1-SNAPSHOT from our codebase. I
>>>> would recommend using 1.7.1-SNAPSHOT as it should be the least
>>>> painful (1.7.1-SNAPSHOT now is likely to not change significantly
>>>> from what is ultimately released as 1.7.1)
>>>>
>>>> roman.drapeko@baesystems.com wrote:
>>>>> Hi Josh,
>>>>>
>>>>> Yes, will do. Just in the meantime - I can see a different issue on slave
nodes. If I try to start in isolation (bin/start-here.sh) with or without doing kinit I always
see the error below.
>>>>>
>>>>> 2016-01-26 18:31:13,873 [start.Main] ERROR: Problem initializing
>>>>> the class loader java.lang.reflect.InvocationTargetException
>>>>>              at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke0(Native Method)
>>>>>              at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(NativeMethodAccessorImpl.java:57)
>>>>>              at sun.reflect.DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.java:43)
>>>>>              at java.lang.reflect.Method.invoke(Method.java:606)
>>>>>              at org.apache.accumulo.start.Main.getClassLoader(Main.java:68)
>>>>>              at org.apache.accumulo.start.Main.main(Main.java:52)
>>>>> Caused by: org.apache.commons.vfs2.FileSystemException: Could not determine
the type of file "hdfs://<hostname>/platform/lib/.*.jar".
>>>>>              at org.apache.commons.vfs2.provider.AbstractFileObject.attach(AbstractFileObject.java:1522)
>>>>>              at org.apache.commons.vfs2.provider.AbstractFileObject.getType(AbstractFileObject.java:489)
>>>>>              at org.apache.accumulo.start.classloader.vfs.AccumuloVFSClassLoader.resolve(AccumuloVFSClassLoader.java:143)
>>>>>              at org.apache.accumulo.start.classloader.vfs.AccumuloVFSClassLoader.resolve(AccumuloVFSClassLoader.java:121)
>>>>>              at org.apache.accumulo.start.classloader.vfs.AccumuloVFSClassLoader.getClassLoader(AccumuloVFSClassLoader.java:211)
>>>>>              ... 6 more
>>>>> Caused by: org.apache.hadoop.security.AccessControlException:
>>>>> SIMPLE authentication is not enabled.  Available:[TOKEN, KERBEROS]
>>>>>
>>>>> I guess it might be different to what I observe on the master node. If
I don't get ticket explicitly, I get the error mentioned in the previous email. However if
do (and it does not matter for what user I have a ticket now - whether it's accumulo, hdfs
or hive) - it works. So I started to think, maybe the problem related to some action (for
example to vfs as per above) that tries to access HDFS before doing a proper authentication
with Kerberos? Any ideas?
>>>>>
>>>>> Also, if we go live with 1.7.0 - what approach would you recommend for
renewing tickets? Does it require stopping and starting the cluster?
>>>>>
>>>>> Regards,
>>>>> Roman
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>> -----Original Message-----
>>>>> From: Josh Elser [mailto:josh.elser@gmail.com]
>>>>> Sent: 26 January 2016 18:10
>>>>> To: user@accumulo.apache.org
>>>>> Subject: Re: Accumulo and Kerberos
>>>>>
>>>>> Hi Roman,
>>>>>
>>>>> Accumulo services (TabletServer, Master, etc) all use a keytab to automatically
obtain a ticket from the KDC when they start up. You do not need to do anything with kinit
when starting Accumulo.
>>>>>
>>>>> One worry is ACCUMULO-4069[1] with all presently released versions (most
notably 1.7.0 which you are using). This is a bug in which services did not automatically
renew their ticket. We're working on a 1.7.1, but it's not out yet.
>>>>>
>>>>> As for debugging your issue, take a look at the Kerberos section on debugging
in the user manual [2]. Take a very close look at the principal the service is using to obtain
the ticket and what the principal is for your keytab. A good sanity check is to make sure
you can `kinit` in the shell using the keytab and the correct principal (rule out the keytab
being incorrect).
>>>>>
>>>>> If you still get stuck, collect the output specifying -Dsun.security.krb5.debug=true
in accumulo-env.sh (per the instructions) and try enabling log4j DEBUG on org.apache.hadoop.security.UserGroupInformation.
>>>>>
>>>>> - Josh
>>>>>
>>>>> [1] https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/ACCUMULO-4069
>>>>> [2]
>>>>> http://accumulo.apache.org/1.7/accumulo_user_manual.html#_debugging
>>>>>
>>>>> roman.drapeko@baesystems.com wrote:
>>>>>> Hi there,
>>>>>>
>>>>>> Trying to setup Accumulo 1.7 on Kerberized cluster. Only
>>>>>> interested in master/tablets to be kerberized (not end-users).
>>>>>> Configured everything as per manual:
>>>>>>
>>>>>> 1)Created principals
>>>>>>
>>>>>> 2)Generated glob keytab
>>>>>>
>>>>>> 3)Modified accumulo-site.xml providing general.kerberos.keytab and
>>>>>> general.kerberos.principal
>>>>>>
>>>>>> If I start as accumulo user I get: Caused by: GSSException: No
>>>>>> valid credentials provided (Mechanism level: Failed to find any
>>>>>> Kerberos
>>>>>> tgt)
>>>>>>
>>>>>> However, if I give explicitly a token with kinit and keytab
>>>>>> generated above in the shell - it works as expected. To my
>>>>>> understanding Accumulo has to obtain tickets automatically? Or the
>>>>>> idea is to write a cron job and apply kinit to every tablet server
per day?
>>>>>>
>>>>>> Regards,
>>>>>>
>>>>>> Roman
>>>>>>
>>>>>> Please consider the environment before printing this email. This
>>>>>> message should be regarded as confidential. If you have received
>>>>>> this email in error please notify the sender and destroy it immediately.
>>>>>> Statements of intent shall only become binding when confirmed in
>>>>>> hard copy by an authorised signatory. The contents of this email
>>>>>> may relate to dealings with other companies under the control of
>>>>>> BAE Systems Applied Intelligence Limited, details of which can be
>>>>>> found at http://www.baesystems.com/Businesses/index.htm.
>>>>> Please consider the environment before printing this email. This message
should be regarded as confidential. If you have received this email in error please notify
the sender and destroy it immediately. Statements of intent shall only become binding when
confirmed in hard copy by an authorised signatory. The contents of this email may relate to
dealings with other companies under the control of BAE Systems Applied Intelligence Limited,
details of which can be found at http://www.baesystems.com/Businesses/index.htm.
>>>> Please consider the environment before printing this email. This message
should be regarded as confidential. If you have received this email in error please notify
the sender and destroy it immediately. Statements of intent shall only become binding when
confirmed in hard copy by an authorised signatory. The contents of this email may relate to
dealings with other companies under the control of BAE Systems Applied Intelligence Limited,
details of which can be found at http://www.baesystems.com/Businesses/index.htm.
>>>> Please consider the environment before printing this email. This message
should be regarded as confidential. If you have received this email in error please notify
the sender and destroy it immediately. Statements of intent shall only become binding when
confirmed in hard copy by an authorised signatory. The contents of this email may relate to
dealings with other companies under the control of BAE Systems Applied Intelligence Limited,
details of which can be found at http://www.baesystems.com/Businesses/index.htm.
>>> Please consider the environment before printing this email. This message should
be regarded as confidential. If you have received this email in error please notify the sender
and destroy it immediately. Statements of intent shall only become binding when confirmed
in hard copy by an authorised signatory. The contents of this email may relate to dealings
with other companies under the control of BAE Systems Applied Intelligence Limited, details
of which can be found at http://www.baesystems.com/Businesses/index.htm.
>> Please consider the environment before printing this email. This message should be
regarded as confidential. If you have received this email in error please notify the sender
and destroy it immediately. Statements of intent shall only become binding when confirmed
in hard copy by an authorised signatory. The contents of this email may relate to dealings
with other companies under the control of BAE Systems Applied Intelligence Limited, details
of which can be found at http://www.baesystems.com/Businesses/index.htm.
> Please consider the environment before printing this email. This message should be regarded
as confidential. If you have received this email in error please notify the sender and destroy
it immediately. Statements of intent shall only become binding when confirmed in hard copy
by an authorised signatory. The contents of this email may relate to dealings with other companies
under the control of BAE Systems Applied Intelligence Limited, details of which can be found
at http://www.baesystems.com/Businesses/index.htm.

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