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From mwa...@apache.org
Subject [4/5] accumulo-website git commit: Jekyll build from master:817a0ef
Date Fri, 26 May 2017 14:17:29 GMT
http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/accumulo-website/blob/9ebc5f9a/docs/unreleased/development/iterator_design.html
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-    <p><a href="/docs/unreleased/">Accumulo unreleased docs</a> &nbsp;&gt;&gt;&nbsp; Development &nbsp;&gt;&gt;&nbsp; Iterator Design</p>
-    
-    
-    <h1>Iterator Design</h1>
-    
-    <p>Accumulo SortedKeyValueIterators, commonly referred to as Iterators for short, are server-side programming constructs
-that allow users to implement custom retrieval or computational purpose within Accumulo TabletServers.  The name rightly
-brings forward similarities to the Java Iterator interface; however, Accumulo Iterators are more complex than Java
-Iterators. Notably, in addition to the expected methods to retrieve the current element and advance to the next element
-in the iteration, Accumulo Iterators must also support the ability to “move” (<code class="highlighter-rouge">seek</code>) to an specified point in the
-iteration (the Accumulo table). Accumulo Iterators are designed to be concatenated together, similar to applying a
-series of transformations to a list of elements. Accumulo Iterators can duplicate their underlying source to create
-multiple “pointers” over the same underlying data (which is extremely powerful since each stream is sorted) or they can
-merge multiple Iterators into a single view. In this sense, a collection of Iterators operating in tandem is close to
-a tree-structure than a list, but there is always a sense of a flow of Key-Value pairs through some Iterators. Iterators
-are not designed to act as triggers nor are they designed to operate outside of the purview of a single table.</p>
-
-<p>Understanding how TabletServers invoke the methods on a SortedKeyValueIterator can be obtuse as the actual code is
-buried within the implementation of the TabletServer; however, it is generally unnecessary to have a strong
-understanding of this as the interface provides clear definitions about what each action each method should take. This
-chapter aims to provide a more detailed description of how Iterators are invoked, some best practices and some common
-pitfalls.</p>
-
-<h2 id="instantiation">Instantiation</h2>
-
-<p>To invoke an Accumulo Iterator inside of the TabletServer, the Iterator class must be on the classpath of every
-TabletServer. For production environments, it is common to place a JAR file which contains the Iterator in
-<code class="highlighter-rouge">lib/</code>.  In development environments, it is convenient to instead place the JAR file in <code class="highlighter-rouge">lib/ext/</code> as JAR files
-in this directory are dynamically reloaded by the TabletServers alleviating the need to restart Accumulo while
-testing an Iterator. Advanced classloader features which enable other types of filesystems and per-table classpath
-configurations (as opposed to process-wide classpaths). These features are not covered here, but elsewhere in the user
-manual.</p>
-
-<p>Accumulo references the Iterator class by name and uses Java reflection to instantiate the Iterator. This means that
-Iterators must have a public no-args constructor.</p>
-
-<h2 id="interface">Interface</h2>
-
-<p>A normal implementation of the SortedKeyValueIterator defines functionality for the following methods:</p>
-
-<div class="language-java highlighter-rouge"><pre class="highlight"><code><span class="kt">void</span> <span class="nf">init</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="n">SortedKeyValueIterator</span><span class="o">&lt;</span><span class="n">Key</span><span class="o">,</span><span class="n">Value</span><span class="o">&gt;</span> <span class="n">source</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">Map</span><span class="o">&lt;</span><span class="n">String</span><span class="o">,</span><span class="n">String</span><span class="o">&gt;</span> <span class="n">options</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">IteratorEnvironment</span> <span class="n">env</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="kd">throws</span> <span class="n">IOException</span><span class="o">;</span>
-
-<span class="kt">boolean</span> <span class="nf">hasTop</span><span class="o">();</span>
-
-<span class="kt">void</span> <span class="nf">next</span><span class="o">()</span> <span class="kd">throws</span> <span class="n">IOException</span><span class="o">;</span>
-
-<span class="kt">void</span> <span class="nf">seek</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="n">Range</span> <span class="n">range</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">Collection</span><span class="o">&lt;</span><span class="n">ByteSequence</span><span class="o">&gt;</span> <span class="n">columnFamilies</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="kt">boolean</span> <span class="n">inclusive</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="kd">throws</span> <span class="n">IOException</span><span class="o">;</span>
-
-<span class="n">Key</span> <span class="nf">getTopKey</span><span class="o">();</span>
-
-<span class="n">Value</span> <span class="nf">getTopValue</span><span class="o">();</span>
-
-<span class="n">SortedKeyValueIterator</span><span class="o">&lt;</span><span class="n">Key</span><span class="o">,</span><span class="n">Value</span><span class="o">&gt;</span> <span class="nf">deepCopy</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="n">IteratorEnvironment</span> <span class="n">env</span><span class="o">);</span>
-</code></pre>
-</div>
-
-<h3 id="init">init</h3>
-
-<p>The <code class="highlighter-rouge">init</code> method is called by the TabletServer after it constructs an instance of the Iterator.  This method should
-clear/reset any internal state in the Iterator and prepare it to process data.  The first argument, the <code class="highlighter-rouge">source</code>, is the
-Iterator “below” this Iterator (where the client is at “top” and the Iterator for files in HDFS are at the “bottom”).
-The “source” Iterator provides the Key-Value pairs which this Iterator will operate upon.</p>
-
-<p>The second argument, a Map of options, is made up of options provided by the user, options set in the table’s
-configuration, and/or options set in the containing namespace’s configuration.
-These options allow for Iterators to dynamically configure themselves on the fly. If no options are used in the current context
-(a Scan or Compaction), the Map will be empty. An example of a configuration item for an Iterator could be a pattern used to filter
-Key-Value pairs in a regular expression Iterator.</p>
-
-<p>The third argument, the <code class="highlighter-rouge">IteratorEnvironment</code>, is a special object which provides information to this Iterator about the
-context in which it was invoked. Commonly, this information is not necessary to inspect. For example, if an Iterator
-knows that it is running in the context of a full-major compaction (reading all of the data) as opposed to a user scan
-(which may strongly limit the number of columns), the Iterator might make different algorithmic decisions in an attempt to
-optimize itself.</p>
-
-<h3 id="seek">seek</h3>
-
-<p>The <code class="highlighter-rouge">seek</code> method is likely the most confusing method on the Iterator interface. The purpose of this method is to
-advance the stream of Key-Value pairs to a certain point in the iteration (the Accumulo table). It is common that before
-the implementation of this method returns some additional processing is performed which may further advance the current
-position past the <code class="highlighter-rouge">startKey</code> of the <code class="highlighter-rouge">Range</code>. This, however, is dependent on the functionality the iterator provides. For
-example, a filtering iterator would consume a number Key-Value pairs which do not meets its criteria before <code class="highlighter-rouge">seek</code>
-returns. The important condition for <code class="highlighter-rouge">seek</code> to meet is that this Iterator should be ready to return the first Key-Value
-pair, or none if no such pair is available, when the method returns. The Key-Value pair would be returned by <code class="highlighter-rouge">getTopKey</code>
-and <code class="highlighter-rouge">getTopValue</code>, respectively, and <code class="highlighter-rouge">hasTop</code> should return a boolean denoting whether or not there is
-a Key-Value pair to return.</p>
-
-<p>The arguments passed to seek are as follows:</p>
-
-<p>The TabletServer first provides a <code class="highlighter-rouge">Range</code>, an object which defines some collection of Accumulo <code class="highlighter-rouge">Key</code>s, which defines the
-Key-Value pairs that this Iterator should return. Each <code class="highlighter-rouge">Range</code> has a <code class="highlighter-rouge">startKey</code> and <code class="highlighter-rouge">endKey</code> with an inclusive flag for
-both. While this Range is often similar to the Range(s) set by the client on a Scanner or BatchScanner, it is not
-guaranteed to be a Range that the client set. Accumulo will split up larger ranges and group them together based on
-Tablet boundaries per TabletServer. Iterators should not attempt to implement any custom logic based on the Range(s)
-provided to <code class="highlighter-rouge">seek</code> and Iterators should not return any Keys that fall outside of the provided Range.</p>
-
-<p>The second argument, a <code class="highlighter-rouge">Collection&lt;ByteSequence&gt;</code>, is the set of column families which should be retained or
-excluded by this Iterator. The third argument, a boolean, defines whether the collection of column families
-should be treated as an inclusion collection (true) or an exclusion collection (false).</p>
-
-<p>It is likely that all implementations of <code class="highlighter-rouge">seek</code> will first make a call to the <code class="highlighter-rouge">seek</code> method on the
-“source” Iterator that was provided in the <code class="highlighter-rouge">init</code> method. The collection of column families and
-the boolean <code class="highlighter-rouge">include</code> argument should be passed down as well as the <code class="highlighter-rouge">Range</code>. Somewhat commonly, the Iterator will
-also implement some sort of additional logic to find or compute the first Key-Value pair in the provided
-Range. For example, a regular expression Iterator would consume all records which do not match the given
-pattern before returning from <code class="highlighter-rouge">seek</code>.</p>
-
-<p>It is important to retain the original Range passed to this method to know when this Iterator should stop
-reading more Key-Value pairs. Ignoring this typically does not affect scans from a Scanner, but it
-will result in duplicate keys emitting from a BatchScan if the scanned table has more than one tablet.
-Best practice is to never emit entries outside the seek range.</p>
-
-<h3 id="next">next</h3>
-
-<p>The <code class="highlighter-rouge">next</code> method is analogous to the <code class="highlighter-rouge">next</code> method on a Java Iterator: this method should advance
-the Iterator to the next Key-Value pair. For implementations that perform some filtering or complex
-logic, this may result in more than one Key-Value pair being inspected. This method alters
-some internal state that is exposed via the <code class="highlighter-rouge">hasTop</code>, <code class="highlighter-rouge">getTopKey</code>, and <code class="highlighter-rouge">getTopValue</code> methods.</p>
-
-<p>The result of this method is commonly caching a Key-Value pair which <code class="highlighter-rouge">getTopKey</code> and <code class="highlighter-rouge">getTopValue</code>
-can later return. While there is another Key-Value pair to return, <code class="highlighter-rouge">hasTop</code> should return true.
-If there are no more Key-Value pairs to return from this Iterator since the last call to
-<code class="highlighter-rouge">seek</code>, <code class="highlighter-rouge">hasTop</code> should return false.</p>
-
-<h3 id="hastop">hasTop</h3>
-
-<p>The <code class="highlighter-rouge">hasTop</code> method is similar to the <code class="highlighter-rouge">hasNext</code> method on a Java Iterator in that it informs
-the caller if there is a Key-Value pair to be returned. If there is no pair to return, this method
-should return false. Like a Java Iterator, multiple calls to <code class="highlighter-rouge">hasTop</code> (without calling <code class="highlighter-rouge">next</code>) should not
-alter the internal state of the Iterator.</p>
-
-<h3 id="gettopkey-and-gettopvalue">getTopKey and getTopValue</h3>
-
-<p>These methods simply return the current Key-Value pair for this iterator. If <code class="highlighter-rouge">hasTop</code> returns true,
-both of these methods should return non-null objects. If <code class="highlighter-rouge">hasTop</code> returns false, it is undefined
-what these methods should return. Like <code class="highlighter-rouge">hasTop</code>, multiple calls to these methods should not alter
-the state of the Iterator.</p>
-
-<p>Users should take caution when either</p>
-
-<ol>
-  <li>caching the Key/Value from <code class="highlighter-rouge">getTopKey</code>/<code class="highlighter-rouge">getTopValue</code>, for use after calling <code class="highlighter-rouge">next</code> on the source iterator.
-In this case, the cached Key/Value object is aliased to the reference returned by the source iterator.
-Iterators may reuse the same Key/Value object in a <code class="highlighter-rouge">next</code> call for performance reasons, changing the data
-that the cached Key/Value object references and resulting in a logic bug.</li>
-  <li>modifying the Key/Value from <code class="highlighter-rouge">getTopKey</code>/<code class="highlighter-rouge">getTopValue</code>. If the source iterator reuses data stored in the Key/Value,
-then the source iterator may use the modified data that the Key/Value references. This may/may not result in a logic bug.</li>
-</ol>
-
-<p>In both cases, copying the Key/Value’s data into a new object ensures iterator correctness. If neither case applies,
-it is safe to not copy the Key/Value.  The general guideline is to be aware of who else may use Key/Value objects
-returned from <code class="highlighter-rouge">getTopKey</code>/<code class="highlighter-rouge">getTopValue</code>.</p>
-
-<h3 id="deepcopy">deepCopy</h3>
-
-<p>The <code class="highlighter-rouge">deepCopy</code> method is similar to the <code class="highlighter-rouge">clone</code> method from the Java <code class="highlighter-rouge">Cloneable</code> interface.
-Implementations of this method should return a new object of the same type as the Accumulo Iterator
-instance it was called on. Any internal state from the instance <code class="highlighter-rouge">deepCopy</code> was called
-on should be carried over to the returned copy. The returned copy should be ready to have
-<code class="highlighter-rouge">seek</code> called on it. The SortedKeyValueIterator interface guarantees that <code class="highlighter-rouge">init</code> will be called on
-an iterator before <code class="highlighter-rouge">deepCopy</code> and that <code class="highlighter-rouge">init</code> will not be called on the iterator returned by
-<code class="highlighter-rouge">deepCopy</code>.</p>
-
-<p>Typically, implementations of <code class="highlighter-rouge">deepCopy</code> call a copy-constructor which will initialize
-internal data structures. As with <code class="highlighter-rouge">seek</code>, it is common for the <code class="highlighter-rouge">IteratorEnvironment</code>
-argument to be ignored as most Iterator implementations can be written without the explicit
-information the environment provides.</p>
-
-<p>In the analogy of a series of Iterators representing a tree, <code class="highlighter-rouge">deepCopy</code> can be thought of as
-early programming assignments which implement their own tree data structures. <code class="highlighter-rouge">deepCopy</code> calls
-copy on its sources (the children), copies itself, attaches the copies of the children, and
-then returns itself.</p>
-
-<h2 id="tabletserver-invocation-of-iterators">TabletServer invocation of Iterators</h2>
-
-<p>The following code is a general outline for how TabletServers invoke Iterators.</p>
-
-<div class="language-java highlighter-rouge"><pre class="highlight"><code><span class="n">List</span><span class="o">&lt;</span><span class="n">KeyValue</span><span class="o">&gt;</span> <span class="n">batch</span><span class="o">;</span>
-<span class="n">Range</span> <span class="n">range</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">getRangeFromClient</span><span class="o">();</span>
-<span class="k">while</span><span class="o">(!</span><span class="n">overSizeLimit</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="n">batch</span><span class="o">)){</span>
- <span class="n">SortedKeyValueIterator</span> <span class="n">source</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">getSystemIterator</span><span class="o">();</span>
-
- <span class="k">for</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="n">String</span> <span class="n">clzName</span> <span class="o">:</span> <span class="n">getUserIterators</span><span class="o">()){</span>
-  <span class="n">Class</span><span class="o">&lt;?&gt;</span> <span class="n">clz</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">Class</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">forName</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="n">clzName</span><span class="o">);</span>
-  <span class="n">SortedKeyValueIterator</span> <span class="n">iter</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">SortedKeyValueIterator</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="n">clz</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">newInstance</span><span class="o">();</span>
-  <span class="n">iter</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">init</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="n">source</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">opts</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">env</span><span class="o">);</span>
-  <span class="n">source</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">iter</span><span class="o">;</span>
- <span class="o">}</span>
-
- <span class="c1">// read a batch of data to return to client</span>
- <span class="c1">// the last iterator, the "top"</span>
- <span class="n">SortedKeyValueIterator</span> <span class="n">topIter</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">source</span><span class="o">;</span>
- <span class="n">topIter</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">seek</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="n">getRangeFromUser</span><span class="o">(),</span> <span class="o">...)</span>
-
- <span class="k">while</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="n">topIter</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">hasTop</span><span class="o">()</span> <span class="o">&amp;&amp;</span> <span class="o">!</span><span class="n">overSizeLimit</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="n">batch</span><span class="o">)){</span>
-   <span class="n">key</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">topIter</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">getTopKey</span><span class="o">()</span>
-   <span class="n">val</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">topIter</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">getTopValue</span><span class="o">()</span>
-   <span class="n">batch</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">add</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="k">new</span> <span class="n">KeyValue</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="n">key</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">val</span><span class="o">)</span>
-   <span class="k">if</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="n">systemDataSourcesChanged</span><span class="o">()){</span>
-     <span class="c1">// code does not show isolation case, which will</span>
-     <span class="c1">// keep using same data sources until a row boundry is hit </span>
-     <span class="n">range</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="k">new</span> <span class="n">Range</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="n">key</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="kc">false</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">range</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">endKey</span><span class="o">(),</span> <span class="n">range</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">endKeyInclusive</span><span class="o">());</span>
-     <span class="k">break</span><span class="o">;</span>
-   <span class="o">}</span>
- <span class="o">}</span>
-<span class="o">}</span>
-<span class="c1">//return batch of key values to client</span>
-</code></pre>
-</div>
-
-<p>Additionally, the obtuse “re-seek” case can be outlined as the following:</p>
-
-<div class="language-java highlighter-rouge"><pre class="highlight"><code><span class="c1">// Given the above</span>
-<span class="n">List</span><span class="o">&lt;</span><span class="n">KeyValue</span><span class="o">&gt;</span> <span class="n">batch</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">getNextBatch</span><span class="o">();</span>
-
-<span class="c1">// Store off lastKeyReturned for this client</span>
-<span class="n">lastKeyReturned</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">batch</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">get</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="n">batch</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">size</span><span class="o">()</span> <span class="o">-</span> <span class="mi">1</span><span class="o">).</span><span class="na">getKey</span><span class="o">();</span>
-
-<span class="c1">// thread goes away (client stops asking for the next batch).</span>
-
-<span class="c1">// Eventually client comes back</span>
-<span class="c1">// Setup as before...</span>
-
-<span class="n">Range</span> <span class="n">userRange</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">getRangeFromUser</span><span class="o">();</span>
-<span class="n">Range</span> <span class="n">actualRange</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="k">new</span> <span class="n">Range</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="n">lastKeyReturned</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="kc">false</span>
-    <span class="n">userRange</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">getEndKey</span><span class="o">(),</span> <span class="n">userRange</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">isEndKeyInclusive</span><span class="o">());</span>
-
-<span class="c1">// Use the actualRange, not the user provided one</span>
-<span class="n">topIter</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">seek</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="n">actualRange</span><span class="o">);</span>
-</code></pre>
-</div>
-
-<h2 id="isolation">Isolation</h2>
-
-<p>Accumulo provides a feature which clients can enable to prevent the viewing of partially
-applied mutations within the context of rows. If a client is submitting multiple column
-updates to rows at a time, isolation would ensure that a client would either see all of
-updates made to that row or none of the updates (until they are all applied).</p>
-
-<p>When using Isolation, there are additional concerns in iterator design. A scan time iterator in accumulo
-reads from a set of data sources. While an iterator is reading data it has an isolated view. However, after it returns a
-key/value it is possible that accumulo may switch data sources and re-seek the iterator. This is done so that resources
-may be reclaimed. When the user does not request isolation this can occur after any key is returned. When a user enables
-Isolation, this will only occur after a new row is returned, in which case it will re-seek to the very beginning of the
-next possible row.</p>
-
-<h2 id="abstract-iterators">Abstract Iterators</h2>
-
-<p>A number of Abstract implementations of Iterators are provided to allow for faster creation
-of common patterns. The most commonly used abstract implementations are the <code class="highlighter-rouge">Filter</code> and
-<code class="highlighter-rouge">Combiner</code> classes. When possible these classes should be used instead as they have been
-thoroughly tested inside Accumulo itself.</p>
-
-<h3 id="filter">Filter</h3>
-
-<p>The <code class="highlighter-rouge">Filter</code> abstract Iterator provides a very simple implementation which allows implementations
-to define whether or not a Key-Value pair should be returned via an <code class="highlighter-rouge">accept(Key, Value)</code> method.</p>
-
-<p>Filters are extremely simple to implement; however, when the implementation is filtering a
-large percentage of Key-Value pairs with respect to the total number of pairs examined,
-it can be very inefficient. For example, if a Filter implementation can determine after examining
-part of the row that no other pairs in this row will be accepted, there is no mechanism to
-efficiently skip the remaining Key-Value pairs. Concretely, take a row which is comprised of
-1000 Key-Value pairs. After examining the first 10 Key-Value pairs, it is determined
-that no other Key-Value pairs in this row will be accepted. The Filter must still examine each
-remaining 990 Key-Value pairs in this row. Another way to express this deficiency is that
-Filters have no means to leverage the <code class="highlighter-rouge">seek</code> method to efficiently skip large portions
-of Key-Value pairs.</p>
-
-<p>As such, the <code class="highlighter-rouge">Filter</code> class functions well for filtering small amounts of data, but is
-inefficient for filtering large amounts of data. The decision to use a <code class="highlighter-rouge">Filter</code> strongly
-depends on the use case and distribution of data being filtered.</p>
-
-<h3 id="combiner">Combiner</h3>
-
-<p>The <code class="highlighter-rouge">Combiner</code> class is another common abstract Iterator. Similar to the <code class="highlighter-rouge">Combiner</code> interface
-define in Hadoop’s MapReduce framework, implementations of this abstract class reduce
-multiple Values for different versions of a Key (Keys which only differ by timestamps) into one Key-Value pair.
-Combiners provide a simple way to implement common operations like summation and
-aggregation without the need to implement the entire Accumulo Iterator interface.</p>
-
-<p>One important consideration when choosing to design a Combiner is that the “reduction” operation
-is often best represented when it is associative and commutative. Operations which do not meet
-these criteria can be implemented; however, the implementation can be difficult.</p>
-
-<p>A second consideration is that a Combiner is not guaranteed to see every Key-Value pair
-which differ only by timestamp every time it is invoked. For example, if there are 5 Key-Value
-pairs in a table which only differ by the timestamps 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, it is not guaranteed that
-every invocation of the Combiner will see 5 timestamps. One invocation might see the Values for
-Keys with timestamp 1 and 4, while another invocation might see the Values for Keys with the
-timestamps 1, 2, 4 and 5.</p>
-
-<p>Finally, when configuring an Accumulo table to use a Combiner, be sure to disable the Versioning Iterator or set the
-Combiner at a priority less than the Combiner (the Versioning Iterator is added at a priority of 20 by default). The
-Versioning Iterator will filter out multiple Key-Value pairs that differ only by timestamp and return only the Key-Value
-pair that has the largest timestamp.</p>
-
-<h2 id="best-practices">Best practices</h2>
-
-<p>Because of the flexibility that the <code class="highlighter-rouge">SortedKeyValueInterface</code> provides, it doesn’t directly disallow
-many implementations which are poor design decisions. The following are some common recommendations to
-follow and pitfalls to avoid in Iterator implementations.</p>
-
-<h4 id="avoid-special-logic-encoded-in-ranges">Avoid special logic encoded in Ranges</h4>
-
-<p>Commonly, granular Ranges that a client passes to an Iterator from a <code class="highlighter-rouge">Scanner</code> or <code class="highlighter-rouge">BatchScanner</code> are unmodified.
-If a <code class="highlighter-rouge">Range</code> falls within the boundaries of a Tablet, an Iterator will often see that same Range in the
-<code class="highlighter-rouge">seek</code> method. However, there is no guarantee that the <code class="highlighter-rouge">Range</code> will remain unaltered from client to server. As such, Iterators
-should <em>never</em> make assumptions about the current state/context based on the <code class="highlighter-rouge">Range</code>.</p>
-
-<p>The common failure condition is referred to as a “re-seek”. In the context of a Scan, TabletServers construct the
-“stack” of Iterators and batch up Key-Value pairs to send back to the client. When a sufficient number of Key-Value
-pairs are collected, it is common for the Iterators to be “torn down” until the client asks for the next batch of
-Key-Value pairs. This is done by the TabletServer to add fairness in ensuring one Scan does not monopolize the available
-resources. When the client asks for the next batch, the implementation modifies the original Range so that servers know
-the point to resume the iteration (to avoid returning duplicate Key-Value pairs). Specifically, the new Range is created
-from the original but is shortened by setting the startKey of the original Range to the Key last returned by the Scan,
-non-inclusive.</p>
-
-<h3 id="seeking-backwards"><code class="highlighter-rouge">seek</code>‘ing backwards</h3>
-
-<p>The ability for an Iterator to “skip over” large blocks of Key-Value pairs is a major tenet behind Iterators.
-By <code class="highlighter-rouge">seek</code>‘ing when it is known that there is a collection of Key-Value pairs which can be ignored can
-greatly increase the speed of a scan as many Key-Value pairs do not have to be deserialized and processed.</p>
-
-<p>While the <code class="highlighter-rouge">seek</code> method provides the <code class="highlighter-rouge">Range</code> that should be used to <code class="highlighter-rouge">seek</code> the underlying source Iterator,
-there is no guarantee that the implementing Iterator uses that <code class="highlighter-rouge">Range</code> to perform the <code class="highlighter-rouge">seek</code> on its
-“source” Iterator. As such, it is possible to seek to any <code class="highlighter-rouge">Range</code> and the interface has no assertions
-to prevent this from happening.</p>
-
-<p>Since Iterators are allowed to <code class="highlighter-rouge">seek</code> to arbitrary Keys, it also allows Iterators to create infinite loops
-inside Scans that will repeatedly read the same data without end. If an arbitrary Range is constructed, it should
-construct a completely new Range as it allows for bugs to be introduced which will break Accumulo.</p>
-
-<p>Thus, <code class="highlighter-rouge">seek</code>’s should always be thought of as making “forward progress” in the view of the total iteration. The
-<code class="highlighter-rouge">startKey</code> of a <code class="highlighter-rouge">Range</code> should always be greater than the current Key seen by the Iterator while the <code class="highlighter-rouge">endKey</code> of the
-<code class="highlighter-rouge">Range</code> should always retain the original <code class="highlighter-rouge">endKey</code> (and <code class="highlighter-rouge">endKey</code> inclusivity) of the last <code class="highlighter-rouge">Range</code> seen by your
-Iterator’s implementation of seek.</p>
-
-<h3 id="take-caution-in-constructing-new-data-in-an-iterator">Take caution in constructing new data in an Iterator</h3>
-
-<p>Implementations of Iterator might be tempted to open BatchWriters inside of an Iterator as a means
-to implement triggers for writing additional data outside of their client application. The lifecycle of an Iterator
-is <em>not</em> managed in such a way that guarantees that this is safe nor efficient. Specifically, there
-is no way to guarantee that the internal ThreadPool inside of the BatchWriter is closed (and the thread(s)
-are reaped) without calling the close() method. <code class="highlighter-rouge">close</code>‘ing and recreating a <code class="highlighter-rouge">BatchWriter</code> after every
-Key-Value pair is also prohibitively performance limiting to be considered an option.</p>
-
-<p>The only safe way to generate additional data in an Iterator is to alter the current Key-Value pair.
-For example, the <code class="highlighter-rouge">WholeRowIterator</code> serializes the all of the Key-Values pairs that fall within each
-row. A safe way to generate more data in an Iterator would be to construct an Iterator that is
-“higher” (at a larger priority) than the <code class="highlighter-rouge">WholeRowIterator</code>, that is, the Iterator receives the Key-Value pairs which are
-a serialization of many Key-Value pairs. The custom Iterator could deserialize the pairs, compute
-some function, and add a new Key-Value pair to the original collection, re-serializing the collection
-of Key-Value pairs back into a single Key-Value pair.</p>
-
-<p>Any other situation is likely not guaranteed to ensure that the caller (a Scan or a Compaction) will
-always see all intended data that is generated.</p>
-
-<h2 id="final-things-to-remember">Final things to remember</h2>
-
-<p>Some simple recommendations/points to keep in mind:</p>
-
-<h3 id="method-call-order">Method call order</h3>
-
-<p>On an instance of an Iterator: <code class="highlighter-rouge">init</code> is always called before <code class="highlighter-rouge">seek</code>, <code class="highlighter-rouge">seek</code> is always called before <code class="highlighter-rouge">hasTop</code>,
-<code class="highlighter-rouge">getTopKey</code> and <code class="highlighter-rouge">getTopValue</code> will not be called if <code class="highlighter-rouge">hasTop</code> returns false.</p>
-
-<h3 id="teardown">Teardown</h3>
-
-<p>As mentioned, instance of Iterators may be torn down inside of the server transparently. When a complex
-collection of iterators is performing some advanced functionality, they will not be torn down until a Key-Value
-pair is returned out of the “stack” of Iterators (and added into the batch of Key-Values to be returned
-to the caller). Being torn-down is equivalent to a new instance of the Iterator being creating and <code class="highlighter-rouge">deepCopy</code>
-being called on the new instance with the old instance provided as the argument to <code class="highlighter-rouge">deepCopy</code>. References
-to the old instance are removed and the object is lazily garbage collected by the JVM.</p>
-
-<h2 id="compaction-time-iterators">Compaction-time Iterators</h2>
-
-<p>When Iterators are configured to run during compactions, at the <code class="highlighter-rouge">minc</code> or <code class="highlighter-rouge">majc</code> scope, these Iterators sometimes need
-to make different assertions than those who only operate at scan time. Iterators won’t see the delete entries; however,
-Iterators will not necessarily see all of the Key-Value pairs in ever invocation. Because compactions often do not rewrite
-all files (only a subset of them), it is possible that the logic take this into consideration.</p>
-
-<p>For example, a Combiner that runs over data at during compactions, might not see all of the values for a given Key. The
-Combiner must recognize this and not perform any function that would be incorrect due
-to the missing values.</p>
-
-  </div>
-</div>
-
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-  <p><a href="https://www.apache.org/foundation/contributing"><img src="https://www.apache.org/images/SupportApache-small.png" alt="Support the ASF" id="asf-logo" height="100" /></a></p>
-
-  <p>Copyright © 2011-2017 The Apache Software Foundation. Licensed under the <a href="https://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0">Apache License, Version 2.0</a>.</p>
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-    <p><a href="/docs/unreleased/">Accumulo unreleased docs</a> &nbsp;&gt;&gt;&nbsp; Development &nbsp;&gt;&gt;&nbsp; Iterator Testing</p>
-    
-    
-    <h1>Iterator Testing</h1>
-    
-    <p>Iterators, while extremely powerful, are notoriously difficult to test. While the API defines
-the methods an Iterator must implement and each method’s functionality, the actual invocation
-of these methods by Accumulo TabletServers can be surprisingly difficult to mimic in unit tests.</p>
-
-<p>The Apache Accumulo “Iterator Test Harness” is designed to provide a generalized testing framework
-for all Accumulo Iterators to leverage to identify common pitfalls in user-created Iterators.</p>
-
-<h2 id="framework-use">Framework Use</h2>
-
-<p>The harness provides an abstract class for use with JUnit4. Users must define the following for this
-abstract class:</p>
-
-<ul>
-  <li>A <code class="highlighter-rouge">SortedMap</code> of input data (<code class="highlighter-rouge">Key</code>-<code class="highlighter-rouge">Value</code> pairs)</li>
-  <li>A <code class="highlighter-rouge">Range</code> to use in tests</li>
-  <li>A <code class="highlighter-rouge">Map</code> of options (<code class="highlighter-rouge">String</code> to <code class="highlighter-rouge">String</code> pairs)</li>
-  <li>A <code class="highlighter-rouge">SortedMap</code> of output data (<code class="highlighter-rouge">Key</code>-<code class="highlighter-rouge">Value</code> pairs)</li>
-  <li>A list of <code class="highlighter-rouge">IteratorTestCase</code>s (these can be automatically discovered)</li>
-</ul>
-
-<p>The majority of effort a user must make is in creating the input dataset and the expected
-output dataset for the iterator being tested.</p>
-
-<h2 id="normal-test-outline">Normal Test Outline</h2>
-
-<p>Most iterator tests will follow the given outline:</p>
-
-<div class="language-java highlighter-rouge"><pre class="highlight"><code><span class="kn">import</span> <span class="nn">java.util.List</span><span class="o">;</span>
-<span class="kn">import</span> <span class="nn">java.util.SortedMap</span><span class="o">;</span>
-
-<span class="kn">import</span> <span class="nn">org.apache.accumulo.core.data.Key</span><span class="o">;</span>
-<span class="kn">import</span> <span class="nn">org.apache.accumulo.core.data.Range</span><span class="o">;</span>
-<span class="kn">import</span> <span class="nn">org.apache.accumulo.core.data.Value</span><span class="o">;</span>
-<span class="kn">import</span> <span class="nn">org.apache.accumulo.iteratortest.IteratorTestCaseFinder</span><span class="o">;</span>
-<span class="kn">import</span> <span class="nn">org.apache.accumulo.iteratortest.IteratorTestInput</span><span class="o">;</span>
-<span class="kn">import</span> <span class="nn">org.apache.accumulo.iteratortest.IteratorTestOutput</span><span class="o">;</span>
-<span class="kn">import</span> <span class="nn">org.apache.accumulo.iteratortest.junit4.BaseJUnit4IteratorTest</span><span class="o">;</span>
-<span class="kn">import</span> <span class="nn">org.apache.accumulo.iteratortest.testcases.IteratorTestCase</span><span class="o">;</span>
-<span class="kn">import</span> <span class="nn">org.junit.runners.Parameterized.Parameters</span><span class="o">;</span>
-
-<span class="kd">public</span> <span class="kd">class</span> <span class="nc">MyIteratorTest</span> <span class="kd">extends</span> <span class="n">BaseJUnit4IteratorTest</span> <span class="o">{</span>
-
-  <span class="nd">@Parameters</span>
-  <span class="kd">public</span> <span class="kd">static</span> <span class="n">Object</span><span class="o">[][]</span> <span class="nf">parameters</span><span class="o">()</span> <span class="o">{</span>
-    <span class="kd">final</span> <span class="n">IteratorTestInput</span> <span class="n">input</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">createIteratorInput</span><span class="o">();</span>
-    <span class="kd">final</span> <span class="n">IteratorTestOutput</span> <span class="n">output</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">createIteratorOutput</span><span class="o">();</span>
-    <span class="kd">final</span> <span class="n">List</span><span class="o">&lt;</span><span class="n">IteratorTestCase</span><span class="o">&gt;</span> <span class="n">testCases</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">IteratorTestCaseFinder</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">findAllTestCases</span><span class="o">();</span>
-    <span class="k">return</span> <span class="n">BaseJUnit4IteratorTest</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">createParameters</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="n">input</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">output</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">tests</span><span class="o">);</span>
-  <span class="o">}</span>
-
-  <span class="kd">private</span> <span class="kd">static</span> <span class="n">SortedMap</span><span class="o">&lt;</span><span class="n">Key</span><span class="o">,</span><span class="n">Value</span><span class="o">&gt;</span> <span class="n">INPUT_DATA</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">createInputData</span><span class="o">();</span>
-  <span class="kd">private</span> <span class="kd">static</span> <span class="n">SortedMap</span><span class="o">&lt;</span><span class="n">Key</span><span class="o">,</span><span class="n">Value</span><span class="o">&gt;</span> <span class="n">OUTPUT_DATA</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">createOutputData</span><span class="o">();</span>
-
-  <span class="kd">private</span> <span class="kd">static</span> <span class="n">SortedMap</span><span class="o">&lt;</span><span class="n">Key</span><span class="o">,</span><span class="n">Value</span><span class="o">&gt;</span> <span class="nf">createInputData</span><span class="o">()</span> <span class="o">{</span>
-    <span class="c1">// TODO -- implement this method</span>
-  <span class="o">}</span>
-
-  <span class="kd">private</span> <span class="kd">static</span> <span class="n">SortedMap</span><span class="o">&lt;</span><span class="n">Key</span><span class="o">,</span><span class="n">Value</span><span class="o">&gt;</span> <span class="nf">createOutputData</span><span class="o">()</span> <span class="o">{</span>
-    <span class="c1">// TODO -- implement this method</span>
-  <span class="o">}</span>
-
-  <span class="kd">private</span> <span class="kd">static</span> <span class="n">IteratorTestInput</span> <span class="nf">createIteratorInput</span><span class="o">()</span> <span class="o">{</span>
-    <span class="kd">final</span> <span class="n">Map</span><span class="o">&lt;</span><span class="n">String</span><span class="o">,</span><span class="n">String</span><span class="o">&gt;</span> <span class="n">options</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">createIteratorOptions</span><span class="o">();</span> 
-    <span class="kd">final</span> <span class="n">Range</span> <span class="n">range</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">createRange</span><span class="o">();</span>
-    <span class="k">return</span> <span class="k">new</span> <span class="nf">IteratorTestInput</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="n">MyIterator</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">class</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">options</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">range</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">INPUT_DATA</span><span class="o">);</span>
-  <span class="o">}</span>
-
-  <span class="kd">private</span> <span class="kd">static</span> <span class="n">Map</span><span class="o">&lt;</span><span class="n">String</span><span class="o">,</span><span class="n">String</span><span class="o">&gt;</span> <span class="nf">createIteratorOptions</span><span class="o">()</span> <span class="o">{</span>
-    <span class="c1">// TODO -- implement this method</span>
-    <span class="c1">// Tip: Use INPUT_DATA if helpful in generating output</span>
-  <span class="o">}</span>
-
-  <span class="kd">private</span> <span class="kd">static</span> <span class="n">Range</span> <span class="nf">createRange</span><span class="o">()</span> <span class="o">{</span>
-    <span class="c1">// TODO -- implement this method</span>
-  <span class="o">}</span>
-
-  <span class="kd">private</span> <span class="kd">static</span> <span class="n">IteratorTestOutput</span> <span class="nf">createIteratorOutput</span><span class="o">()</span> <span class="o">{</span>
-    <span class="k">return</span> <span class="k">new</span> <span class="nf">IteratorTestOutput</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="n">OUTPUT_DATA</span><span class="o">);</span>
-  <span class="o">}</span>
-<span class="o">}</span>
-</code></pre>
-</div>
-
-<h2 id="limitations">Limitations</h2>
-
-<p>While the provided <code class="highlighter-rouge">IteratorTestCase</code>s should exercise common edge-cases in user iterators,
-there are still many limitations to the existing test harness. Some of them are:</p>
-
-<ul>
-  <li>Can only specify a single iterator, not many (a “stack”)</li>
-  <li>No control over provided IteratorEnvironment for tests</li>
-  <li>Exercising delete keys (especially with major compactions that do not include all files)</li>
-</ul>
-
-<p>These are left as future improvements to the harness.</p>
-
-  </div>
-</div>
-
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