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From ctubb...@apache.org
Subject [39/50] [abbrv] accumulo-website git commit: ACCUMULO-4518 Use Jekyll posts for releases
Date Tue, 22 Nov 2016 19:38:57 GMT
http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/accumulo-website/blob/9a50bd13/1.3/user_manual/Table_Configuration.md
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+---
+title: "User Manual: Table Configuration"
+---
+
+** Next:** [Table Design][2] ** Up:** [Apache Accumulo User Manual Version 1.3][4] ** Previous:** [Writing Accumulo Clients][6]   ** [Contents][8]**   
+  
+<a id="CHILD_LINKS"></a>**Subsections**
+
+* [Locality Groups][9]
+* [Constraints][10]
+* [Bloom Filters][11]
+* [Iterators][12]
+* [Aggregating Iterators][13]
+* [Block Cache][14]
+
+* * *
+
+## <a id="Table_Configuration"></a> Table Configuration
+
+Accumulo tables have a few options that can be configured to alter the default behavior of Accumulo as well as improve performance based on the data stored. These include locality groups, constraints, and iterators. 
+
+## <a id="Locality_Groups"></a> Locality Groups
+
+Accumulo supports storing of sets of column families separately on disk to allow clients to scan over columns that are frequently used together efficient and to avoid scanning over column families that are not requested. After a locality group is set Scanner and BatchScanner operations will automatically take advantage of them whenever the fetchColumnFamilies() method is used. 
+
+By default tables place all column families into the same ``default" locality group. Additional locality groups can be configured anytime via the shell or programmatically as follows: 
+
+### <a id="Managing_Locality_Groups_via_the_Shell"></a> Managing Locality Groups via the Shell
+    
+    
+    usage: setgroups <group>=<col fam>{,<col fam>}{ <group>=<col fam>{,<col
+    fam>}} [-?] -t <table>
+    
+    user@myinstance mytable> setgroups -t mytable group_one=colf1,colf2
+    
+    user@myinstance mytable> getgroups -t mytable
+    group_one=colf1,colf2
+    
+
+### <a id="Managing_Locality_Groups_via_the_Client_API"></a> Managing Locality Groups via the Client API
+    
+    
+    Connector conn;
+    
+    HashMap<String,Set<Text>> localityGroups =
+        new HashMap<String, Set<Text>>();
+    
+    HashSet<Text> metadataColumns = new HashSet<Text>();
+    metadataColumns.add(new Text("domain"));
+    metadataColumns.add(new Text("link"));
+    
+    HashSet<Text> contentColumns = new HashSet<Text>();
+    contentColumns.add(new Text("body"));
+    contentColumns.add(new Text("images"));
+    
+    localityGroups.put("metadata", metadataColumns);
+    localityGroups.put("content", contentColumns);
+    
+    conn.tableOperations().setLocalityGroups("mytable", localityGroups);
+    
+    // existing locality groups can be obtained as follows
+    Map<String, Set<Text>> groups =
+        conn.tableOperations().getLocalityGroups("mytable");
+    
+
+The assignment of Column Families to Locality Groups can be changed anytime. The physical movement of column families into their new locality groups takes place via the periodic Major Compaction process that takes place continuously in the background. Major Compaction can also be scheduled to take place immediately through the shell: 
+    
+    
+    user@myinstance mytable> compact -t mytable
+    
+
+## <a id="Constraints"></a> Constraints
+
+Accumulo supports constraints applied on mutations at insert time. This can be used to disallow certain inserts according to a user defined policy. Any mutation that fails to meet the requirements of the constraint is rejected and sent back to the client. 
+
+Constraints can be enabled by setting a table property as follows: 
+    
+    
+    user@myinstance mytable> config -t mytable -s table.constraint.1=com.test.ExampleConstraint
+    user@myinstance mytable> config -t mytable -s table.constraint.2=com.test.AnotherConstraint
+    user@myinstance mytable> config -t mytable -f constraint
+    ---------+--------------------------------+----------------------------
+    SCOPE    | NAME                           | VALUE
+    ---------+--------------------------------+----------------------------
+    table    | table.constraint.1............ | com.test.ExampleConstraint
+    table    | table.constraint.2............ | com.test.AnotherConstraint
+    ---------+--------------------------------+----------------------------
+    
+
+Currently there are no general-purpose constraints provided with the Accumulo distribution. New constraints can be created by writing a Java class that implements the org.apache.accumulo.core.constraints.Constraint interface. 
+
+To deploy a new constraint, create a jar file containing the class implementing the new constraint and place it in the lib directory of the Accumulo installation. New constraint jars can be added to Accumulo and enabled without restarting but any change to an existing constraint class requires Accumulo to be restarted. 
+
+An example of constraints can be found in   
+accumulo/docs/examples/README.constraints with corresponding code under   
+accumulo/src/examples/main/java/accumulo/examples/constraints . 
+
+## <a id="Bloom_Filters"></a> Bloom Filters
+
+As mutations are applied to an Accumulo table, several files are created per tablet. If bloom filters are enabled, Accumulo will create and load a small data structure into memory to determine whether a file contains a given key before opening the file. This can speed up lookups considerably. 
+
+To enable bloom filters, enter the following command in the Shell: 
+    
+    
+    user@myinstance> config -t mytable -s table.bloom.enabled=true
+    
+
+An extensive example of using Bloom Filters can be found at   
+accumulo/docs/examples/README.bloom . 
+
+## <a id="Iterators"></a> Iterators
+
+Iterators provide a modular mechanism for adding functionality to be executed by TabletServers when scanning or compacting data. This allows users to efficiently summarize, filter, and aggregate data. In fact, the built-in features of cell-level security and age-off are implemented using Iterators. 
+
+### <a id="Setting_Iterators_via_the_Shell"></a> Setting Iterators via the Shell
+    
+    
+    usage: setiter [-?] -agg | -class <name> | -filter | -nolabel | 
+    -regex | -vers [-majc] [-minc] [-n <itername>] -p <pri> [-scan] 
+    [-t <table>]
+    
+    user@myinstance mytable> setiter -t mytable -scan -p 10 -n myiter
+    
+
+### <a id="Setting_Iterators_Programmatically"></a> Setting Iterators Programmatically
+    
+    
+    scanner.setScanIterators(
+        15, // priority
+        "com.company.MyIterator", // class name
+        "myiter"); // name this iterator
+    
+
+Some iterators take additional parameters from client code, as in the following example: 
+    
+    
+    bscan.setIteratorOption(
+        "myiter", // iterator reference
+        "myoptionname",
+        "myoptionvalue");
+    
+
+Tables support separate Iterator settings to be applied at scan time, upon minor compaction and upon major compaction. For most uses, tables will have identical iterator settings for all three to avoid inconsistent results. 
+
+### <a id="Versioning_Iterators_and_Timestamps"></a> Versioning Iterators and Timestamps
+
+Accumulo provides the capability to manage versioned data through the use of timestamps within the Key. If a timestamp is not specified in the key created by the client then the system will set the timestamp to the current time. Two keys with identical rowIDs and columns but different timestamps are considered two versions of the same key. If two inserts are made into accumulo with the same rowID, column, and timestamp, then the behavior is non-deterministic. 
+
+Timestamps are sorted in descending order, so the most recent data comes first. Accumulo can be configured to return the top k versions, or versions later than a given date. The default is to return the one most recent version. 
+
+The version policy can be changed by changing the VersioningIterator options for a table as follows: 
+    
+    
+    user@myinstance mytable> config -t mytable -s
+    table.iterator.scan.vers.opt.maxVersions=3
+    
+    user@myinstance mytable> config -t mytable -s
+    table.iterator.minc.vers.opt.maxVersions=3
+    
+    user@myinstance mytable> config -t mytable -s
+    table.iterator.majc.vers.opt.maxVersions=3
+    
+
+#### <a id="Logical_Time"></a> Logical Time
+
+Accumulo 1.2 introduces the concept of logical time. This ensures that timestamps set by accumulo always move forward. This helps avoid problems caused by TabletServers that have different time settings. The per tablet counter gives unique one up time stamps on a per mutation basis. When using time in milliseconds, if two things arrive within the same millisecond then both receive the same timestamp. 
+
+A table can be configured to use logical timestamps at creation time as follows: 
+    
+    
+    user@myinstance> createtable -tl logical
+    
+
+#### <a id="Deletes"></a> Deletes
+
+Deletes are special keys in accumulo that get sorted along will all the other data. When a delete key is inserted, accumulo will not show anything that has a timestamp less than or equal to the delete key. During major compaction, any keys older than a delete key are omitted from the new file created, and the omitted keys are removed from disk as part of the regular garbage collection process. 
+
+### <a id="Filtering_Iterators"></a> Filtering Iterators
+
+When scanning over a set of key-value pairs it is possible to apply an arbitrary filtering policy through the use of a FilteringIterator. These types of iterators return only key-value pairs that satisfy the filter logic. Accumulo has two built-in filtering iterators that can be configured on any table: AgeOff and RegEx. More can be added by writing a Java class that implements the   
+org.apache.accumulo.core.iterators.filter.Filter interface. 
+
+To configure the AgeOff filter to remove data older than a certain date or a fixed amount of time from the present. The following example sets a table to delete everything inserted over 30 seconds ago: 
+    
+    
+    user@myinstance> createtable filtertest
+    user@myinstance filtertest> setiter -t filtertest -scan -minc -majc -p
+    10 -n myfilter -filter
+    
+    FilteringIterator uses Filters to accept or reject key/value pairs
+    ----------> entering options: <filterPriorityNumber>
+    <ageoff|regex|filterClass>
+    
+    ----------> set org.apache.accumulo.core.iterators.FilteringIterator option
+    (<name> <value>, hit enter to skip): 0 ageoff
+    
+    ----------> set org.apache.accumulo.core.iterators.FilteringIterator option
+    (<name> <value>, hit enter to skip):
+    AgeOffFilter removes entries with timestamps more than <ttl>
+    milliseconds old
+    
+    ----------> set org.apache.accumulo.core.iterators.filter.AgeOffFilter parameter
+    currentTime, if set, use the given value as the absolute time in
+    milliseconds as the current time of day:
+    
+    ----------> set org.apache.accumulo.core.iterators.filter.AgeOffFilter parameter
+    ttl, time to live (milliseconds): 30000
+    
+    user@myinstance filtertest>
+    user@myinstance filtertest> scan
+    user@myinstance filtertest> insert foo a b c
+    insert successful
+    user@myinstance filtertest> scan
+    foo a:b [] c
+    
+    ... wait 30 seconds ...
+    
+    user@myinstance filtertest> scan
+    user@myinstance filtertest>
+    
+
+To see the iterator settings for a table, use: 
+    
+    
+    user@example filtertest> config -t filtertest -f iterator
+    ---------+------------------------------------------+------------------
+    SCOPE    | NAME                                     | VALUE
+    ---------+------------------------------------------+------------------
+    table    | table.iterator.majc.myfilter ........... |
+    10,org.apache.accumulo.core.iterators.FilteringIterator
+    table    | table.iterator.majc.myfilter.opt.0 ..... |
+    org.apache.accumulo.core.iterators.filter.AgeOffFilter
+    table    | table.iterator.majc.myfilter.opt.0.ttl . | 30000
+    table    | table.iterator.minc.myfilter ........... |
+    10,org.apache.accumulo.core.iterators.FilteringIterator
+    table    | table.iterator.minc.myfilter.opt.0 ..... |
+    org.apache.accumulo.core.iterators.filter.AgeOffFilter
+    table    | table.iterator.minc.myfilter.opt.0.ttl . | 30000
+    table    | table.iterator.scan.myfilter ........... |
+    10,org.apache.accumulo.core.iterators.FilteringIterator
+    table    | table.iterator.scan.myfilter.opt.0 ..... |
+    org.apache.accumulo.core.iterators.filter.AgeOffFilter
+    table    | table.iterator.scan.myfilter.opt.0.ttl . | 30000
+    ---------+------------------------------------------+------------------
+    
+
+## <a id="Aggregating_Iterators"></a> Aggregating Iterators
+
+Accumulo allows aggregating iterators to be configured on tables and column families. When an aggregating iterator is set, the iterator is applied across the values associated with any keys that share rowID, column family, and column qualifier. This is similar to the reduce step in MapReduce, which applied some function to all the values associated with a particular key. 
+
+For example, if an aggregating iterator were configured on a table and the following mutations were inserted: 
+    
+    
+    Row     Family Qualifier Timestamp  Value
+    rowID1  colfA  colqA     20100101   1
+    rowID1  colfA  colqA     20100102   1
+    
+
+The table would reflect only one aggregate value: 
+    
+    
+    rowID1  colfA  colqA     -          2
+    
+
+Aggregating iterators can be enabled for a table as follows: 
+    
+    
+    user@myinstance> createtable perDayCounts -a
+    day=org.apache.accumulo.core.iterators.aggregation.StringSummation
+    
+    user@myinstance perDayCounts> insert row1 day 20080101 1
+    user@myinstance perDayCounts> insert row1 day 20080101 1
+    user@myinstance perDayCounts> insert row1 day 20080103 1
+    user@myinstance perDayCounts> insert row2 day 20080101 1
+    user@myinstance perDayCounts> insert row3 day 20080101 1
+    
+    user@myinstance perDayCounts> scan
+    row1 day:20080101 [] 2
+    row1 day:20080103 [] 1
+    row2 day:20080101 [] 2
+    
+
+Accumulo includes the following aggregators: 
+
+* **LongSummation**: expects values of type long and adds them. 
+* **StringSummation**: expects numbers represented as strings and adds them. 
+* **StringMax**: expects numbers as strings and retains the maximum number inserted. 
+* **StringMin**: expects numbers as strings and retains the minimum number inserted. 
+
+Additional Aggregators can be added by creating a Java class that implements   
+**org.apache.accumulo.core.iterators.aggregation.Aggregator** and adding a jar containing that class to Accumulo's lib directory. 
+
+An example of an aggregator can be found under   
+accumulo/src/examples/main/java/org/apache/accumulo/examples/aggregation/SortedSetAggregator.java 
+
+## <a id="Block_Cache"></a> Block Cache
+
+In order to increase throughput of commonly accessed entries, Accumulo employs a block cache. This block cache buffers data in memory so that it doesn't have to be read off of disk. The RFile format that Accumulo prefers is a mix of index blocks and data blocks, where the index blocks are used to find the appropriate data blocks. Typical queries to Accumulo result in a binary search over several index blocks followed by a linear scan of one or more data blocks. 
+
+The block cache can be configured on a per-table basis, and all tablets hosted on a tablet server share a single resource pool. To configure the size of the tablet server's block cache, set the following properties: 
+    
+    
+    tserver.cache.data.size: Specifies the size of the cache for file data blocks.
+    tserver.cache.index.size: Specifies the size of the cache for file indices.
+    
+
+To enable the block cache for your table, set the following properties: 
+    
+    
+    table.cache.block.enable: Determines whether file (data) block cache is enabled.
+    table.cache.index.enable: Determines whether index cache is enabled.
+    
+
+The block cache can have a significant effect on alleviating hot spots, as well as reducing query latency. It is enabled by default for the !METADATA table. 
+
+* * *
+
+** Next:** [Table Design][2] ** Up:** [Apache Accumulo User Manual Version 1.3][4] ** Previous:** [Writing Accumulo Clients][6]   ** [Contents][8]**
+
+[2]: Table_Design.html
+[4]: accumulo_user_manual.html
+[6]: Writing_Accumulo_Clients.html
+[8]: Contents.html
+[9]: Table_Configuration.html#Locality_Groups
+[10]: Table_Configuration.html#Constraints
+[11]: Table_Configuration.html#Bloom_Filters
+[12]: Table_Configuration.html#Iterators
+[13]: Table_Configuration.html#Aggregating_Iterators
+[14]: Table_Configuration.html#Block_Cache
+

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/accumulo-website/blob/9a50bd13/1.3/user_manual/Table_Design.md
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diff --git a/1.3/user_manual/Table_Design.md b/1.3/user_manual/Table_Design.md
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+---
+title: "User Manual: Table Design"
+---
+
+** Next:** [High-Speed Ingest][2] ** Up:** [Apache Accumulo User Manual Version 1.3][4] ** Previous:** [Table Configuration][6]   ** [Contents][8]**   
+  
+<a id="CHILD_LINKS"></a>**Subsections**
+
+* [Basic Table][9]
+* [RowID Design][10]
+* [Indexing][11]
+* [Entity-Attribute and Graph Tables][12]
+* [Document-Partitioned Indexing][13]
+
+* * *
+
+## <a id="Table_Design"></a> Table Design
+
+## <a id="Basic_Table"></a> Basic Table
+
+Since Accumulo tables are sorted by row ID, each table can be thought of as being indexed by the row ID. Lookups performed row ID can be executed quickly, by doing a binary search, first across the tablets, and then within a tablet. Clients should choose a row ID carefully in order to support their desired application. A simple rule is to select a unique identifier as the row ID for each entity to be stored and assign all the other attributes to be tracked to be columns under this row ID. For example, if we have the following data in a comma-separated file: 
+    
+    
+        userid,age,address,account-balance
+    
+
+We might choose to store this data using the userid as the rowID and the rest of the data in column families: 
+    
+    
+    Mutation m = new Mutation(new Text(userid));
+    m.put(new Text("age"), age);
+    m.put(new Text("address"), address);
+    m.put(new Text("balance"), account_balance);
+    
+    writer.add(m);
+    
+
+We could then retrieve any of the columns for a specific userid by specifying the userid as the range of a scanner and fetching specific columns: 
+    
+    
+    Range r = new Range(userid, userid); // single row
+    Scanner s = conn.createScanner("userdata", auths);
+    s.setRange(r);
+    s.fetchColumnFamily(new Text("age"));
+    
+    for(Entry<Key,Value> entry : s)
+        System.out.println(entry.getValue().toString());
+    
+
+## <a id="RowID_Design"></a> RowID Design
+
+Often it is necessary to transform the rowID in order to have rows ordered in a way that is optimal for anticipated access patterns. A good example of this is reversing the order of components of internet domain names in order to group rows of the same parent domain together: 
+    
+    
+    com.google.code
+    com.google.labs
+    com.google.mail
+    com.yahoo.mail
+    com.yahoo.research
+    
+
+Some data may result in the creation of very large rows - rows with many columns. In this case the table designer may wish to split up these rows for better load balancing while keeping them sorted together for scanning purposes. This can be done by appending a random substring at the end of the row: 
+    
+    
+    com.google.code_00
+    com.google.code_01
+    com.google.code_02
+    com.google.labs_00
+    com.google.mail_00
+    com.google.mail_01
+    
+
+It could also be done by adding a string representation of some period of time such as date to the week or month: 
+    
+    
+    com.google.code_201003
+    com.google.code_201004
+    com.google.code_201005
+    com.google.labs_201003
+    com.google.mail_201003
+    com.google.mail_201004
+    
+
+Appending dates provides the additional capability of restricting a scan to a given date range. 
+
+## <a id="Indexing"></a> Indexing
+
+In order to support lookups via more than one attribute of an entity, additional indexes can be built. However, because Accumulo tables can support any number of columns without specifying them beforehand, a single additional index will often suffice for supporting lookups of records in the main table. Here, the index has, as the rowID, the Value or Term from the main table, the column families are the same, and the column qualifier of the index table contains the rowID from the main table. 
+
+![converted table][14]
+
+Note: We store rowIDs in the column qualifier rather than the Value so that we can have more than one rowID associated with a particular term within the index. If we stored this in the Value we would only see one of the rows in which the value appears since Accumulo is configured by default to return the one most recent value associated with a key. 
+
+Lookups can then be done by scanning the Index Table first for occurrences of the desired values in the columns specified, which returns a list of row ID from the main table. These can then be used to retrieve each matching record, in their entirety, or a subset of their columns, from the Main Table. 
+
+To support efficient lookups of multiple rowIDs from the same table, the Accumulo client library provides a BatchScanner. Users specify a set of Ranges to the BatchScanner, which performs the lookups in multiple threads to multiple servers and returns an Iterator over all the rows retrieved. The rows returned are NOT in sorted order, as is the case with the basic Scanner interface. 
+    
+    
+    // first we scan the index for IDs of rows matching our query
+    
+    Text term = new Text("mySearchTerm");
+    
+    HashSet<Text> matchingRows = new HashSet<Text>();
+    
+    Scanner indexScanner = createScanner("index", auths);
+    indexScanner.setRange(new Range(term, term));
+    
+    // we retrieve the matching rowIDs and create a set of ranges
+    for(Entry<Key,Value> entry : indexScanner)
+        matchingRows.add(new Text(entry.getValue()));
+    
+    // now we pass the set of rowIDs to the batch scanner to retrieve them
+    BatchScanner bscan = conn.createBatchScanner("table", auths, 10);
+    
+    bscan.setRanges(matchingRows);
+    bscan.fetchFamily("attributes");
+    
+    for(Entry<Key,Value> entry : scan)
+        System.out.println(e.getValue());
+    
+
+One advantage of the dynamic schema capabilities of Accumulo is that different fields may be indexed into the same physical table. However, it may be necessary to create different index tables if the terms must be formatted differently in order to maintain proper sort order. For example, real numbers must be formatted differently than their usual notation in order to be sorted correctly. In these cases, usually one index per unique data type will suffice. 
+
+## <a id="Entity-Attribute_and_Graph_Tables"></a> Entity-Attribute and Graph Tables
+
+Accumulo is ideal for storing entities and their attributes, especially of the attributes are sparse. It is often useful to join several datasets together on common entities within the same table. This can allow for the representation of graphs, including nodes, their attributes, and connections to other nodes. 
+
+Rather than storing individual events, Entity-Attribute or Graph tables store aggregate information about the entities involved in the events and the relationships between entities. This is often preferrable when single events aren't very useful and when a continuously updated summarization is desired. 
+
+The physical shema for an entity-attribute or graph table is as follows: 
+
+![converted table][15]
+
+For example, to keep track of employees, managers and products the following entity-attribute table could be used. Note that the weights are not always necessary and are set to 0 when not used. 
+
+![converted table][16]   
+  
+
+
+To allow efficient updating of edge weights, an aggregating iterator can be configured to add the value of all mutations applied with the same key. These types of tables can easily be created from raw events by simply extracting the entities, attributes, and relationships from individual events and inserting the keys into Accumulo each with a count of 1. The aggregating iterator will take care of maintaining the edge weights. 
+
+## <a id="Document-Partitioned_Indexing"></a> Document-Partitioned Indexing
+
+Using a simple index as described above works well when looking for records that match one of a set of given criteria. When looking for records that match more than one criterion simultaneously, such as when looking for documents that contain all of the words `the' and `white' and `house', there are several issues. 
+
+First is that the set of all records matching any one of the search terms must be sent to the client, which incurs a lot of network traffic. The second problem is that the client is responsible for performing set intersection on the sets of records returned to eliminate all but the records matching all search terms. The memory of the client may easily be overwhelmed during this operation. 
+
+For these reasons Accumulo includes support for a scheme known as sharded indexing, in which these set operations can be performed at the TabletServers and decisions about which records to include in the result set can be made without incurring network traffic. 
+
+This is accomplished via partitioning records into bins that each reside on at most one TabletServer, and then creating an index of terms per record within each bin as follows: 
+
+![converted table][17]
+
+Documents or records are mapped into bins by a user-defined ingest application. By storing the BinID as the RowID we ensure that all the information for a particular bin is contained in a single tablet and hosted on a single TabletServer since Accumulo never splits rows across tablets. Storing the Terms as column families serves to enable fast lookups of all the documents within this bin that contain the given term. 
+
+Finally, we perform set intersection operations on the TabletServer via a special iterator called the Intersecting Iterator. Since documents are partitioned into many bins, a search of all documents must search every bin. We can use the BatchScanner to scan all bins in parallel. The Intersecting Iterator should be enabled on a BatchScanner within user query code as follows: 
+    
+    
+    Text[] terms = {new Text("the"), new Text("white"), new Text("house")};
+    
+    BatchScanner bs = conn.createBatchScanner(table, auths, 20);
+    bs.setScanIterators(20, IntersectingIterator.class.getName(), "ii");
+    
+    // tells scanner to look for terms in the column family and sends terms
+    bs.setScanIteratorOption("ii",
+        IntersectingIterator.columnFamiliesOptionName,
+        IntersectingIterator.encodeColumns(terms));
+    
+    bs.setRanges(Collections.singleton(new Range()));
+    
+    for(Entry<Key,Value> entry : bs) {
+        System.out.println(" " + entry.getKey().getColumnQualifier());
+    }
+    
+
+This code effectively has the BatchScanner scan all tablets of a table, looking for documents that match all the given terms. Because all tablets are being scanned for every query, each query is more expensive than other Accumulo scans, which typically involve a small number of TabletServers. This reduces the number of concurrent queries supported and is subject to what is known as the `straggler' problem in which every query runs as slow as the slowest server participating. 
+
+Of course, fast servers will return their results to the client which can display them to the user immediately while they wait for the rest of the results to arrive. If the results are unordered this is quite effective as the first results to arrive are as good as any others to the user. 
+
+* * *
+
+** Next:** [High-Speed Ingest][2] ** Up:** [Apache Accumulo User Manual Version 1.3][4] ** Previous:** [Table Configuration][6]   ** [Contents][8]**
+
+[2]: High_Speed_Ingest.html
+[4]: accumulo_user_manual.html
+[6]: Table_Configuration.html
+[8]: Contents.html
+[9]: Table_Design.html#Basic_Table
+[10]: Table_Design.html#RowID_Design
+[11]: Table_Design.html#Indexing
+[12]: Table_Design.html#Entity-Attribute_and_Graph_Tables
+[13]: Table_Design.html#Document-Partitioned_Indexing
+[14]: img2.png
+[15]: img3.png
+[16]: img4.png
+[17]: img5.png
+

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/accumulo-website/blob/9a50bd13/1.3/user_manual/Writing_Accumulo_Clients.md
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+---
+title: "User Manual: Writing Accumulo Clients"
+---
+
+** Next:** [Table Configuration][2] ** Up:** [Apache Accumulo User Manual Version 1.3][4] ** Previous:** [Accumulo Shell][6]   ** [Contents][8]**   
+  
+<a id="CHILD_LINKS"></a>**Subsections**
+
+* [Writing Data][9]
+* [Reading Data][10]
+
+* * *
+
+## <a id="Writing_Accumulo_Clients"></a> Writing Accumulo Clients
+
+All clients must first identify the Accumulo instance to which they will be communicating. Code to do this is as follows: 
+    
+    
+    String instanceName = "myinstance";
+    String zooServers = "zooserver-one,zooserver-two"
+    Instance inst = new ZooKeeperInstance(instanceName, zooServers);
+    
+    Connector conn = new Connector(inst, "user","passwd".getBytes());
+    
+
+## <a id="Writing_Data"></a> Writing Data
+
+Data are written to Accumulo by creating Mutation objects that represent all the changes to the columns of a single row. The changes are made atomically in the TabletServer. Clients then add Mutations to a BatchWriter which submits them to the appropriate TabletServers. 
+
+Mutations can be created thus: 
+    
+    
+    Text rowID = new Text("row1");
+    Text colFam = new Text("myColFam");
+    Text colQual = new Text("myColQual");
+    ColumnVisibility colVis = new ColumnVisibility("public");
+    long timestamp = System.currentTimeMillis();
+    
+    Value value = new Value("myValue".getBytes());
+    
+    Mutation mutation = new Mutation(rowID);
+    mutation.put(colFam, colQual, colVis, timestamp, value);
+    
+
+### <a id="BatchWriter"></a> BatchWriter
+
+The BatchWriter is highly optimized to send Mutations to multiple TabletServers and automatically batches Mutations destined for the same TabletServer to amortize network overhead. Care must be taken to avoid changing the contents of any Object passed to the BatchWriter since it keeps objects in memory while batching. 
+
+Mutations are added to a BatchWriter thus: 
+    
+    
+    long memBuf = 1000000L; // bytes to store before sending a batch
+    long timeout = 1000L; // milliseconds to wait before sending
+    int numThreads = 10;
+    
+    BatchWriter writer =
+        conn.createBatchWriter("table", memBuf, timeout, numThreads)
+    
+    writer.add(mutation);
+    
+    writer.close();
+    
+
+An example of using the batch writer can be found at   
+accumulo/docs/examples/README.batch 
+
+## <a id="Reading_Data"></a> Reading Data
+
+Accumulo is optimized to quickly retrieve the value associated with a given key, and to efficiently return ranges of consecutive keys and their associated values. 
+
+### <a id="Scanner"></a> Scanner
+
+To retrieve data, Clients use a Scanner, which provides acts like an Iterator over keys and values. Scanners can be configured to start and stop at particular keys, and to return a subset of the columns available. 
+    
+    
+    // specify which visibilities we are allowed to see
+    Authorizations auths = new Authorizations("public");
+    
+    Scanner scan =
+        conn.createScanner("table", auths);
+    
+    scan.setRange(new Range("harry","john"));
+    scan.fetchFamily("attributes");
+    
+    for(Entry<Key,Value> entry : scan) {
+        String row = e.getKey().getRow();
+        Value value = e.getValue();
+    }
+    
+
+### <a id="BatchScanner"></a> BatchScanner
+
+For some types of access, it is more efficient to retrieve several ranges simultaneously. This arises when accessing a set of rows that are not consecutive whose IDs have been retrieved from a secondary index, for example. 
+
+The BatchScanner is configured similarly to the Scanner; it can be configured to retrieve a subset of the columns available, but rather than passing a single Range, BatchScanners accept a set of Ranges. It is important to note that the keys returned by a BatchScanner are not in sorted order since the keys streamed are from multiple TabletServers in parallel. 
+    
+    
+    ArrayList<Range> ranges = new ArrayList<Range>();
+    // populate list of ranges ...
+    
+    BatchScanner bscan =
+        conn.createBatchScanner("table", auths, 10);
+    
+    bscan.setRanges(ranges);
+    bscan.fetchFamily("attributes");
+    
+    for(Entry<Key,Value> entry : scan)
+        System.out.println(e.getValue());
+    
+
+An example of the BatchScanner can be found at   
+accumulo/docs/examples/README.batch 
+
+* * *
+
+** Next:** [Table Configuration][2] ** Up:** [Apache Accumulo User Manual Version 1.3][4] ** Previous:** [Accumulo Shell][6]   ** [Contents][8]**
+
+[2]: Table_Configuration.html
+[4]: accumulo_user_manual.html
+[6]: Accumulo_Shell.html
+[8]: Contents.html
+[9]: Writing_Accumulo_Clients.html#Writing_Data
+[10]: Writing_Accumulo_Clients.html#Reading_Data
+

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/accumulo-website/blob/9a50bd13/1.3/user_manual/accumulo_user_manual.md
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+---
+title: "User Manual: index"
+---
+
+** Next:** [Contents][2]   ** [Contents][2]**   
+  
+
+
+## Apache Accumulo User Manual   
+Version 1.3
+
+  
+
+
+* * *
+
+<a id="CHILD_LINKS"></a>
+
+* [Contents][2]
+* [Introduction][6]
+* [Accumulo Design][7]
+* [Accumulo Shell][8]
+* [Writing Accumulo Clients][9]
+* [Table Configuration][10]
+* [Table Design][11]
+* [High-Speed Ingest][12]
+* [Analytics][13]
+* [Security][14]
+* [Administration][15]
+* [Shell Commands][16]
+
+  
+
+
+* * *
+
+[2]: Contents.html
+[6]: Introduction.html
+[7]: Accumulo_Design.html
+[8]: Accumulo_Shell.html
+[9]: Writing_Accumulo_Clients.html
+[10]: Table_Configuration.html
+[11]: Table_Design.html
+[12]: High_Speed_Ingest.html
+[13]: Analytics.html
+[14]: Security.html
+[15]: Administration.html
+[16]: Shell_Commands.html
+

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http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/accumulo-website/blob/9a50bd13/1.3/user_manual/examples.md
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+---
+title: Examples
+redirect_to: examples/
+---
+
+This page redirects to the 1.3 examples
+

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/accumulo-website/blob/9a50bd13/1.3/user_manual/examples/aggregation.md
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+---
+title: Aggregation Example
+---
+
+This is a simple aggregation example.  To build this example run maven and then
+copy the produced jar into the accumulo lib dir.  This is already done in the
+tar distribution.
+
+    $ bin/accumulo shell -u username
+    Enter current password for 'username'@'instance': ***
+    
+    Shell - Apache Accumulo Interactive Shell
+    - 
+    - version: 1.3.x-incubating
+    - instance name: instance
+    - instance id: 00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000
+    - 
+    - type 'help' for a list of available commands
+    - 
+    username@instance> createtable aggtest1 -a app=org.apache.accumulo.examples.aggregation.SortedSetAggregator
+    username@instance aggtest1> insert foo app 1 a
+    username@instance aggtest1> insert foo app 1 b
+    username@instance aggtest1> scan
+    foo app:1 []  a,b
+    username@instance aggtest1> insert foo app 1 z,1,foo,w
+    username@instance aggtest1> scan
+    foo app:1 []  1,a,b,foo,w,z
+    username@instance aggtest1> insert foo app 2 cat,dog,muskrat
+    username@instance aggtest1> insert foo app 2 mouse,bird
+    username@instance aggtest1> scan
+    foo app:1 []  1,a,b,foo,w,z
+    foo app:2 []  bird,cat,dog,mouse,muskrat
+    username@instance aggtest1> 
+
+In this example a table is created and the example set aggregator is
+applied to the column family app.

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/accumulo-website/blob/9a50bd13/1.3/user_manual/examples/batch.md
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+---
+title: Batch Writing and Scanning Example
+---
+
+This is an example of how to use the batch writer and batch scanner. To compile
+the example, run maven and copy the produced jar into the accumulo lib dir.
+This is already done in the tar distribution. 
+
+Below are commands that add 10000 entries to accumulo and then do 100 random
+queries.  The write command generates random 50 byte values. 
+
+Be sure to use the name of your instance (given as instance here) and the appropriate 
+list of zookeeper nodes (given as zookeepers here).
+
+Before you run this, you must ensure that the user you are running has the
+"exampleVis" authorization. (you can set this in the shell with "setauths -u username -s exampleVis")
+
+    $ ./bin/accumulo shell -u root
+    > setauths -u username -s exampleVis
+    > exit
+
+You must also create the table, batchtest1, ahead of time. (In the shell, use "createtable batchtest1")
+
+    $ ./bin/accumulo shell -u username
+    > createtable batchtest1
+    > exit
+    $ ./bin/accumulo org.apache.accumulo.examples.client.SequentialBatchWriter instance zookeepers username password batchtest1 0 10000 50 20000000 500 20 exampleVis
+    $ ./bin/accumulo org.apache.accumulo.examples.client.RandomBatchScanner instance zookeepers username password batchtest1 100 0 10000 50 20 exampleVis
+    07 11:33:11,103 [client.CountingVerifyingReceiver] INFO : Generating 100 random queries...
+    07 11:33:11,112 [client.CountingVerifyingReceiver] INFO : finished
+    07 11:33:11,260 [client.CountingVerifyingReceiver] INFO : 694.44 lookups/sec   0.14 secs
+    
+    07 11:33:11,260 [client.CountingVerifyingReceiver] INFO : num results : 100
+    
+    07 11:33:11,364 [client.CountingVerifyingReceiver] INFO : Generating 100 random queries...
+    07 11:33:11,370 [client.CountingVerifyingReceiver] INFO : finished
+    07 11:33:11,416 [client.CountingVerifyingReceiver] INFO : 2173.91 lookups/sec   0.05 secs
+    
+    07 11:33:11,416 [client.CountingVerifyingReceiver] INFO : num results : 100

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/accumulo-website/blob/9a50bd13/1.3/user_manual/examples/bloom.md
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+---
+title: Bloom Filter Example
+---
+
+This example shows how to create a table with bloom filters enabled.  It also
+shows how bloom filters increase query performance when looking for values that
+do not exist in a table.
+
+Below table named bloom_test is created and bloom filters are enabled.
+
+    $ ./accumulo shell -u username -p password
+    Shell - Apache Accumulo Interactive Shell
+    - version: 1.3.x-incubating
+    - instance name: instance
+    - instance id: 00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000
+    - 
+    - type 'help' for a list of available commands
+    - 
+    username@instance> setauths -u username -s exampleVis
+    username@instance> createtable bloom_test
+    username@instance bloom_test> config -t bloom_test -s table.bloom.enabled=true
+    username@instance bloom_test> exit
+
+Below 1 million random values are inserted into accumulo.  The randomly
+generated rows range between 0 and 1 billion.  The random number generator is
+initialized with the seed 7.
+
+    $ ./bin/accumulo org.apache.accumulo.examples.client.RandomBatchWriter -s 7 instance zookeepers username password bloom_test 1000000 0 1000000000 50 2000000 60000 3 exampleVis
+
+Below the table is flushed, look at the monitor page and wait for the flush to
+complete.  
+
+    $ ./bin/accumulo shell -u username -p password
+    username@instance> flush -t bloom_test
+    Flush of table bloom_test initiated...
+    username@instance> exit
+
+The flush will be finished when there are no entries in memory and the 
+number of minor compactions goes to zero. Refresh the page to see changes to the table.
+
+After the flush completes, 500 random queries are done against the table.  The
+same seed is used to generate the queries, therefore everything is found in the
+table.
+
+    $ ./bin/accumulo org.apache.accumulo.examples.client.RandomBatchScanner -s 7 instance zookeepers username password bloom_test 500 0 1000000000 50 20 exampleVis
+    Generating 500 random queries...finished
+    96.19 lookups/sec   5.20 secs
+    num results : 500
+    Generating 500 random queries...finished
+    102.35 lookups/sec   4.89 secs
+    num results : 500
+
+Below another 500 queries are performed, using a different seed which results
+in nothing being found.  In this case the lookups are much faster because of
+the bloom filters.
+
+    $ ../bin/accumulo org.apache.accumulo.examples.client.RandomBatchScanner -s 8 instance zookeepers username password bloom_test 500 0 1000000000 50 20 exampleVis
+    Generating 500 random queries...finished
+    2212.39 lookups/sec   0.23 secs
+    num results : 0
+    Did not find 500 rows
+    Generating 500 random queries...finished
+    4464.29 lookups/sec   0.11 secs
+    num results : 0
+    Did not find 500 rows
+
+********************************************************************************
+
+Bloom filters can also speed up lookups for entries that exist.  In accumulo
+data is divided into tablets and each tablet has multiple map files. Every
+lookup in accumulo goes to a specific tablet where a lookup is done on each
+map file in the tablet.  So if a tablet has three map files, lookup performance
+can be three times slower than a tablet with one map file.  However if the map
+files contain unique sets of data, then bloom filters can help eliminate map
+files that do not contain the row being looked up.  To illustrate this two
+identical tables were created using the following process.  One table had bloom
+filters, the other did not.  Also the major compaction ratio was increased to
+prevent the files from being compacted into one file.
+
+ * Insert 1 million entries using  RandomBatchWriter with a seed of 7
+ * Flush the table using the shell
+ * Insert 1 million entries using  RandomBatchWriter with a seed of 8
+ * Flush the table using the shell
+ * Insert 1 million entries using  RandomBatchWriter with a seed of 9
+ * Flush the table using the shell
+
+After following the above steps, each table will have a tablet with three map
+files.  Each map file will contain 1 million entries generated with a different
+seed. 
+
+Below 500 lookups are done against the table without bloom filters using random
+NG seed 7.  Even though only one map file will likely contain entries for this
+seed, all map files will be interrogated.
+
+    $ ./bin/accumulo org.apache.accumulo.examples.client.RandomBatchScanner -s 7 instance zookeepers username password bloom_test1 500 0 1000000000 50 20 exampleVis
+    Generating 500 random queries...finished
+    35.09 lookups/sec  14.25 secs
+    num results : 500
+    Generating 500 random queries...finished
+    35.33 lookups/sec  14.15 secs
+    num results : 500
+
+Below the same lookups are done against the table with bloom filters.  The
+lookups were 2.86 times faster because only one map file was used, even though three
+map files existed.
+
+    $ ./bin/accumulo org.apache.accumulo.examples.client.RandomBatchScanner -s 7 instance zookeepers username password bloom_test2 500 0 1000000000 50 20 exampleVis
+    Generating 500 random queries...finished
+    99.03 lookups/sec   5.05 secs
+    num results : 500
+    Generating 500 random queries...finished
+    101.15 lookups/sec   4.94 secs
+    num results : 500

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/accumulo-website/blob/9a50bd13/1.3/user_manual/examples/bulkIngest.md
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+---
+title: Bulk Ingest Example
+---
+
+This is an example of how to bulk ingest data into accumulo using map reduce.
+
+The following commands show how to run this example.  This example creates a
+table called test_bulk which has two initial split points. Then 1000 rows of
+test data are created in HDFS. After that the 1000 rows are ingested into
+accumulo.  Then we verify the 1000 rows are in accumulo. The
+first two arguments to all of the commands except for GenerateTestData are the
+accumulo instance name, and a comma-separated list of zookeepers.
+
+    $ ./bin/accumulo org.apache.accumulo.examples.mapreduce.bulk.SetupTable instance zookeepers username password test_bulk row_00000333 row_00000666
+    $ ./bin/accumulo org.apache.accumulo.examples.mapreduce.bulk.GenerateTestData 0 1000 bulk/test_1.txt
+    
+    $ ./bin/tool.sh lib/accumulo-examples-*[^c].jar org.apache.accumulo.examples.mapreduce.bulk.BulkIngestExample instance zookeepers username password test_bulk bulk tmp/bulkWork
+    $ ./bin/accumulo org.apache.accumulo.examples.mapreduce.bulk.VerifyIngest instance zookeepers username password test_bulk 0 1000
+
+For a high level discussion of bulk ingest, see the docs dir.

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/accumulo-website/blob/9a50bd13/1.3/user_manual/examples/constraints.md
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+---
+title: Constraints Example
+---
+
+This an example of how to create a table with constraints. Below a table is
+create with two example constraints.  One constraints does not allow non alpha
+numeric keys.  The other constraint does not allow non numeric values. Two
+inserts that violate these constraints are attempted and denied.  The scan at
+the end shows the inserts were not allowed. 
+
+    $ ./bin/accumulo shell -u username -p pass
+    
+    Shell - Apache Accumulo Interactive Shell
+    - 
+    - version: 1.3.x-incubating
+    - instance name: instance
+    - instance id: 00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000
+    - 
+    - type 'help' for a list of available commands
+    - 
+    username@instance> createtable testConstraints
+    username@instance testConstraints> config -t testConstraints -s table.constraint.1=org.apache.accumulo.examples.constraints.NumericValueConstraint
+    username@instance testConstraints> config -t testConstraints -s table.constraint.2=org.apache.accumulo.examples.constraints.AlphaNumKeyConstrain                                                                                                    
+    username@instance testConstraints> insert r1 cf1 cq1 1111
+    username@instance testConstraints> insert r1 cf1 cq1 ABC
+      Constraint Failures:
+          ConstraintViolationSummary(constrainClass:org.apache.accumulo.examples.constraints.NumericValueConstraint, violationCode:1, violationDescription:Value is not numeric, numberOfViolatingMutations:1)
+    username@instance testConstraints> insert r1! cf1 cq1 ABC 
+      Constraint Failures:
+          ConstraintViolationSummary(constrainClass:org.apache.accumulo.examples.constraints.NumericValueConstraint, violationCode:1, violationDescription:Value is not numeric, numberOfViolatingMutations:1)
+          ConstraintViolationSummary(constrainClass:org.apache.accumulo.examples.constraints.AlphaNumKeyConstraint, violationCode:1, violationDescription:Row was not alpha numeric, numberOfViolatingMutations:1)
+    username@instance testConstraints> scan
+    r1 cf1:cq1 []    1111
+    username@instance testConstraints> 

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/accumulo-website/blob/9a50bd13/1.3/user_manual/examples/dirlist.md
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+---
+title: File System Archive
+---
+
+This example shows how to use Accumulo to store a file system history.  It has three classes:
+
+ * Ingest.java - Recursively lists the files and directories under a given path, ingests their names and file info (not the file data!) into an Accumulo table, and indexes the file names in a separate table.
+ * QueryUtil.java - Provides utility methods for getting the info for a file, listing the contents of a directory, and performing single wild card searches on file or directory names.
+ * Viewer.java - Provides a GUI for browsing the file system information stored in Accumulo.
+ * FileCountMR.java - Runs MR over the file system information and writes out counts to an Accumulo table.
+ * FileCount.java - Accomplishes the same thing as FileCountMR, but in a different way.  Computes recursive counts and stores them back into table.
+ * StringArraySummation.java - Aggregates counts for the FileCountMR reducer.
+ 
+To begin, ingest some data with Ingest.java.
+
+    $ ./bin/accumulo org.apache.accumulo.examples.dirlist.Ingest instance zookeepers username password direxample dirindex exampleVis /local/user1/workspace
+
+Note that running this example will create tables direxample and dirindex in Accumulo that you should delete when you have completed the example.
+If you modify a file or add new files in the directory ingested (e.g. /local/user1/workspace), you can run Ingest again to add new information into the Accumulo tables.
+
+To browse the data ingested, use Viewer.java.  Be sure to give the "username" user the authorizations to see the data.
+
+    $ ./bin/accumulo org.apache.accumulo.examples.dirlist.Viewer instance zookeepers username password direxample exampleVis /local/user1/workspace
+
+To list the contents of specific directories, use QueryUtil.java.
+
+    $ ./bin/accumulo org.apache.accumulo.examples.dirlist.QueryUtil instance zookeepers username password direxample exampleVis /local/user1
+    $ ./bin/accumulo org.apache.accumulo.examples.dirlist.QueryUtil instance zookeepers username password direxample exampleVis /local/user1/workspace
+
+To perform searches on file or directory names, also use QueryUtil.java.  Search terms must contain no more than one wild card and cannot contain "/".
+*Note* these queries run on the _dirindex_ table instead of the direxample table.
+
+    $ ./bin/accumulo org.apache.accumulo.examples.dirlist.QueryUtil instance zookeepers username password dirindex exampleVis filename -search
+    $ ./bin/accumulo org.apache.accumulo.examples.dirlist.QueryUtil instance zookeepers username password dirindex exampleVis 'filename*' -search
+    $ ./bin/accumulo org.apache.accumulo.examples.dirlist.QueryUtil instance zookeepers username password dirindex exampleVis '*jar' -search
+    $ ./bin/accumulo org.apache.accumulo.examples.dirlist.QueryUtil instance zookeepers username password dirindex exampleVis filename*jar -search
+
+To count the number of direct children (directories and files) and descendants (children and children's descendents, directories and files), run the FileCountMR over the direxample table.
+The results can be written back to the same table.
+
+    $ ./bin/tool.sh lib/accumulo-examples-*[^c].jar org.apache.accumulo.examples.dirlist.FileCountMR instance zookeepers username password direxample direxample exampleVis exampleVis
+
+Alternatively, you can also run FileCount.java.

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/accumulo-website/blob/9a50bd13/1.3/user_manual/examples/filter.md
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+---
+title: Filter Example
+---
+
+This is a simple filter example.  It uses the AgeOffFilter that is provided as 
+part of the core package org.apache.accumulo.core.iterators.filter.  Filters are used by
+the FilteringIterator to select desired key/value pairs (or weed out undesired 
+ones).  Filters implement the org.apache.accumulo.core.iterators.iterators.filter.Filter interface which 
+contains a method accept(Key k, Value v).  This method returns true if the key, 
+value pair are to be delivered and false if they are to be ignored.
+
+    username@instance> createtable filtertest
+    username@instance filtertest> setiter -t filtertest -scan -p 10 -n myfilter -filter
+    FilteringIterator uses Filters to accept or reject key/value pairs
+    ----------> entering options: <filterPriorityNumber> <ageoff|regex|filterClass>
+    ----------> set org.apache.accumulo.core.iterators.FilteringIterator option (<name> <value>, hit enter to skip): 0 ageoff
+    ----------> set org.apache.accumulo.core.iterators.FilteringIterator option (<name> <value>, hit enter to skip): 
+    AgeOffFilter removes entries with timestamps more than <ttl> milliseconds old
+    ----------> set org.apache.accumulo.core.iterators.filter.AgeOffFilter parameter currentTime, if set, use the given value as the absolute time in milliseconds as the current time of day: 
+    ----------> set org.apache.accumulo.core.iterators.filter.AgeOffFilter parameter ttl, time to live (milliseconds): 30000
+    username@instance filtertest> 
+    
+    username@instance filtertest> scan
+    username@instance filtertest> insert foo a b c
+    username@instance filtertest> scan
+    foo a:b []    c
+    
+... wait 30 seconds ...
+    
+    username@instance filtertest> scan
+    username@instance filtertest>
+
+Note the absence of the entry inserted more than 30 seconds ago.  Since the
+scope was set to "scan", this means the entry is still in Accumulo, but is
+being filtered out at query time.  To delete entries from Accumulo based on
+the ages of their timestamps, AgeOffFilters should be set up for the "minc"
+and "majc" scopes, as well.
+
+To force an ageoff in the persisted data, after setting up the ageoff iterator 
+on the "minc" and "majc" scopes you can flush and compact your table. This will
+happen automatically as a background operation on any table that is being 
+actively written to, but these are the commands to force compaction:
+
+    username@instance filtertest> setiter -t filtertest -scan -minc -majc -p 10 -n myfilter -filter
+    FilteringIterator uses Filters to accept or reject key/value pairs
+    ----------> entering options: <filterPriorityNumber> <ageoff|regex|filterClass>
+    ----------> set org.apache.accumulo.core.iterators.FilteringIterator option (<name> <value>, hit enter to skip): 0 ageoff
+    ----------> set org.apache.accumulo.core.iterators.FilteringIterator option (<name> <value>, hit enter to skip): 
+    AgeOffFilter removes entries with timestamps more than <ttl> milliseconds old
+    ----------> set org.apache.accumulo.core.iterators.filter.AgeOffFilter parameter currentTime, if set, use the given value as the absolute time in milliseconds as the current time of day: 
+    ----------> set org.apache.accumulo.core.iterators.filter.AgeOffFilter parameter ttl, time to live (milliseconds): 30000
+    username@instance filtertest> 
+    
+    username@instance filtertest> flush -t filtertest
+    08 11:13:55,745 [shell.Shell] INFO : Flush of table filtertest initiated...
+    username@instance filtertest> compact -t filtertest
+    08 11:14:10,800 [shell.Shell] INFO : Compaction of table filtertest scheduled for 20110208111410EST
+    username@instance filtertest> 
+
+After the compaction runs, the newly created files will not contain any data that should be aged off, and the
+Accumulo garbage collector will remove the old files.
+
+To see the iterator settings for a table, use:
+
+    username@instance filtertest> config -t filtertest -f iterator
+    ---------+------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------------
+    SCOPE    | NAME                                     | VALUE
+    ---------+------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------------
+    table    | table.iterator.majc.myfilter .............. | 10,org.apache.accumulo.core.iterators.FilteringIterator
+    table    | table.iterator.majc.myfilter.opt.0 ........ | org.apache.accumulo.core.iterators.filter.AgeOffFilter
+    table    | table.iterator.majc.myfilter.opt.0.ttl .... | 30000
+    table    | table.iterator.majc.vers .................. | 20,org.apache.accumulo.core.iterators.VersioningIterator
+    table    | table.iterator.majc.vers.opt.maxVersions .. | 1
+    table    | table.iterator.minc.myfilter .............. | 10,org.apache.accumulo.core.iterators.FilteringIterator
+    table    | table.iterator.minc.myfilter.opt.0 ........ | org.apache.accumulo.core.iterators.filter.AgeOffFilter
+    table    | table.iterator.minc.myfilter.opt.0.ttl .... | 30000
+    table    | table.iterator.minc.vers .................. | 20,org.apache.accumulo.core.iterators.VersioningIterator
+    table    | table.iterator.minc.vers.opt.maxVersions .. | 1
+    table    | table.iterator.scan.myfilter .............. | 10,org.apache.accumulo.core.iterators.FilteringIterator
+    table    | table.iterator.scan.myfilter.opt.0 ........ | org.apache.accumulo.core.iterators.filter.AgeOffFilter
+    table    | table.iterator.scan.myfilter.opt.0.ttl .... | 30000
+    table    | table.iterator.scan.vers .................. | 20,org.apache.accumulo.core.iterators.VersioningIterator
+    table    | table.iterator.scan.vers.opt.maxVersions .. | 1
+    ---------+------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------------
+    username@instance filtertest> 
+
+If you would like to apply multiple filters, this can be done using a single
+iterator. Just continue adding entries during the 
+"set org.apache.accumulo.core.iterators.FilteringIterator option" step.
+Make sure to order the filterPriorityNumbers in the order you would like
+the filters to be applied.

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/accumulo-website/blob/9a50bd13/1.3/user_manual/examples/helloworld.md
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+---
+title: Hello World Example
+---
+
+This tutorial uses the following Java classes, which can be found in org.apache.accumulo.examples.helloworld in the accumulo-examples module: 
+
+ * InsertWithBatchWriter.java - Inserts 10K rows (50K entries) into accumulo with each row having 5 entries
+ * InsertWithOutputFormat.java - Example of inserting data in MapReduce
+ * ReadData.java - Reads all data between two rows
+
+Log into the accumulo shell:
+
+    $ ./bin/accumulo shell -u username -p password
+
+Create a table called 'hellotable':
+
+    username@instance> createtable hellotable
+
+Launch a Java program that inserts data with a BatchWriter:
+
+    $ ./bin/accumulo org.apache.accumulo.examples.helloworld.InsertWithBatchWriter instance zookeepers hellotable username password
+
+Alternatively, the same data can be inserted using MapReduce writers:
+
+    $ ./bin/accumulo org.apache.accumulo.examples.helloworld.InsertWithOutputFormat instance zookeepers hellotable username password
+
+On the accumulo status page at the URL below (where 'master' is replaced with the name or IP of your accumulo master), you should see 50K entries
+
+    http://master:50095/
+
+To view the entries, use the shell to scan the table:
+
+    username@instance> table hellotable
+    username@instance hellotable> scan
+
+You can also use a Java class to scan the table:
+
+    $ ./bin/accumulo org.apache.accumulo.examples.helloworld.ReadData instance zookeepers hellotable username password row_0 row_1001

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/accumulo-website/blob/9a50bd13/1.3/user_manual/examples/index.md
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+---
+title: Examples
+---
+
+Each README in the examples directory highlights the use of particular features of Apache Accumulo.
+
+Before running any of the examples, the following steps must be performed.
+
+1. Install and run Accumulo via the instructions found in $ACCUMULO_HOME/README.
+Remember the instance name.  It will be referred to as "instance" throughout the examples.
+A comma-separated list of zookeeper servers will be referred to as "zookeepers".
+
+2. Create an Accumulo user (see the [user manual][1]), or use the root user.
+The Accumulo user name will be referred to as "username" with password "password" throughout the examples.
+
+In all commands, you will need to replace "instance", "zookeepers", "username", and "password" with the values you set for your Accumulo instance.
+
+Commands intended to be run in bash are prefixed by '$'.  These are always assumed to be run from the $ACCUMULO_HOME directory.
+
+Commands intended to be run in the Accumulo shell are prefixed by '>'.
+
+[1]: {{ site.baseurl }}/user_manual_1.3-incubating/Accumulo_Shell.html#User_Administration
+[aggregation](aggregation.html)
+
+[batch](batch.html)
+
+[bloom](bloom.html)
+
+[bulkIngest](bulkIngest.html)
+
+[constraints](constraints.html)
+
+[dirlist](dirlist.html)
+
+[filter](filter.html)
+
+[helloworld](helloworld.html)
+
+[mapred](mapred.html)
+
+[shard](shard.html)
+

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/accumulo-website/blob/9a50bd13/1.3/user_manual/examples/mapred.md
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+---
+title: MapReduce Example
+---
+
+This example uses mapreduce and accumulo to compute word counts for a set of
+documents.  This is accomplished using a map-only mapreduce job and a
+accumulo table with aggregators.
+
+To run this example you will need a directory in HDFS containing text files.
+The accumulo readme will be used to show how to run this example.
+
+    $ hadoop fs -copyFromLocal $ACCUMULO_HOME/README /user/username/wc/Accumulo.README
+    $ hadoop fs -ls /user/username/wc
+    Found 1 items
+    -rw-r--r--   2 username supergroup       9359 2009-07-15 17:54 /user/username/wc/Accumulo.README
+
+The first part of running this example is to create a table with aggregation
+for the column family count.
+
+    $ ./bin/accumulo shell -u username -p password
+    Shell - Apache Accumulo Interactive Shell
+    - version: 1.3.x-incubating
+    - instance name: instance
+    - instance id: 00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000
+    - 
+    - type 'help' for a list of available commands
+    - 
+    username@instance> createtable wordCount -a count=org.apache.accumulo.core.iterators.aggregation.StringSummation 
+    username@instance wordCount> quit
+
+After creating the table, run the word count map reduce job.
+
+    [user1@instance accumulo]$ bin/tool.sh lib/accumulo-examples-*[^c].jar org.apache.accumulo.examples.mapreduce.WordCount instance zookeepers /user/user1/wc wordCount -u username -p password
+    
+    11/02/07 18:20:11 INFO input.FileInputFormat: Total input paths to process : 1
+    11/02/07 18:20:12 INFO mapred.JobClient: Running job: job_201102071740_0003
+    11/02/07 18:20:13 INFO mapred.JobClient:  map 0% reduce 0%
+    11/02/07 18:20:20 INFO mapred.JobClient:  map 100% reduce 0%
+    11/02/07 18:20:22 INFO mapred.JobClient: Job complete: job_201102071740_0003
+    11/02/07 18:20:22 INFO mapred.JobClient: Counters: 6
+    11/02/07 18:20:22 INFO mapred.JobClient:   Job Counters 
+    11/02/07 18:20:22 INFO mapred.JobClient:     Launched map tasks=1
+    11/02/07 18:20:22 INFO mapred.JobClient:     Data-local map tasks=1
+    11/02/07 18:20:22 INFO mapred.JobClient:   FileSystemCounters
+    11/02/07 18:20:22 INFO mapred.JobClient:     HDFS_BYTES_READ=10487
+    11/02/07 18:20:22 INFO mapred.JobClient:   Map-Reduce Framework
+    11/02/07 18:20:22 INFO mapred.JobClient:     Map input records=255
+    11/02/07 18:20:22 INFO mapred.JobClient:     Spilled Records=0
+    11/02/07 18:20:22 INFO mapred.JobClient:     Map output records=1452
+
+After the map reduce job completes, query the accumulo table to see word
+counts.
+
+    $ ./bin/accumulo shell -u username -p password
+    username@instance> table wordCount
+    username@instance wordCount> scan -b the
+    the count:20080906 []    75
+    their count:20080906 []    2
+    them count:20080906 []    1
+    then count:20080906 []    1
+    there count:20080906 []    1
+    these count:20080906 []    3
+    this count:20080906 []    6
+    through count:20080906 []    1
+    time count:20080906 []    3
+    time. count:20080906 []    1
+    to count:20080906 []    27
+    total count:20080906 []    1
+    tserver, count:20080906 []    1
+    tserver.compaction.major.concurrent.max count:20080906 []    1
+    ...

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/accumulo-website/blob/9a50bd13/1.3/user_manual/examples/shard.md
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+---
+title: Shard Example
+---
+
+Accumulo has an iterator called the intersecting iterator which supports querying a term index that is partitioned by 
+document, or "sharded". This example shows how to use the intersecting iterator through these four programs:
+
+ * Index.java - Indexes a set of text files into an Accumulo table
+ * Query.java - Finds documents containing a given set of terms.
+ * Reverse.java - Reads the index table and writes a map of documents to terms into another table.
+ * ContinuousQuery.java  Uses the table populated by Reverse.java to select N random terms per document.  Then it continuously and randomly queries those terms.
+
+To run these example programs, create two tables like below.
+
+    username@instance> createtable shard
+    username@instance shard> createtable doc2term
+
+After creating the tables, index some files.  The following command indexes all of the java files in the Accumulo source code.
+
+    $ cd /local/user1/workspace/accumulo/
+    $ find src -name "*.java" | xargs ./bin/accumulo org.apache.accumulo.examples.shard.Index instance zookeepers shard username password 30
+
+The following command queries the index to find all files containing 'foo' and 'bar'.
+
+    $ cd $ACCUMULO_HOME
+    $ ./bin/accumulo org.apache.accumulo.examples.shard.Query instance zookeepers shard username password foo bar
+    /local/user1/workspace/accumulo/src/core/src/test/java/accumulo/core/security/ColumnVisibilityTest.java
+    /local/user1/workspace/accumulo/src/core/src/test/java/accumulo/core/client/mock/MockConnectorTest.java
+    /local/user1/workspace/accumulo/src/core/src/test/java/accumulo/core/security/VisibilityEvaluatorTest.java
+    /local/user1/workspace/accumulo/src/server/src/main/java/accumulo/server/test/functional/RowDeleteTest.java
+    /local/user1/workspace/accumulo/src/server/src/test/java/accumulo/server/logger/TestLogWriter.java
+    /local/user1/workspace/accumulo/src/server/src/main/java/accumulo/server/test/functional/DeleteEverythingTest.java
+    /local/user1/workspace/accumulo/src/core/src/test/java/accumulo/core/data/KeyExtentTest.java
+    /local/user1/workspace/accumulo/src/server/src/test/java/accumulo/server/constraints/MetadataConstraintsTest.java
+    /local/user1/workspace/accumulo/src/core/src/test/java/accumulo/core/iterators/WholeRowIteratorTest.java
+    /local/user1/workspace/accumulo/src/server/src/test/java/accumulo/server/util/DefaultMapTest.java
+    /local/user1/workspace/accumulo/src/server/src/test/java/accumulo/server/tabletserver/InMemoryMapTest.java
+
+Inorder to run ContinuousQuery, we need to run Reverse.java to populate doc2term
+
+    $ ./bin/accumulo org.apache.accumulo.examples.shard.Reverse instance zookeepers shard doc2term username password
+
+Below ContinuousQuery is run using 5 terms.  So it selects 5 random terms from each document, then it continually randomly selects one set of 5 terms and queries.  It prints the number of matching documents and the time in seconds.
+
+    $ ./bin/accumulo org.apache.accumulo.examples.shard.ContinuousQuery instance zookeepers shard doc2term username password 5
+    [public, core, class, binarycomparable, b] 2  0.081
+    [wordtodelete, unindexdocument, doctablename, putdelete, insert] 1  0.041
+    [import, columnvisibilityinterpreterfactory, illegalstateexception, cv, columnvisibility] 1  0.049
+    [getpackage, testversion, util, version, 55] 1  0.048
+    [for, static, println, public, the] 55  0.211
+    [sleeptime, wrappingiterator, options, long, utilwaitthread] 1  0.057
+    [string, public, long, 0, wait] 12  0.132

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+++ b/1.3/user_manual/index.md
@@ -0,0 +1,50 @@
+---
+title: "User Manual: index"
+redirect_from: /user_manual_1.3-incubating/
+---
+
+** Next:** [Contents][2]   ** [Contents][2]**   
+  
+
+
+## Apache Accumulo User Manual   
+Version 1.3
+
+  
+
+
+* * *
+
+<a id="CHILD_LINKS"></a>
+
+* [Contents][2]
+* [Introduction][6]
+* [Accumulo Design][7]
+* [Accumulo Shell][8]
+* [Writing Accumulo Clients][9]
+* [Table Configuration][10]
+* [Table Design][11]
+* [High-Speed Ingest][12]
+* [Analytics][13]
+* [Security][14]
+* [Administration][15]
+* [Shell Commands][16]
+
+  
+
+
+* * *
+
+[2]: Contents.html
+[6]: Introduction.html
+[7]: Accumulo_Design.html
+[8]: Accumulo_Shell.html
+[9]: Writing_Accumulo_Clients.html
+[10]: Table_Configuration.html
+[11]: Table_Design.html
+[12]: High_Speed_Ingest.html
+[13]: Analytics.html
+[14]: Security.html
+[15]: Administration.html
+[16]: Shell_Commands.html
+

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--- a/_config-asf.yml
+++ b/_config-asf.yml
@@ -35,5 +35,13 @@ defaults:
     values:
       layout: "post"
       category: "blog"
+  -
+    scope:
+      path: "_posts/release"
+      type: "posts"
+    values:
+      layout: "release"
+      category: "release"
+      permalink: "/:categories/:title/"
 whitelist: [jekyll-redirect-from]
 gems: [jekyll-redirect-from]

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+++ b/_config.yml
@@ -35,5 +35,13 @@ defaults:
     values:
       layout: "post"
       category: "blog"
+  -
+    scope:
+      path: "_posts/release"
+      type: "posts"
+    values:
+      layout: "release"
+      category: "release"
+      permalink: "/:categories/:title/"
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+++ b/_includes/nav.html
@@ -13,29 +13,21 @@
       <ul class="nav navbar-nav">
         <li class="nav-link"><a href="{{ site.baseurl }}/downloads">Download</a></li>
         <li class="dropdown">
+        <a class="dropdown-toggle" data-toggle="dropdown" href="#">Releases<span class="caret"></span></a>
+        <ul class="dropdown-menu">
+          <li><a href="{{ site.baseurl }}/release/accumulo-1.8.0/">1.8.0 (Latest)</a></li>
+          <li><a href="{{ site.baseurl }}/release/accumulo-1.7.2/">1.7.2</a></li>
+          <li><a href="{{ site.baseurl }}/release/accumulo-1.6.6/">1.6.6</a></li>
+          <li><a href="{{ site.baseurl }}/release/">Archive</a></li>
+        </ul>
+        </li>
+        <li class="dropdown">
         <a class="dropdown-toggle" data-toggle="dropdown" href="#">Documentation<span class="caret"></span></a>
         <ul class="dropdown-menu">
-          <li class="dropdown-header">1.8.0 Release (Latest)</li>
-          <li><a href="{{ site.baseurl }}/release_notes/1.8.0">Release Notes</a></li>
-          <li><a href="{{ site.baseurl }}/1.8/accumulo_user_manual">User Manual</a></li>
-          <li><a href="{{ site.baseurl }}/1.8/apidocs">Javadoc</a></li>
-          <li><a href="{{ site.baseurl }}/1.8/examples">Examples</a></li>
-          <li class="divider"></li>
-          <li class="dropdown-header">1.7.2 Release</li>
-          <li><a href="{{ site.baseurl }}/release_notes/1.7.2">Release Notes</a></li>
-          <li><a href="{{ site.baseurl }}/1.7/accumulo_user_manual">User Manual</a></li>
-          <li><a href="{{ site.baseurl }}/1.7/apidocs">Javadoc</a></li>
-          <li><a href="{{ site.baseurl }}/1.7/examples">Examples</a></li>
-          <li class="divider"></li>
-          <li class="dropdown-header">1.6.6 Release</li>
-          <li><a href="{{ site.baseurl }}/release_notes/1.6.6">Release Notes</a></li>
-          <li><a href="{{ site.baseurl }}/1.6/accumulo_user_manual">User Manual</a></li>
-          <li><a href="{{ site.baseurl }}/1.6/apidocs">Javadoc</a></li>
-          <li><a href="{{ site.baseurl }}/1.6/examples">Examples</a></li>
-          <li class="divider"></li>
+          <li><a href="{{ site.baseurl }}/user-manual/">User Manuals</a></li>
+          <li><a href="{{ site.baseurl }}/javadocs/">Javadocs</a></li>
+          <li><a href="{{ site.baseurl }}/examples/">Examples</a></li>
           <li><a href="{{ site.baseurl }}/notable_features">Features</a></li>
-          <li><a href="{{ site.baseurl }}/release_notes">Release Notes Archive</a></li>
-          <li><a href="{{ site.baseurl }}/old_documentation">Documentation Archive</a></li>
           <li><a href="{{ site.baseurl }}/screenshots">Screenshots</a></li>
           <li><a href="{{ site.baseurl }}/papers">Papers &amp; Presentations</a></li>
           <li><a href="{{ site.baseurl }}/glossary">Glossary</a></li>

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/accumulo-website/blob/9a50bd13/_layouts/release.html
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/_layouts/release.html b/_layouts/release.html
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..5c3d856
--- /dev/null
+++ b/_layouts/release.html
@@ -0,0 +1,8 @@
+---
+layout: default
+---
+<p>{{ page.date | date_to_string }}</p>
+
+{{ content }}
+
+<p><strong>View all releases in the <a href="{{ site.baseurl }}/release/">archive</a></strong></p>

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/accumulo-website/blob/9a50bd13/_posts/blog/2016-10-28-durability-performance.md
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/_posts/blog/2016-10-28-durability-performance.md b/_posts/blog/2016-10-28-durability-performance.md
index 14b2f01..eee9ce5 100644
--- a/_posts/blog/2016-10-28-durability-performance.md
+++ b/_posts/blog/2016-10-28-durability-performance.md
@@ -165,10 +165,10 @@ problems with Per-durability write ahead logs.
 [fos]: https://github.com/apache/hadoop/blob/release-2.7.1/hadoop-hdfs-project/hadoop-hdfs/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hdfs/server/datanode/BlockReceiver.java#L358
 [ACCUMULO-4146]: https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/ACCUMULO-4146
 [ACCUMULO-4112]: https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/ACCUMULO-4112
-[160_RN_WAL]: {{ site.baseurl }}/release_notes/1.6.0#slower-writes-than-previous-accumulo-versions
-[161_RN_WAL]: {{ site.baseurl }}/release_notes/1.6.1#write-ahead-log-sync-implementation
+[160_RN_WAL]: {{ site.baseurl }}/release/accumulo-1.6.0#slower-writes-than-previous-accumulo-versions
+[161_RN_WAL]: {{ site.baseurl }}/release/accumulo-1.6.1#write-ahead-log-sync-implementation
 [16_UM_SM]: {{ site.baseurl }}/1.6/accumulo_user_manual#_tserver_wal_sync_method
 [17_UM_TD]: {{ site.baseurl }}/1.7/accumulo_user_manual#_table_durability
-[172_RN_MCHS]: {{ site.baseurl }}/release_notes/1.7.2#minor-performance-improvements
+[172_RN_MCHS]: {{ site.baseurl }}/release/accumulo-1.7.2#minor-performance-improvements
 [SD]: {{ site.baseurl }}/1.8/apidocs/org/apache/accumulo/core/client/BatchWriterConfig.html#setDurability(org.apache.accumulo.core.client.Durability)
 [ML]: {{ site.baseurl }}/mailing_list


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